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Flashcards in connective tissue - histo lec Deck (198):
1

middle layer of embryo

Mesoderm:

2

: embryonic tissue
> stem tissue (point of origin) of all connective tissues

Mesenchyme

3

composition of ECM

GROUND SUBSTANCE
FIBERS: elongated polymerized proteins

4

colorless and transparent gel-like material

Ground substance

5

elongated polymerized proteins
GS component

FIBERS:

6

Major component of GS

glycosaminoglycogens (GAGs)

7

component of ECM that
3. as lubricant
4. helps prevents invasion of tissues by foreign agents
5. resists forces of compression

ground substance

8

composition of GS (3)

glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins

9

Major GAGs (4)

Chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin sulfate, hyaluronic acid

10

made of multiadhesive proteins (fibronectin, integrins,laminin)

GS

11

multiadhesive proteins that form the GS
(3)

Fibronectin, integrins,laminin

12

FUNCTION OF multiadhesive proteins that form the GS

bind cells to fibers of CT

13

multi-adhesive protein of GS
-binding sites: cells, collagen fibers
-connects components of CT, attachment to cells

Fibronectin

14

multi-adhesive protein of GS
binding sites for cell membranes
-with collagen and entactinforms basal lamina

Laminin-

15

multi-adhesive protein of GS
–integral proteins of plasma membranes
-bind directly to collagen fibers

Integrins

16

Three Main Types OF FIBERS

Collagen
Reticular
Elastic

17

Types OF FIBERS
>most abundant fibrous protein; large fibers

Collagen

18

color of collagen in H&E stain

pink

19

color of collagen in Mallory's trichrome

blue

20

color of collagen in Masson's stain

green

21

type of fiber
great tensile strength (promote flexibility and strength)

collagen

22

made up of 3polypeptide chains in helix & cross-linked

tropocollagen

23

type of fiber
Not a single entity

collagen

24

there are _ types of collagen

20

25

–most common types of collagen; interstitial collagen

type I, type II, type III

26

Families of collagen:
a. fibrillar collagen –



e. other collagens –

types I, II, III, V, XI

27

Families of collagen:
b. facit collagen –

(fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helix) types IX, XII, XIV

28

Families of collagen:
c. short-chain collagens –

type VIII, X

29

Families of collagen:
d. basement membrane collagen –

type IV

30

families of collagen
e. other collagens –

rest of the collagen types

31

Collagen: 4 Categories accdg to structure and function

> Collagen Fibers: tendons, organs, and dermis

Collagens that form long Fibrils

32

Collagen: 4 Categories accdg to structure and function

> short structures; bind to surface of collagen fibrils

Fibril Associated Collagens

33

Collagen: 4 Categories accdg to structure and function

>Type VII: anchoring collagen
> bind basal lamina to reticular fibers

Collagens that form Anchoring Fibrils

34

Collagen: 4 Categories accdg to structure and function

> Type IV Collagen: major structural component of the basal lamina

Collagen that form Networks

35

type of fiber
thinner and intermediate fibers made up of elastin and
fibrillin

elastic fibers

36

component of elastic fibers

organize secreted elastininto distinct elastic fibers

fibrillin–

37

component of elastic fibers
hydrophobic, rubber-like glycoprotein main component of elastic fibers

elastin

38

stain used for elastic fibers

resorcin-fuchsin stain

39

component of elastic fibers

form loose network
> branching fibers for stretch and recoil

elastic fibers

40

elastic fibers
may be stretched up to __ of their resting length

150%

41

type of fibers
interspersed with collagen
> seen in smooth muscle walls of elastic arteries, alveolar septa of the lungs

elastic fibers

42

type of fibers
> consists mainly of collagen TYPE III

reticular

43

type of fibers
extremely thin (0.5-2.0 μm)
> forms networks of very thin

reticular

44

type of fibers
>abundant in parenchymal cells of organs and hematopoietic organs

reticular

45

type of fibers

stain black with silver salts (not seen in H&E)

reticular

46

type of fibers
a.k.a. argyrophilic fibers

reticular

47

CT Cells

> cells that do not migrateand remain in the connective tissues
>fibroblast, pericytes, adipose cells, mast cells

Fixed Cells

48

CT Cells
> remain temporarily in connective tissue
> use blood and lymph vascular system to relocate to regions of connective tissue
> macrophages, plasma cells, leukocytes

