Flashcards in Construction Deck (176):
An organization office or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard approving equipment materials an installation or a procedure
Authority having jurisdiction
——————— are a composite of many diverse elements and systems that are designed with a purpose
A set of rules developed by a standards organization and adopted as law by a governmental body to regulate the minimum requirements for construction renovation and maintenance of buildings
Strategy to reduce the overall time for completion of a project by merging the design and the construction phases.
Fast track construction
The most widely used building code in the United States is the —————published by international code council
IBC international building code
Structures built before _____________were often designed with greater structural mass than absolutely necessary
Computer aided design (CAD)
Older buildings sometimes undergo ___________in which older properties are extensively rehabilitated to satisfy the desire of a modern real estate market
When buildings are constructed without a known occupant they are referred to as_____________.
In 1871 the __________ destroyed much of the city’s central business district and killed up to 300 people
The great Chicago Fire
Some of the earliest fire regulations adopted in colonial Boston prohibited _________ roofs to prevent the spread of fire.
Large uncontrollable fire covering a considerable area and crossing fire barriers such as streets and water ways
Nfpa 80 describes three levels of exposure based on the potential severity of the exposing fire___________
Light. Moderate. Severe.
Buildings must have a minimum number of exits based on the expected_____________
Occupancy capacity and classification
Some building codes contain a provision to omit the fire resistive rating for a roof construction for some occupancy types when the roof is located more than _______ ft above the floor.
Type III construction has been commonly referred to as
Type III construction commonly uses nominal _______ lumber for floor joists
Type IV construction is commonly know as heavy timber or ____ construction
A fundamental fire concern with _____construction is the combustible concealed spaces that are created between floor and ceiling joists and between studs in partition walls when they are covered with interior fiendish materials
Type IV heavy timber construction requires minimum nominal dimensions of _________ for floor construction
In modern practice wood frame buildings are most often constructed using a method know as __________
Light frame construction
Light frames construction is considered the __________ of small residential and commercial buildings in North America today.
Maximum amount of heat that can be released if all fuel in a given area is consumed
The earliest known fire tests on building materials were conducted in Germany in _______. In the us the first known fire tests were conducted in Denver in ______
The nfpa _____ standard time temperature test is the most commonly used method of satisfying building code requirements for structural fire resistance.
When a structural support system supports a load equal to or greater than the applied loads__________ exists.
The force of ______ is the most common Load imposed on a structure vie the weight of the structures components contents and any occupancy activity
________ apply the most complicated load that must be accommodated by structural design
Structural stiffening is a strategy used to _______ a structure against expected loads
__________ occurs when sandy soil near water sources is looser and saturated with water and entrapped water prevents the sand particles from moving together closer reducing the ability of the soil to support a structure.
A_____ is a structural member that carries kids perpendicular to its longitudinal dimension
________ are framer structural units mass up of a group of triangles in one plane.
Typical truss shapes span distances of ___to____ ft but truss spans in modern construction may exceed ______ft.
In the fire service the term _________construction often refers to a wood framed building.
Studs are placed________ apart
12 to 16 inches.
Building codes typically address membrane structure with a life of ______days or more while _______ codes address those uses for less than 180 days.
1. 180 days
______are rigid three dimensional structures having thin components as compared to other structural material dimensions.
Stairs that are not part of the means of egress are often referred to as ___________.
_______stairs are two separate sets of stairs constructed in a common shaft.
Circular stairs are often found as grand stairs or convenience stairs serving only _____ levels. The minimum width of the run is usually _______inches.
2. 10 inches
Building codes have traditionally required a minimum of one smoke proof stair enclosure for stairs serving buildings over _____ stories or higher.
_________ are a conveyor transport device aligned as a staircase with electric powered steps that move constantly in one direction
Escalator speeds are standardized at _____ ft per minute. Older escalators speeds operate of either ___ to____ ft per minutes
Historically the practical upper limits for hydraulic elevators was about ____ stories and the elevator shaft required a deep well for the ram to extend into the ground to reach the lower service floor
About 6 stories.
