Flashcards in Consequences of Interstate Tensions Deck (10):
what are the 3 ways of measuring severity of a conflict?
level of impact (regional or bilateral)
intensity (how serious it became)
recurrence = resolvability
what was ASA?
Association of Southeast Asia
broke down due to twin issues of Malaysia and Sabah in 1963. regrouped in '66 but to no success
LED BY regional issues and inter state tensions rather than managing them
what was Maphilindo?
Malaysia Philippines Indonesia
envisioned as a greater Malay confederation
2 months later, Malaysia was formed --> severance of relationship between Malaysia and Philippines. supposedly same reasons
why were they not resilient?
lack of common interests (no common goal)
members lacked political will to make things work
no mechanisms in place to solve problems
hostile climate as a result of being preoccupied with own survival, new independence etc
hawkish leaders eg Macapagal Sukarno
what was ASEAN?
association of Southeast Asian nations
1967, in response to Konfrontasi and Sabah
established conflict resolution norms
why was ASEAN more successful?
separation of Malaysia from Singapore - removal of an issue of contention
change in context: 1960s UK US withdrawing troops, impeding victory of communist Vietnam --> common fear and insecurity
leadership and pragmatism: LKY Marcos Suharto with priorities as survival and economic development for which regional stability was essential
what were some conflict resolution structures that ASEAN put in place?
ZOPFAN 1971 - principle of neutrality, freedom from external influence
ASEAN High Council 1976
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, ASEAN Concorde 1976
- noninterference in internal affairs
- respect for sovereignty
- renunciation of use of force
what did ASEAN do about the Kampuchean invasion?
fear of Vietnamese expansionism
even though Indonesia and Malaysia were less threatened, whole ASEAN came together + "was instrumental in working towards" UN Security Council Resolution in the 1991 Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict
--> lobbied attention for international support against Vietnam
--> 1979 draft resolution on Cambodia in UN Security Council
prioritization of foreign policy needs
main domestic strategies of national governments from the late 1960s:
--> economic development to improve mSOL
--> collective appeal to foreign investors
as such stability was necessary. this need was reinforced in the 1967 ASEAN Declaration and the ASEAN Concord
increased trade openness and foreign investment signal focus on econ development through external cooperation - ASEAN aggregate of more than 100% of collective GDP in trade [80s-90s]
controlled military expenditures demonstrate the care that these countries took in assuring other states of their intentions for regional peace and stability - as a group, ASEAN's mean military expenditure as a % of GDP reached slightly above 5% at its peak + declined quite dramatically afterwards to 2.8%