2. Transient Cells

49

Fixed CT Cells
most common; synthesis and secretion of collagen fibers and ground substance of CT

fibroblast

50

Fixed CT Cells
Fusiform, tapering on both ends, Possess an oval nucleus

fibroblast

51

TYPE OF FIBROBLAST
–spindle-shaped, well developed RER and GA during matrix production.Myosin throughout the cytoplasm, actin and α-actininon the periphery (muscle contraction)

Active fibroblast

52

TYPE OF FIBROBLAST
–functions in wound contraction.

myofibroblast

53

TYPE OF FIBROBLAST
smaller, reduced RER, GA. Ribosomes abundant

Inactive fibroblast

54

Fixed CT Cells:
May give rise to fibroblast, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells on injury



Pericytes

55

Fixed CT Cells:
Possess characteristics of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells

Pericytes

56

Fixed CT Cells:
Smaller than fibroblast

Pericytes

57

Fixed CT Cells:
along capillaries lying in their own basal lamina

Pericytes

58

Fixed CT Cells:
Function as contractile cells that modify capillary blood flow

Pericytes

59

Fixed CT Cells:
Fully differentiated cells

Adipose cells

60

Fixed CT Cells:
Increase in number in early neonatal life

Adipose cells

61

Fixed CT Cells:
Synthesis, storage and release of fats

Adipose cells

62

aka white adipose cells
with single large fat droplet
cytoplasm and nucleus are queezedinto a thin rim around the cell’s periphery.
receptors for insulin, growth hormone, norepinephrine, glucocorticoids

Unilocularadipose cells

63


aka brown adipose cells)
smaller than white adipose cells
fat stored in many small fat droplets
spherical centrally located nucleus

Multilocular adipose cells

64

Fixed CT Cells:
Arise from myeloid stem cells in bone marrow

Mast Cells

65

Fixed CT Cells:
Usually reside near small blood vessels
central spherical nucleus, cytoplasmic granules “primary mediators”

Mast Cells

66

mediators released by mast cells
Vasodilator

histamine

67

mediators released by mast cells
Anticoagulant, inactivates histamine

heparin

68

mediators released by mast cells
Attractant for eosinophils
to site of inflammation

ECF

69

mediators released by mast cells
Attractant for neutrophils tosite of inflammation

NCF

70

mediators released by mast cells
Inactivateleukotriene C4

ARYL SULFATE

71

mediators released by mast cells
Increasesinflammatory responses

NEUTRAL PROTEASES

72

mediators released by mast cells
Inactivates

chondroitin sulfate

73

CT: Cell Components
motile phagocytes
> possess irregular surfaces (pleats, protrusions, indentations)

macrophage

74

CT: Cell Components
well developed organelles (Golgi, lysosomes, rER)
> maintenance of CT-Ig, C’, lysosomes,cytokines)
> histiocytes

macrophage

75

CT: Cell Components
>reticuloendothelial system (heterogenous phagocytic cells)

Mononuclear Phagocyte System

76

CT: Cell Components
vital stain of Mononuclear Phagocyte System

Trypan Blue

77

CT: Cell Components
isotopically labelled monoclonal Ab’sagainst surface markers

Mononuclear Phagocyte System

78

CT: Cell Components
monocytes, macrophages, alveolar phagocytes, Kupffercells, osteoblast, dendriticcells

Mononuclear Phagocyte System

79

CT: Cell Components
derived from B-cells activated by antigens
> large, ovoid cells, basophilic cytoplasm (rER)

plasma cells

80

: pale portion in the plasma cell (Golgi apparatus)

hof region

81

CT: Cell Components
>for production of antibodies (IgE)

plasma cell

82

CT: Cell Components
WBCs that migrate by diapedesis
> cellular defense
> implicated in inflammatory processes

leukocytes

83

>red fluid that circulates inside blood vessels
> transport VEHICLE
> transports oxygen, nutrients and other substance to all organs and tissues
> gives LIFE

blood

84

ph of blood

pH 7.35-7.45

85

components of blood

Components:
> Formed Elements ( WBCs, RBCs, platelets)
> Fibers: form of fibrin
> Fluid Ground: Plasma

86

Stains used in blood smear

(Giemsa or Wright’s) containing azure dyes

87

> terminally differentiated (ANUCLEATED) Cells
> contains an oxygen carrying molecule called hemoglobin
> Biconcave shape (7.5um diameter)
> Plasmalemma(band 3 protein, glycophorinA, spectrin, ankyrin)