__________ elevators are the most common type of elevator in buildings over ____ stories.
Even thought counterweights reduce the amount of energy needed to raise the elevators the operating heights may require them to have as much as a ______ power supply.
A _______ provides a space for the gravity aided removal of trash or laundry from upper floors of buildings.
_______ are typically provided for fans with capacities exceeding _______ cubic ft per minute.
1. Duct detectors
To prevent the recirculation of smoke through the hvac system and to facilitate removal of the smoke some types of hvac systems can be switched from normal operating mode to_______________
Smoke control mode
When a system has both automatic and manual capability the___________ operations shall take priority over the ______ control
The depth of a curtain board will vary depending on the nature of the hazards within an occupancy but should not be less than__________ percent of the ceiling height. Curtain boards should be spaced so that they are not farther apart than______ times the ceiling height
2. 8 times
High voltage equipment is defined as operating at ______ volts or higher.
Older transformers cooling oils contain highly hazardous ______________with excellent dielectric property.
polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb)
The most significant factor that determines a fuels burn rate is the combination of the ____ and the available ________.
Building codes usually excluded reference to surface treatments such as paint and wallpaper that are no thicker than_________.
Floor coverings have increasingly developed as a factor in the development of fires especially with the introduction of various____________ floor carpets
The standard test uses for measuring the surface burning characteristics of interior finish materials is___________
Flame spread rating over ______ are not permitted in occupancies.
Codes do not allow a combination of materials that exceed a maximum smoke developed rating of________.
_________subdivide a building into smaller areas to limit the maximum spread of fire
Freestanding walls must be designed to resist a lateral load of at least _____ pounds per square foot
The parapet height above a combustible roof is determined by the buildings code and varies from_____________.
4 hour rates firewalls must be constructed of _______or______
Masonry or concrete
The ibc also permits combustible structural members to be framed into masonry or concrete fire wall from opposite sides provided there is a _____ separation between the ends of the structural members.
_____ are the most common means for protecting openings through fire rated walls.
Rolling doors should never be used in a path of _______.
Because wood undergoes thermal decomposition when exposed to heat a _______ is usually provided in the sheet metal to vent the gases.
Metal clad doors also known as_________
Swinging doors are also known as________ doors.
Fire doors with ratings of 1-3 hours can have glass panels up to ______ sq inches in area per door.
_____________ influence the type of foundation and therefore the type of building that can be built at a given location.
Test pits may reach depth up to ____ ft
The weight of the soil removed is equal to the weight of the building.
When a pier is deigned with a footing it is known as a _______ pier.
Standard tensile strength of wood is considered about _________ psi
Most structure lumber has ______ percent or less moisture.
_______ beams are used frequently in heavy timber construction where greater length components are required.
Thermoplastic composite lumber is a combustible product with a flame spread rating of _____.
The usual requirement is for the attic space be subdivided into areas of___________.
3000 sq ft
Asbestos was commonly used in the us from the ____ into the ____.
1930s to the 1970s
Veneers must be tied to the wood frame wall at intervals of ____ inches.
A type means of adding or increasing fire resistance is through the use of ____ inch gypsum board
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of wood and begins at a temperature somewhere below approximately_________ degrees.
Because of labor cost and limitations in the basic strength of wood most wood framed buildings do not exceed ____ stories.
In platform framing also know as_______ the exterior wall vertical studs are not continuous to the second floor.
Heavy timber framing uses columns not less than ____.
______ is one of the oldest simplest building materials its use dates back thousands of years.
The primary benefits of masonry components is their durability and inherent resistance to_____,_____,____.
Weather. Fire. Insects.
Bricks are produced from a variety of locally available ____ and _____.
Clay and shales
For most brick sizes three courses of brick plus the intervening mortar joint equals a height of _____ inches.
Hollowed concrete block most common size is the nominal_____.
Fire clay tiles known as ________ was once popular for decorative effects and may still be found in older buildings.
