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Flashcards in Consciousness Deck (13):

The brainstem controls...

alertness and arousal


What is the reticular formation?

a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brain stem that control alertness and arousal


Polysomnography (PSG)

measures physiological processes during sleep.

includes the following:
1. EEG
2. EMG
3. EOG


electrpemcephalogram (EEG)

measures the electrical impulses in the brain


electromyogram (EMG)

measures of skeletal muscle movements


electrooculogram (EOG)

measures of eye movement


In a relaxed state, the EEG will show...

alpha waves (low amplitudes and high frequencies)


Stage 1 Sleep

EEG - theta waves
EOG - slow rolling eye movements
EMG - moderate activity


Stage 2 Sleep

EEG - theta waves with K complexes and sleep spindles EOG - no eye movement
EMG - moderate activity, low heart rate, respiration and temperature


Stage 3 and 4

Characterized by delta waves (high amplitude, low frequency waves (.5-3 Hz) ; as stage 3(has some higher frequency waves) turns to stage 4, delta waves begin to dominate


Final Stage - REM Sleep

EEG- measures waves that resmeble beta waves (which are given off when someone is awake) but more jagged
EOG - bursts of quick eye movements
EMG - no skeletal muscle movement

REM is also called paradoxical sleep (body no move, but EEG gives off appearance of someone being awake)


Sleep Theories

1) Sleep may have serves as a survival mechanism to reduce nighttime activity; 2) sleep heals the body by restoring tissue; 3) Sleep plays role in growth (pituitary gland releases growth hormone)


Circadian Rhythms

Waxing and waning of alertness over 24 hour day. Sometimes referred to as the biological clock.