Connective Tissue, Cells, & Types Flashcards Preview

Histology > Connective Tissue, Cells, & Types > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue, Cells, & Types Deck (43):
1

Fixed Cells

1. Fibroblasts
2. Adipocytes.
3. Mast Cells
4. Macrophages
5. Adult Stem Cells

2

Wandering Cells

1. Lymphocytes
2. Plasma Cells-only non-RBC
3. Neutrophils
4. Eosinophils
5. Basophils
6. Monocytes

3

Mesenchymal

Can grow into any cell lineage

4

Mesoderm

All Connective Tissue arises from it

5

Bone Marrow

Gives rise to Hematopoietic stem cells

6

SSN of Connective Tissue

Vimentin (intermediate filament)

7

Fibroblasts

1. Most numerous
2. Synthesize ECM
3. Flattened & Central Nucleus
4. rER and Golgi

PROTEIN SYNTHESIZING CELL

8

Fibrocytes

Old and Inactive Fibroblasts

9

Collagen Fibers synthesized by what

Fibroblasts

10

Myofibroblasts

1. Elongated, spindle-shaped
2. Fibronexus- basically focal adhesions where cell-to-ECM anchoring occurs
3. Mechano-transduction system- force generated by contraction of actin bundles transmitted to ECM
4. Important for wound contract
5. rER + Golgi + Actin + Dense bodies (characteristic of smooth muscle)

11

Keloid

Increase in fibroblasts causes increase in collagen fibers causing hypertrophic scar.

1. Scar extends beyond wound margin
2. It will not regress spontaneously
3. Recurs after surgical excision

12

Macrophages

Derived from monocytes

1. Surface cytoplasmic projections
2. Eccentric, indented nuclei
3. Lots of Lysosomes (metalloproteinase) to breakdown ECM
4. Fixed to reticular fibers
5. Express MHC II (APC's)

**When you cannot identify a cell, it is likely a macrophage because of its weird shapes

13

Histiocyte

CT macrophage

14

Kupffer's Cell

Liver macrophage

15

Microglia

CNS macrophage

16

Osteoclast

Bone macrophage

17

Langerhans Cell

Skin macrophage

18

Dendritic Cell

Lymph Node macrophage

19

Hofbauer Cell

Placenta macrophage

20

Dust Cell

Lung macrophage

21

Heart Failure Cell

Lung macrophage

22

Monocyte

Blood macrophage

23

Hemotysis

Coughing up blood from RT

24

Hematemesis

Vomiting blood from GI tract

25

Hemosiderin-laden macrophages

Engulf RBC's in lungs in consequence to heart failure
found in Bronchial Alveolar Lavage

26

Mast Cells

1. Migrate to connective tissue to differentiate
2. Large
3. Non-segmented nucleus
4. Cell Surface-numerous folds
5. Cytoplasm filled with metachromatic granules

**You cannot see the nucleus
***difference from basophils is that basophils have segmented nucleus

27

Histamine

Primary Mediator from Granules

1. Vasodilator
2. Increases Vascular Permeability
3. Causes contraction of Bronchial smooth muscle
4. Increases mucus production

28

Heparin

Primary Mediator from Granules

1. Anticoagulant
2. Inactivated histamine

29

ECF

Primary Mediator from Granules

1. Attractant for eosinophils to site of inflammation

30

NCF

Primary Mediator from Granules

1. Attractant for neutrophils to site of inflammation

31

Prostaglandin D2

Secondary Mediator from Membrane Lipid

1. Causes contraction of bronchial smooth muscle
2. Increases mucus secretion
3. Vasoconstriction

32

Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4

Secondary Mediator from Membrane Lipid

1. Vasodilators
2. Increases Vascular Permeability
3. Contraction of bronchial smooth muscle

33

Anaphylaxis

Type I Hypersensitivity
Mast cell activation with 2nd exposure to antigen
Patient will choke due to bronchospasm

34

Plasma Cells

1. Activated B-lymphocytes
2. Produce Antibody
3. Large
4. Basophilic Cytoplasm (rER)
5. Unstained Large Golgi (ghost)
6. Eccentric nucleus with cart wheel appearance
7. In Loose CT where antigen tend to enter (GI & RT)

35

Plasmacytosis

Lots of Plasma Cells-disease

36

Dense Irregular CT

1. More fibers (collagen)
2. Sparse Cells (fibroblasts)
3. Withstand stress

Dermis (reticular layer)
Submucosa (hollow organs)

37

Loose (areolar) CT

1. Sparse fibers (collagen)
2. More fibers (fibroblasts)
3. Vascular
4. Diffusion of O2 and nutrients
5. Beneath epithelia which is the site of inflammatory and immune reactions

38

Dense Regular CT

Fiber bundles and Fibroblasts in parallel fashion for max strength

Found in tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses

39

Mesenchymal tissue

Embryonic CT-loose CT

1. spindle-shaped, pale-staining mesenchymal cells
2. gel-like amorphous matrix
3. few scattered reticular fibers

40

Mucous tissue (Wharton's jelly)

Embryonic CT-loose CT

1. Main constituent of umbilical cord
2. large stellate-shaped fibroblasts
3. jelly-like matrix
4. Thin Collagen fibers

41

White adipose tissue

1. Unilocular adipose cells
2. Nearly all adult adipose tissue
3. Provides significant thermal insulation
4. Synthesizes lipoprotein lipase
5. Secretes leptin which regulates appetite and increases energy consumption
6. Signet-ring appearance means the nucleus is pushed to the side
7. Panniculus adiposus or hypodermis

42

Brown adipose tissue

1. Multilocular adipose cells
2. Found in infants
3. Capable of generating heart through thermogenin which uncouples oxidative phosphorylation

43

Transdifferentiation

Changing from brown to white or vice versa adipose tissue