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Flashcards in Conditions Deck (52):
1

Pre-eclampsia will present with what

proteinuria and hypertension

2

What is an abnormal amount for babies to lose weight after birth

most babies lose up to 10% after birth, anything >10% loss of weight is abnormal

3

What is different between the anatomy of an infant vs an adult

babies have more flexible ribs
higher anterior larynx
more prominent occiput

4

What does pyloric stenosis present as

2-7 weeks
projectile (non-bile stained) vomiting (after feeding)
may have absence of stools
weight loss/ poor weight gain
contant hunger
otherwise healthy

5

What is the investigations for pyloric stenosis

test feed
on exam - palpable "olive shaped" mass in RUQ
imaging - muscle at the pylorus which shouldn't be there

6

What is the treatment for pyloric stenosis

pyloromyotomy - 3 small incisions
- cuts through muscle only, not mucousa

7

What is pea and carrot syndrome in toddlers

undigested veg in stools

8

What is the cause of pea and carrot syndrome in toddlers

immaturity of intestinal motility --> veg to not be digested

9

What will a toddler NOT have in pea and carrot syndrome

weight loss
dehydration
malabsorption
electrolyte imbalance

10

What is the treatment for pea and carrot syndrome

most children grow out of it by age 5yrs

11

What is coeliac disease

villous atrophy caused by intolerance to gliadin causing flattened mucousa

12

What is gliadin

a component of gluten

13

What are the symptoms of coeliac disease

abnormal stool
abnormal distention
buttock wasting
malabsorption
irritability

14

What is the investigations for coeliac disease

antibody testing (must be on a gluten diet)
if antibodies +ve --> referral to gastro ward - may do more serology testing for HLA-DQ2 or IgA or may do a jejunal biopsy

15

what is the diagnostic test for coeliac disease

jejunal biopsy

16

What is the treatment for coeliac disease

life-long gluten free diet

17

What is Hirschprung's disease

loss of parasympathetic innervation at the large intestine (usually at the rectum and moves proximally)

18

What does Hirschprung's present as in the early stage

inability to pass stool in the first 48 hours of life
abdominal distention
bile stained vomitous

19

What does Hirschprung's present as in later life

constipation
diarrhoea
abdominal distention

20

what is the investigation for Hischprungs disease

PR exam - narrowed segment
- no removing finger, gush of liquid stools and flatus

21

What is the treatment for Hischprung's

surgery

22

What will a tracheo-oesophageal fistula present as

chronic cough
baby turns cyanosed when eating
recurrent aspiration pneumonia

23

What is Gilbert's syndrome

pre-hepatic jaundice caused by impaired bile salt conjugation

24

What is the typical presentation of Gilbert's syndrome

infant gets recurrent chest infections associated with jaundice which clears up when infection disseminates

25

What is intussusception

telescoping of one part of the bowel (usually ileo-caecal valve) into another

26

What is the presentation of intussusception

jelly like stools
palpable sausage shaped mass
vomiting episodic colicky pain

27

what is the typical presentation of a baby with intussusception

baby draws legs in then vomits and lets out a high pitched cry

28

What will intussusception be seen on investigations as

USS - target sign

29

What is the treatment for intussusception

air reduction - air is blown through bottom to push bowel back out

30

What is duodenal atrasia

complete obstruction of the 2nd part of the duodenum

31

What does duodenal atrasia present as

non-bile stained vomiting

32

What is the investigation for duodenal atrasia

abdominal x-ray - double bubble sign
- no gas within bowel distally

33

What is the treatment for duodenal atrasia

nasogastric tube and IV fluids
surgery

34

What is febrile convulsion

seizure associated with sudden increase in temp >38. 5

35

When breast feeding, what does the mum transfer on to the baby

IgA
lymphocytes
macrophages

36

What should a mum be taking while she is breastfeeding

Vitamin D

37

What is haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by

E.coli 0157

38

what does HUS present as

bloody diarrhoea
AKI - haematuria, oliguria
thrombocytopenia
haemolytic anaemia

39

What is respiratory distress syndrome

when a baby is not producing surfactant so alveoli collapse
occurs in the first 4 hours of life

40

What will a baby with resp distress syndrome present with

RR>60
cyanosis
subcostal/intercostal recession
expiratory grunting

41

What is the treatment for resp distress syndrome

CPAP
ventilate and give surfactant

42

What is the moro-startle reflex

baby stretches arms out then back in and cries when someone pretends to drop them

43

what is the tonic neck reflex

also called the fencing reflex

44

What is the grasp reflex

baby holds on to anything tightly that touches its palm

45

What is the rooting reflex

when someone strokes a babies cheek, it will turn towards that side and look for the object

46

What is the sucking reflex

the baby will suck on anything that touches the roof of its mouth

47

What is the mainstay cause of growth in infants, children and teenager

infant - nutrition
children - GH
teenagers - sex hormones and puberty

48

What is congenital hypothyroidism

prolonged jaundice (>14 days)
umbilical hernia
large tongue
bradycardia

49

What is the investigation for congenital hypothyroidism

Guthrie's test (heel prick test)

50

What is the autism triad

communication
social interaction
flexibility of thought/imagination

51

What are the red flags in growth development

Not reaching for objects by 6 months
Not sitting up unsupported by 1yr
Asymmetrical movement
loss of skills
Unable to speak/walk by 18 months

52

Malrotation will present as

green bilous vomiting