RBC

88

Life Span of 120 Days
> Senescent ____ removed in the spleen, liver and BM

RBC

89

> spherical nucleated cells
> migrate to tissues to perform various activities

Leukocytes (WBCs)

90

Two Groups OF WBCs

> Granulocytes (Polymorphonuclear)
> Agranulocyes(Mononuclear)

91


> arise from a similar committed progenitor cell CFU-GM

AGRANULOCYTES (MONONUCLEAR)

92


> large off centered nucleus (kidney or U-shaped)
> opaque, gray to blue cytoplasm
> slightly condensed chromatin pattern
.> 2-10%

MONOCYTES

93

> spherical nuclei; scanty cytoplasm (slightly basophilic)
> 6-8um (small) 9-18um (large)
> can return to the blood stream after diapedesis

LYMPHOCYTES

94

differentiated B cells; Absecretion
> abundant blue cytoplasm; clear zone; eccentric nucleus; light streaks/vacuoles

Plasma Cells

95


Produces antibodies and other chemicals responsible for destroying microorganisms
Contributes to allergic reaction, graft rejection, tumor control, and regulation of the immune system

Lymphocyte Functions

96


> anucleated, disk-like cell FRAGMENTS
> fragmentation of the MEGAKARYOCYTE

PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)

97

Megakaryocytes divide by

endomitosis

98

Platelets are rich in

GAGs and glycoproteins (adhesion)

99

Granules of the Granulomere

> Delta Granules (Electron dense): has ADP, ATP, serotonin
> Alpha Granules (larger): platelet derived factor, PF4
> Lambda Granules (lysosomalenzymesa)

100

Granules of granulomere
(Electron dense): has ADP, ATP, serotonin

Delta Granules

101

Granules of granulomere
platelet derived factor, PF4

Alpha

102

Granules of granulomere
lysosomal enzymes

Lambda granules

103

type of collagen
major structural component of the basal lamina

Type IV Collagen

104

type of adipose cells
receptors for insulin, growth hormone, norepinephrine, glucocorticoids

white adipose cells/unilocular

105

components of plasmalemma

> Plasmalemma(band 3 protein, glycophorinA, spectrin, ankyrin)

106

components of GAGs that are bound to protein

chondroitin sulfate
keratan sulfate
heparin sulfate

107

components of GAGs that are not bound to protein

hyaluronic acid

108

majority of CT is an ____________ phase

aqueous

109

aqueous phase of CT is also called

ground substance

110

component of GAGs not bound to protein
has high viscosity in aqueous solution
responsible for gel-like consistency

hyaluronic acid

111

together with ________, laminin forms basal lamina

collagen and entactin

112

reticular fibers consist mainly of type what collagen

Type III

113

Reticular fibers are abundant in: (2)

parenchymal cells
hematopoeitic organs

114

cells that move so that they converge on site of injury

free or transient cells

115

function of pericytes

contractile cells that modify capillary blood flow

116

pericytes give rise to what type of cells

endothelial
smooth muscle cells
fibroblasts

117

type of free cell that get rid of debris and dead cells

macrophage

118

a not specific system
replaced by mononuclear phagocyte system

reticuloendothelial system

119

is plasma cell basophilic or acidophilic

basophilic

120

passage of blood cells through walls of capillaries

diapedesis

121

3 divisions in centirfuged blood

plasma
buffy coat
RBC

122

buffy coat is composed of

WBC and platelet

123

percentage of plasma

55%

124

percentage of formed elements

45%

125

percentage of water in plasma

91%

126

percentage of blood proteins in plasma

7%

127

percentage of hormones, nutrients, enzymes in plasma

2%

128

polymorphonuclear cells are also called

granulocytes

129

mononuclear cells are also known as

agranulocytes

130

components of hemoglobin

heme and globin

131

protein part of hemoglobin

globin

132

nonprotein part of hemoglobin

heme

133

life span of rbcs

120 days

134

senescent rbcs are removed in

liver, spleen, BM

135

types of granulocytes based on stain
stain darkly
present at some level in all WBCs

azurophilic (primary)

136

types of granulocytes based on stain
responsible for staining reactions
specific/specialized granules

specific granules (secondary)

137

how many nuclei in neutrophil

2-5

138

color stain of neutrophil

pinkish or reddish purple

139

function of neutrophils (2)

bacterial defense through phagocytosis
release of specific granules for oxidative killing
pus

