Flashcards in Conformity Deck (36):
List the 3 types of conformity
Publically agree, but privately disagree
Adopting a behaviour to be associated with a particular group
Permanent public compliance and private acceptance
List the 2 explanations for conformity
Normative social influence
Informational social influence
Outline normative social influence
We conform because we want to be liked/fit in.
Linked with compliance.
Outline informational social influence
We conform because we want to be correct and we view others as being the experts.
We internalise their expert opinions as our own.
Give an example of a study related to normative social influence
Name a study related to informational social influence
Describe the procedure of Asch's study
Unambiguous vision test
6 confederates and 1 real participant
Task: to state aloud which line was most similar to the line shown on the screen
How many critical trials were there in Asch's research?
12/18 were critical trials
What were the findings of Asch's study?
32% of trials were conformed on
74% of participants conformed at least once
26% never conformed
Give strengths of Asch's study
Supports normative social influence
Applications --> shows conformity pressure in a jury/court situation
Give weaknesses of Asch's study
Gender bias (only men)
Unethical --> deception, lack of informed consent
Explain Jenness' research
1) private, individual estimates of how many white beans were in a jar
2) discussed in a group, group estimate was formed
3) second private estimates were made
Explain the findings of Jenness' research
2nd estimates tended to converge towards the group estimate
Suggests that when in an ambiguous situation, we look to others for guidance because we perceive them as being the experts
Give a strength of Jenness' research
Supports normative social influence
Give a weakness of Jenness' research
Lacks external validity because it is an artificial task which we probably wouldn't do in everyday life.
List variables explaining conformity
Explain the effect task difficulty has on conformity
The harder the task, the higher the conformity rate because participants are more unsure
Explain how group size affects conformity
The smaller the group, the lower the conformity rate. This is because smaller majorities are easier to resist.
What were the findings of decreasing the group size in Asch's study?
When 2 confederates, 14% conformity
When there were 3 or more confederates, there was 32% conformity
Explain the effect of unanimity on conformity
When the unanimity is broken, using a dissenter, conformity rates decreased
What were the figures in Asch's study when the unanimity was broken?
When the dissenter gave the correct answer, conformity decreased to 5.5%.
When the dissenter gave a different answer, conformity decreased to 9%.
Evaluate the explanations for conformity
+ research support: Jenness, Asch
+ application: NSI in jury/court situation
- T.L ISI doesn't work in all situations, therefore not a complete explanation
- T.L. hard to distinguish between compliance and internalisation
Name a study related to conformity to social roles
Zimbardo et al.
What sampling was used in Zimbardo's study?
Describe the procedure of Zimbardo's study
Participants were arrested, fingerprinted, stripped, deloused, dehumanised
Randomly assigned the role of either guard/prisoner
What did the 'prisoners' wear?
Chains round their ankles
What did the 'guards' wear?
What were the findings from Zimbardo's study?
Both guards and prisoners conformed to their roles very quickly.
Guards became more cruel and prisoners became more submissive.
5 prisoners were released early
The study finished after 6 days, following intervention
What can we conclude from Zimbardo's study?
That we will conform to social roles, even if they go against our moral beliefs.
What role did Zimbardo take in the study?
List strengths of Zimbardo's study
Has internal validity because extraneous variables were controlled.
Applies to the war in Iraq because similar behaviour was seen.
Give weaknesses of Zimbardo's study
Had ethical issues: deception, protection from harm, withdrawal, lack of consent