Structural terra cotta
Mortar is available in ____ basic types with compressive strengths ranging from ____ psi to _____ psi.
Most mortar is produced from a mixture of _____,_____,____, and _____.
Masonry is most relevant to firefighters when it’s used in ____.
Non reinforced masonry walls are usually limited to a max height of ____ stories.
The ________ building in Chicago was constructed to a height of 16 stories in 1863 using masonry load bearing walls. They are ____ ft thick at the base.
A ____ course has bricks placed end to end.
A_____ course has bricks placed vertically on end.
A____ course has bricks placed with the ends facing out.
Load bearing masonry walls may be constructed to a height of ____ stories or more.
In many applications such as residential and small commercial buildings wood joist or beams simply rest on the masonry wall in an indention know as a ________.
Masonry over an opening is supposed by the use of ____,___, or_____. _______ are the most common method of supporting loads over openings in masonry walls.
A parapet is an extension of masonry or steel wall that projects above the roof ____ ft or more.
P 147 says 18-36 inches
The primary two metals alloyed in steel are ____ and ____.
Common structural steel has less that _____ of one percent carbon. Cast iron has a carbon content of __ to __ percent.
3 to 4 percent
The lower carbon content of steel compared to cast iron results in a material that is _____ rather than brittle.
Steels for special applications including bridge strands have tensile strengths as high as ______ psi but have very little ductility
An unrestrained steel beam 20 ft long can expand ______ inches.
Steel having a density of around _____ pounds per cubic ft.
In older buildings the steel framework was encased in brick or ordinary concrete. A steel column encased in ____ inches of concrete would have a fire resistance of ____ hours.
The most common used spray applied fire resistive materials are mineral fiber or expanded aggregate coating such as ______ and _____
Vermiculite and perlite
Gypsum board is available as regular or ________.
Gypsum includes approximately ____ percent entrapped water.
__________ materials undergo a chemical reaction when exposed to the heat of a fire.
Steel trusses used in three dimensional space frames in which case they are known as _______.
Two common encountered applications of the basic steel truss are the _____ and _____.
Joist girder. (Heavy)
Open web joist
When round bars are used for the diagonal member the open web truss is known as a ______ joist.
Steel arches can span _____ ft
Steel connections both in the case of rigid connections used with beam and girder frames and heavy trusses frequently use a steel web known as a ______
________ is the hardened form of cement produced from Portland cement coarse fine aggregate and water.
Reinforced concrete compression strength.
Largest rebar size.
Most common used rebar size
#18 2.257 inches
#5 .625 inches
Vertical reinforcing bars are known as ________ and are provided to resist the diagonal tension.
Prestressed co concrete may be more vulnerable to failure than ordinary reinforced concrete. The systems used reinforcing cable and rods made of high strength steel that can yield at temps as low as _______.
Theoretically properly cured concrete continues to harden independently at a gradual rate. Normal design strength is reached after _______ days.
The single most important factor in determining the ultimate strength of concrete is the ___________ ratio
Water to cement
Hardening of concrete involves a chemical process known as ______ in which water combines with particles of cement to form a microscopic gel. As the hardens the gel releases ________.
Heat of hydration
The primary cause of ______ is the expansion of moisture within concrete when heated or frozen.
Because concrete has relatively good insulation properties it tends to retain the heat of an exposing fire and release it slowly in an effect referred to at the ____________.
Heat sink effect
Precasting concrete became a common practice after ______.
Precast concrete slabs are used for shorter spans on ___ft while the tee slabs can be used for slabs up to ____ft.
Roofs of buildings can be classified into three styles.
Pitch of low slope roof
Up to 3/12
Pitch of Medium to high slope roof
4/12 to 12/12- 45 degree angle.
The short lamellas are bolted together in a diagonal pattern with a special plate known as a ___________.
Fink and Pratt trusses are most common types used for ______ roofs.
Corrugated steel used in roof decking ranges from _____ gauge the thinnest to ____ gangue the thickest.