140

life span of pus in CT

1-4 days

141

cytoplasmic granules which stain RED

EOSINophil

142

Number of nuclei in eosinophil

2

143

percentage of neutrophil in WBC

60-70%

144

Percentage of eosinophil in WBC

2-4%

145

oval specific granules containing majorbasic protein

EOSINOPHIL

146

Functions of eosinophil (4)

Phagocytose Ag-Ab complexes
Cytotoxic effect on parasites
allergic reactions
lessen inflammatory response

147

cytoplasmic granules which stain blue to purple or metachromatically

basophils

148

cytoplasmic granules
least seen in blood smears

basophils

149

cytoplasmic granules
IgE is bound to surface

basophils

150

how many lobes in basophils

2 or more irregular lobes

151

basophil is similar in function with

mast cells

152

functions of basophils (2)

delayed hypersensitivity
immediate hypersensitivity

153

agranulocyte
opaque, gray to blue cytoplasm

monocyte

154

agranulocyte with slightly condensed chromatin pattern

monocyte

155

percentage of monocyte in WBCs

2-10%

156

agranulocyte which can return to blood stream after diapedesis

lymphocyte

157

groups of lymphocytes

T cells
B cells
NK cells

158

lymphocyte functions

Produces antibodies and other chemicals responsible for destroying microorganisms
Contributes to allergic reaction, graft rejection, tumor control, and regulation of the immune system

159

Platelets appear in

clumps

160

zone of platelet
lightly stained; peripheral zone

Hyalomere

161

zone of platelet
darker; central zone

Granulomere

162

FUNCTION of Platelets

maintaining the integrity of blood vessels
forming hemostatic plugs to stop blood loss from injured vessels and, in the process,
promoting coagulation of plasma factors.

163

platelet aggregates to collagen; a platelet plug is formed

Primary Aggregation:

164

release of adhesive glycoprotein and ADP(induction of aggregation to increase the plug size)

Secondary Aggregation

165

formation of a blood clot (fibrin) conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin

Blood Coagulation:

166

Plasmin (proteolytic enzyme)

Clot Removal:

167

what are the transient/free cells

macrophage, plasma cells, leukocytes, mononuclear phagocyte system

168

what are the fixed cells

Fibroblasts, mast cells, adipose cells, pericytes

169

Platelets are fragmentations of

Megakaryocytes

170

Number of nucleus of megakaryocyte

Multinucleated

171

Component of platelet that is responsible for adhesion

Glycoprotein

172

Electron dense granules of the granulomere

Delta granules

173

Larger granules of the granulomere

Alpha granules

174

Formed elements which maintain the integrity of blood vessels

Platelets

175

Formed elements which form hemostatic plugs to stop blood loss from injured vessels

Platelets

176

Formed elements which promote coagulation of plasma factors

Platelets

177

What is released in secondary aggregation to increase plug size

Adhesive glycoprotein and ADP

178

What is used to convert fibrinogen to fibrin

Thrombin

179

A proteolytic enzyme responsible for clot removal

Plasmin

180

Secretion of plasma cells

Ab secretion

181

Type of collagen which bind basal lamina to reticular fibers

Type VII

182

Type of collagen
Major structural component of basal lamina

Type IV

183

CT with Mineralized ground substance

Bone

184

CT with gelatinous and syrupy GS

Loose
Dense
Cartilage
Adipose

185

Ct with watery GS

Blood plasma

186

Protein fiber that connects cells to matrix

Fibronectin

187

Protein fiber that forms filaments and sheets

Fibrillin

188

Protein fiber for stretch and recoil

Elastin

189

Protein fiber: stiff and flexible

Collagen

190

Intercellular source of secondary mediators

Membrane lipid

191

Intercellular source of primary mediators

Granule

192

Secondary mediator
Vasoconstriction

Prostaglandins D2

193

Secondary mediator
Vasodilation
Contraction of bronchial smooth muscle cells

Leukotriene C4, D4, E4

194

Vascular permeability, responsible for pain sensation

Bradykinins

195

Secondary mediator
causes platelet aggregation

Thromboxane A2

196

Secondary mediator
Inactivates leukotriene C4

Aryl sulfate

197

Secondary mediator
Attracts eosinophils and basophils
Vascular permeability

Platelet activating factor

198

Granules of granulomere
(Electron dense): has ADP, ATP, serotonin

Delta Granules

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