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Flashcards in Construction Deck (176):
1

An organization office or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard approving equipment materials an installation or a procedure

Authority having jurisdiction


AHJ

p. 12

2

——————— are a composite of many diverse elements and systems that are designed with a purpose

Buildings

p.13

3

A set of rules developed by a standards organization and adopted as law by a governmental body to regulate the minimum requirements for construction renovation and maintenance of buildings

Building codes

p.13

4

Strategy to reduce the overall time for completion of a project by merging the design and the construction phases.

Fast track construction



p.16

5

The most widely used building code in the United States is the —————published by international code council

IBC international building code



P.18

6

Structures built before _____________were often designed with greater structural mass than absolutely necessary

Computer aided design (CAD)


P.25

7

Older buildings sometimes undergo ___________in which older properties are extensively rehabilitated to satisfy the desire of a modern real estate market

Gentrification



P.26

8

When buildings are constructed without a known occupant they are referred to as_____________.

Spec buildings



P. 28

9

In 1871 the __________ destroyed much of the city’s central business district and killed up to 300 people

The great Chicago Fire



P. 30

10

Some of the earliest fire regulations adopted in colonial Boston prohibited _________ roofs to prevent the spread of fire.

Thatched



P. 30

11

Large uncontrollable fire covering a considerable area and crossing fire barriers such as streets and water ways

Conflagration


P. 30

12

Nfpa 80 describes three levels of exposure based on the potential severity of the exposing fire___________

Light. Moderate. Severe.



P. 32

13

Buildings must have a minimum number of exits based on the expected_____________

Occupancy capacity and classification



P. 34

14

Some building codes contain a provision to omit the fire resistive rating for a roof construction for some occupancy types when the roof is located more than _______ ft above the floor.

20 ft

P. 47

15

Type III construction has been commonly referred to as

Ordinary construction


P. 48

16

Type III construction commonly uses nominal _______ lumber for floor joists

2x10

P. 48

17

Type IV construction is commonly know as heavy timber or ____ construction

Mill


P. 49

18

A fundamental fire concern with _____construction is the combustible concealed spaces that are created between floor and ceiling joists and between studs in partition walls when they are covered with interior fiendish materials

Type III

P. 49

19

Type IV heavy timber construction requires minimum nominal dimensions of _________ for floor construction

6x10

P. 50

20

In modern practice wood frame buildings are most often constructed using a method know as __________

Light frame construction


P. 51

21

Light frames construction is considered the __________ of small residential and commercial buildings in North America today.

Common currency


P. 51

22

Maximum amount of heat that can be released if all fuel in a given area is consumed

Fire load


P. 54

23

The earliest known fire tests on building materials were conducted in Germany in _______. In the us the first known fire tests were conducted in Denver in ______

1. 1884-1886
2. 1890




P. 55

24

The nfpa _____ standard time temperature test is the most commonly used method of satisfying building code requirements for structural fire resistance.

Nfpa 251


P. 60

25

When a structural support system supports a load equal to or greater than the applied loads__________ exists.

Equilibrium

P. 66

26

The force of ______ is the most common Load imposed on a structure vie the weight of the structures components contents and any occupancy activity

Gravity


P. 67

27

________ apply the most complicated load that must be accommodated by structural design

Seismic forces



P. 74

28

Structural stiffening is a strategy used to _______ a structure against expected loads

Harden.



P. 77

29

__________ occurs when sandy soil near water sources is looser and saturated with water and entrapped water prevents the sand particles from moving together closer reducing the ability of the soil to support a structure.

Soil liquefaction


P. 78

30

A_____ is a structural member that carries kids perpendicular to its longitudinal dimension

Beam



P. 79

31

________ are framer structural units mass up of a group of triangles in one plane.

Trusses



P. 82

32

Typical truss shapes span distances of ___to____ ft but truss spans in modern construction may exceed ______ft.

1. 22
2. 70
3. 100



P 83

33

In the fire service the term _________construction often refers to a wood framed building.

