Congenital Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Congenital Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congenital Heart Disease Deck (27):
1

5 types of R to L shunts "blue babies"? (early cyanosis)

Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of Great Vessels
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

 

"5 T's"

 

2

What is truncus arteriosus?

Failure of truncus to divide into pulmonary artery and aorta.

Single large vessel arises from both ventricles before splitting.
 

3

S/S of truncus arteriosus?

- Early cyanosis
- Deoxygenated blood from R ventricle mixes with oxygenated blood from L ventricle. 

4

What is tricuspid atresia?

Absence of tricuspid valve.
Often associated with ASD 

5

S/S of tricuspid atresia?

- Early cyanosis
- R ventricle is hypoplastic
- Requires ASD & VSD for survival 

6

What is TAPVR?

Pulmonary veins drain into R heart circulation

7

What are the L to R shunts "blue kids"? (late cyanosis)

- VSD
- ASD
- PDA

8

What are the frequencies of the L to R shunts?

VSD > ASD > PDA

9

What is Eisenmerger's syndrome?

This is when a L to R shunt reverses to become R to L because of compensatory pulmonary vascular hypertrophy.

 

Initial L to R shunt increases blood flow to pulmonary circulation leads to pulmonary HTN forcing the pulmonary vasculature to hypertrophy. This increases pulonary resistance leading to a reversal in shunt. Later R to L shunt causes the "late cyanosis" in L to R shunt defects.
 

10

S/S of Eisenmerger's syndrome?

- RV hypertrophy (reactive to pul resistance)
- Polycythemia (reactive to hypoxia)
- Clubbing fingers (hypoxia)

11

4 defects of Tetralogy of Fallot?

- Pulmonary stenosis
- RV hypertrophy
- VSD
- Overriding aorta (overrides VSD)

12

Why is Tetralogy of Fallot a R to L shunt although it has VSD?

Stenotic pulmonary valve increases RV pressure

13

S/S of Tetralogy of Fallot?

Boot shaped heart

Patients squat in response ot cyanotic spell

14

 

Why does squatting help Tetralogy of Fallot symptoms?

Squatting increases TPR which increases LV pressure thus decreasing R to L shunt and increases blood flow towards lung. 

15

What is transposition of great vessels?

  • Aorta leaves RV while pulmonary artery leaves LV
  • Separation of systemic and pulmonary ciruclations.
  • Not compatible with life unless shunt is present to allow mexing to blood. 
  • Associated with diabetic mother 

16

Where is the coarctation of the aorta in the infantile type?

Distal to the aortic arch but proximal to the ductus arteriosus. 

17

S/S of inftantile type coarctation of hte aorta

  • Lower extremity cyanosis in infants, often at birth.
  • Associated with Turner's syndrome .

18

Location of adult type coarctation of aorta?

  • Distal to aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum

19

S/S of adult type coarctatoin of the aorta

  • HTN in upper extremities with weak pulses in lower extremities.
  • Usually seen with notching of ribs on X-ray
    • Notching from collarteral circulation that develops to go around coarctation
  • Associated with bicuspid aortic valve 

20

What is patent ductus arteriosus?

  • Ductus arteriosus does not close after fetal period to become ligamentum arteriosus
  • Forms L to R shunt between aorta and pulonary trunk

21

What body molecule maintains ductus arteriosus (PDA)?

PGE synthesis and low O2 tension

22

What congenital defects are associated with 22q11 syndrome?

  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

23

What congenital defects are associated with down syndrome?

  • ASD
  • VSD
  • AV septal defect (endothelial cushion defect)

24

What congenital heart defects are associated with congential rubella?

  • Septal defects
  • PDA
  • Pulmonary artery stenosis

25

What congenital heart defects are associated with Turner syndrome?

Infantile type coarctation of the aorta.

26

What congenital heart defects are associated with Marfan's syndrome?

Aortic insufficiency 

27

What congenital heart defects are associated with infant of diabetic mother?

Transposition of great vessels.