The three general categories of membrane roofs used are _____,_____,_____
Built up roofs that use gravel as the wear course are commonly known as ___________ roofs.
Tar and gravel.
Asphalt shingles common size
Wood ________ are thin tapered slabs of wood that are sawn from pieces of a tree truck
Wood _______ are manually or machine split From the wood and are thicker than shingles
Slate is a durable material and can have a life expectancy of _______.
The curved clay tiles are know as _____ tiles and are used in genuine and imitation Spanish style architecture.
________ corrosion occurs when some types of dissimilar metals are in contact.
Green design roofs may include reflective systems known as ________ and intentionally enhances biodiversity known as _______ roofs.
A photovoltaic system produces reliable ______ that can be used in a wide range of applications including with a buildings systems.
Model building codes define a high rise building as being more than _________ ft in height.
Fire protection definition is any building with occupied stories beyond the effective reach of fire equipment located at the street.
Defining a high rise says a high rise may be defined as exceeding ____ to ___ ft. Other jurisdictions may define a high rise as exceeding ___ ft or ____ stories.
1. 75 ft
2. 80-100 ft
3. 50 for or 5 stories
Two developments that made high rise buildings possible and practical at the end of the 19th century were _____ and ______.
Steel and elevators
The first model building codes introduced in the 20s and 30s required ____ and _____ to be enclosed.
In buildings up to ____or ____ stories it might be possible to advance hoselines manually up stairwell.
9 to 10
All model building codes require smoke proof exit enclosures in all stairs serving _____ ft or higher.
Many high rise buildings especially buildings and hotels are designed with a _________ floor plan
Only consider using elevators if the fire is above the ______ floor.
As a result codes contain mandatory for the recall (phase 1) of all passengers elevators with vertical travel greater than ______ft in the event of fire.
Underground buildings may have occupancy area _____ ft or more lower than their primary exit
Smoke proof enclosure are now required for buildings with levels more than ___ ft below level of discharge.
Where buildings have floors more than _____ ft below the level of exit discharge separation of each level into two approximately equally sized compartments may be required.
Building codes require that mall walkways be minimum of ___ for wide.
Mall are usually designed with one or more larger well known perimeter stores known as ___________.
Functionally an _____ is a large vertical opening extending through two or more floors of a building that is not used for building services such as enclosed stairs elevators or building utilities.
Some codes now waive the requirements for sprinklers where the ceiling of atriums are more than _____ ft above the floor.
An _____ can be defined as an event that produces a rapid release of energy. This sudden release of energy produces outward pressure referred to as ___________. What distinguishes an explosion from other occurrences such as ordinary combustion is the _____ with which the process occurs.
The maximum pressure reached during an explosion may exceed _____ times the atmospheric pressure.
Ideally explosion vent panels should not weigh more than ____ per sq ft.
Warehouse may have multiple rows of racks wider than ____ft and aisles narrower than _____ ft
Storage rack can range from ____ ft to ___ ft high.
Newer building codes require that a minimum of _____ lighted stairway be provided when building construction reaches a height above ___ stories or ___ ft.
Newer building codes require that a minimum of _____ lighted stairway be provided when building construction reaches a height above ___ stories or ___ ft.
Any operation that requires the use of tools or machines that may produce a source of ignition.
The most common temporary fire protection measure is the installation of ______ with outlets.
Building and fire codes typically require that standpipes be extended before the construction reaches _____ for above the lowest level of Fire dept access.
Nfpa 241 requires the presence of a _____ rated extinguisher during _____ operations as a precaution against the ignition of combustible materials.
The primary hazard unique to renovating and remodeling is the disturbance of hazardous substances such as ________.
Restoring or updating a buildings features including finishing materials furnishings and overall appearance.
Restructuring of a buildings spaces and occupancy features.
The most dangerous time in a buildings lifespan is during its___________.
_________ demolition is performed with hand tools or machines. ____________ demolition is performed with larger equipment.
During _________ demolition an unexpected collapse will likely require rescue response because workers involved in the demolition may still be on and in the structure.