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Flashcards in Conformity Deck (36):
1

List the 3 types of conformity

Compliance
Identification
Internalisation

2

Outline compliance

Publically agree, but privately disagree

3

Outline identification

Adopting a behaviour to be associated with a particular group

4

Outline internalisation

Permanent public compliance and private acceptance

5

List the 2 explanations for conformity

Normative social influence
Informational social influence

6

Outline normative social influence

We conform because we want to be liked/fit in.
Linked with compliance.

7

Outline informational social influence

We conform because we want to be correct and we view others as being the experts.
We internalise their expert opinions as our own.

8

Give an example of a study related to normative social influence

Asch

9

Name a study related to informational social influence

Jenness

10

Describe the procedure of Asch's study

Unambiguous vision test
6 confederates and 1 real participant
Task: to state aloud which line was most similar to the line shown on the screen

11

How many critical trials were there in Asch's research?

12/18 were critical trials

12

What were the findings of Asch's study?

32% of trials were conformed on
74% of participants conformed at least once
26% never conformed

13

Give strengths of Asch's study

Supports normative social influence

Applications --> shows conformity pressure in a jury/court situation

14

Give weaknesses of Asch's study

Gender bias (only men)

Unethical --> deception, lack of informed consent

15

Explain Jenness' research

1) private, individual estimates of how many white beans were in a jar
2) discussed in a group, group estimate was formed
3) second private estimates were made

16

Explain the findings of Jenness' research

2nd estimates tended to converge towards the group estimate
Suggests that when in an ambiguous situation, we look to others for guidance because we perceive them as being the experts

17

Give a strength of Jenness' research

Supports normative social influence

18

Give a weakness of Jenness' research

Lacks external validity because it is an artificial task which we probably wouldn't do in everyday life.

19

List variables explaining conformity

Task Difficulty
Group Size
Unanimity

20

Explain the effect task difficulty has on conformity

The harder the task, the higher the conformity rate because participants are more unsure

21

Explain how group size affects conformity

The smaller the group, the lower the conformity rate. This is because smaller majorities are easier to resist.

22

What were the findings of decreasing the group size in Asch's study?

When 2 confederates, 14% conformity
When there were 3 or more confederates, there was 32% conformity

23

Explain the effect of unanimity on conformity

When the unanimity is broken, using a dissenter, conformity rates decreased

24

What were the figures in Asch's study when the unanimity was broken?

When the dissenter gave the correct answer, conformity decreased to 5.5%.
When the dissenter gave a different answer, conformity decreased to 9%.

25

Evaluate the explanations for conformity

+ research support: Jenness, Asch
+ application: NSI in jury/court situation
- T.L ISI doesn't work in all situations, therefore not a complete explanation
- T.L. hard to distinguish between compliance and internalisation

26

Name a study related to conformity to social roles

Zimbardo et al.

27

What sampling was used in Zimbardo's study?

Volunteer sampling

28

Describe the procedure of Zimbardo's study

Participants were arrested, fingerprinted, stripped, deloused, dehumanised
Randomly assigned the role of either guard/prisoner

29

What did the 'prisoners' wear?

Numbered smocks
Chains round their ankles

30

What did the 'guards' wear?

Reflective sunglasses
Khaki uniforms

31

What were the findings from Zimbardo's study?

Both guards and prisoners conformed to their roles very quickly.
Guards became more cruel and prisoners became more submissive.
5 prisoners were released early
The study finished after 6 days, following intervention

32

What can we conclude from Zimbardo's study?

That we will conform to social roles, even if they go against our moral beliefs.

33

What role did Zimbardo take in the study?

Prison superintendent

34

List strengths of Zimbardo's study

Has internal validity because extraneous variables were controlled.

Applies to the war in Iraq because similar behaviour was seen.

35

Give weaknesses of Zimbardo's study

Had ethical issues: deception, protection from harm, withdrawal, lack of consent

Sample bias

Observer bias

36

What were the findings of the BBC replica of Zimbardo's prison study?

Participants in smaller groups didn't automatically conform.
The guards felt that all should be treated equally.