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what are the 3 ways of measuring severity of a conflict?

level of impact (regional or bilateral)

intensity (how serious it became)

recurrence = resolvability


what was ASA?

Association of Southeast Asia


broke down due to twin issues of Malaysia and Sabah in 1963. regrouped in '66 but to no success

LED BY regional issues and inter state tensions rather than managing them


what was Maphilindo?

Malaysia Philippines Indonesia

envisioned as a greater Malay confederation

2 months later, Malaysia was formed --> severance of relationship between Malaysia and Philippines. supposedly same reasons


why were they not resilient?

lack of common interests (no common goal)

members lacked political will to make things work

no mechanisms in place to solve problems

hostile climate as a result of being preoccupied with own survival, new independence etc

hawkish leaders eg Macapagal Sukarno


what was ASEAN?

association of Southeast Asian nations

1967, in response to Konfrontasi and Sabah

established conflict resolution norms


why was ASEAN more successful?

separation of Malaysia from Singapore - removal of an issue of contention

change in context: 1960s UK US withdrawing troops, impeding victory of communist Vietnam --> common fear and insecurity

leadership and pragmatism: LKY Marcos Suharto with priorities as survival and economic development for which regional stability was essential


what were some conflict resolution structures that ASEAN put in place?

ZOPFAN 1971 - principle of neutrality, freedom from external influence

ASEAN High Council 1976

Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, ASEAN Concorde 1976
- noninterference in internal affairs
- respect for sovereignty
- renunciation of use of force


what did ASEAN do about the Kampuchean invasion?

fear of Vietnamese expansionism

even though Indonesia and Malaysia were less threatened, whole ASEAN came together + "was instrumental in working towards" UN Security Council Resolution in the 1991 Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict
--> lobbied attention for international support against Vietnam
--> 1979 draft resolution on Cambodia in UN Security Council


prioritization of foreign policy needs

main domestic strategies of national governments from the late 1960s:
--> economic development to improve mSOL
--> collective appeal to foreign investors

as such stability was necessary. this need was reinforced in the 1967 ASEAN Declaration and the ASEAN Concord

increased trade openness and foreign investment signal focus on econ development through external cooperation - ASEAN aggregate of more than 100% of collective GDP in trade [80s-90s]

controlled military expenditures demonstrate the care that these countries took in assuring other states of their intentions for regional peace and stability - as a group, ASEAN's mean military expenditure as a % of GDP reached slightly above 5% at its peak + declined quite dramatically afterwards to 2.8%


the ASEAN Way

bilateralism as the preferred means of resolving inter-state disputes
--> no one used the High Council