Framed



P85

34

Studs are placed________ apart

12 to 16 inches.

P85

35

Building codes typically address membrane structure with a life of ______days or more while _______ codes address those uses for less than 180 days.

1. 180 days
2. Fire


P. 87

36

______are rigid three dimensional structures having thin components as compared to other structural material dimensions.

Shell structures



P. 88

37

Stairs that are not part of the means of egress are often referred to as ___________.

Convenience stairs




P. 94

38

_______stairs are two separate sets of stairs constructed in a common shaft.

Scissor stairs.



P. 96

39

Circular stairs are often found as grand stairs or convenience stairs serving only _____ levels. The minimum width of the run is usually _______inches.

1. Two
2. 10 inches




P. 96

40

Building codes have traditionally required a minimum of one smoke proof stair enclosure for stairs serving buildings over _____ stories or higher.

5


P. 99

41

_________ are a conveyor transport device aligned as a staircase with electric powered steps that move constantly in one direction

Escalators.



P. 101

42

Escalator speeds are standardized at _____ ft per minute. Older escalators speeds operate of either ___ to____ ft per minutes

1. 100
2. 90
3. 120



P101

43

Historically the practical upper limits for hydraulic elevators was about ____ stories and the elevator shaft required a deep well for the ram to extend into the ground to reach the lower service floor

About 6 stories.

P 104

44

__________ elevators are the most common type of elevator in buildings over ____ stories.

1. Traction
2. 6



P 106

45

Even thought counterweights reduce the amount of energy needed to raise the elevators the operating heights may require them to have as much as a ______ power supply.

500 volt

P106

46

A _______ provides a space for the gravity aided removal of trash or laundry from upper floors of buildings.

Refuse chute


P. 114

47

_______ are typically provided for fans with capacities exceeding _______ cubic ft per minute.

1. Duct detectors
2. 2000



P. 118

48

To prevent the recirculation of smoke through the hvac system and to facilitate removal of the smoke some types of hvac systems can be switched from normal operating mode to_______________

Smoke control mode



P. 121

49

When a system has both automatic and manual capability the___________ operations shall take priority over the ______ control

1. Manual
2. Automatic



P. 123

50

The depth of a curtain board will vary depending on the nature of the hazards within an occupancy but should not be less than__________ percent of the ceiling height. Curtain boards should be spaced so that they are not farther apart than______ times the ceiling height

1. 20%
2. 8 times



P. 124

51

High voltage equipment is defined as operating at ______ volts or higher.

600 volts

P128

52

Older transformers cooling oils contain highly hazardous ______________with excellent dielectric property.

polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb)


P. 129

53

The most significant factor that determines a fuels burn rate is the combination of the ____ and the available ________.

1. Fuel
2. Oxygen

P. 139

54

Building codes usually excluded reference to surface treatments such as paint and wallpaper that are no thicker than_________.

1/28 inch

P. 140

55

Floor coverings have increasingly developed as a factor in the development of fires especially with the introduction of various____________ floor carpets

Deep pile


P140

56

The standard test uses for measuring the surface burning characteristics of interior finish materials is___________

Astm e-84

P141

57

Flame spread rating over ______ are not permitted in occupancies.

200


P. 142

58

Codes do not allow a combination of materials that exceed a maximum smoke developed rating of________.

450

P. 143

59

_________subdivide a building into smaller areas to limit the maximum spread of fire

Fire walls


P. 146

60

Freestanding walls must be designed to resist a lateral load of at least _____ pounds per square foot

5.

P. 147

61

The parapet height above a combustible roof is determined by the buildings code and varies from_____________.

18-36 inches


P. 147

62

4 hour rates firewalls must be constructed of _______or______

Masonry or concrete

63

The ibc also permits combustible structural members to be framed into masonry or concrete fire wall from opposite sides provided there is a _____ separation between the ends of the structural members.

4 inches


P. 148

64

_____ are the most common means for protecting openings through fire rated walls.

Fire doors


P. 152

65

Rolling doors should never be used in a path of _______.

Egress

P. 154

66

Because wood undergoes thermal decomposition when exposed to heat a _______ is usually provided in the sheet metal to vent the gases.

Hole.

P. 155

67

Metal clad doors also known as_________

Kalamein door.

P. 155

68

Swinging doors are also known as________ doors.

Hinged

P156

69

Fire doors with ratings of 1-3 hours can have glass panels up to ______ sq inches in area per door.

100

P. 161

70

_____________ influence the type of foundation and therefore the type of building that can be built at a given location.

Soil properties.

P. 169

71

Test pits may reach depth up to ____ ft

8

P. 170

72

The weight of the soil removed is equal to the weight of the building.

Floating foundation

P. 172

73

When a pier is deigned with a footing it is known as a _______ pier.

Belled


P. 173

74

Standard tensile strength of wood is considered about _________ psi

700

P. 183

75

Most structure lumber has ______ percent or less moisture.

19

P. 183

76

_______ beams are used frequently in heavy timber construction where greater length components are required.

Glulam beams.


P. 185

77

Thermoplastic composite lumber is a combustible product with a flame spread rating of _____.

80.

P. 187

78

The usual requirement is for the attic space be subdivided into areas of___________.

3000 sq ft

P. 190

79

Asbestos was commonly used in the us from the ____ into the ____.

1930s to the 1970s

P. 192

80

Veneers must be tied to the wood frame wall at intervals of ____ inches.

16

P. 193

81

A type means of adding or increasing fire resistance is through the use of ____ inch gypsum board

5/8

P 194

82

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of wood and begins at a temperature somewhere below approximately_________ degrees.

392

P. 197

83

Because of labor cost and limitations in the basic strength of wood most wood framed buildings do not exceed ____ stories.

3.

P. 202

84

In platform framing also know as_______ the exterior wall vertical studs are not continuous to the second floor.

Western framing

P. 204

85

Heavy timber framing uses columns not less than ____.

8x8

P. 205

86

______ is one of the oldest simplest building materials its use dates back thousands of years.

Masonry

P. 217

87

The primary benefits of masonry components is their durability and inherent resistance to_____,_____,____.

Weather. Fire. Insects.

P. 217

88

Bricks are produced from a variety of locally available ____ and _____.

Clay and shales

P. 219

89

For most brick sizes three courses of brick plus the intervening mortar joint equals a height of _____ inches.

8.

P. 219

90

Hollowed concrete block most common size is the nominal_____.

8x8x16

P. 220

91

Fire clay tiles known as ________ was once popular for decorative effects and may still be found in older buildings.

Structural terra cotta

P220

92

Mortar is available in ____ basic types with compressive strengths ranging from ____ psi to _____ psi.

5
75
2500

P. 221

93

Most mortar is produced from a mixture of _____,_____,____, and _____.

Portland cement
Sand
Hydrated Lime
Water

P. 221

94

Masonry is most relevant to firefighters when it’s used in ____.

Walls

P221

95

Non reinforced masonry walls are usually limited to a max height of ____ stories.

6.

P. 224

96

The ________ building in Chicago was constructed to a height of 16 stories in 1863 using masonry load bearing walls. They are ____ ft thick at the base.

Monadnock
6

P. 224

97

A ____ course has bricks placed end to end.
A_____ course has bricks placed vertically on end.
A____ course has bricks placed with the ends facing out.

Stretcher
Soldier
Header

P. 225

98

Load bearing masonry walls may be constructed to a height of ____ stories or more.

10

P. 226

99

In many applications such as residential and small commercial buildings wood joist or beams simply rest on the masonry wall in an indention know as a ________.

Beam pocket

P. 227

100

Masonry over an opening is supposed by the use of ____,___, or_____. _______ are the most common method of supporting loads over openings in masonry walls.

Lintel
Arch
Corbel
Lintel

P. 228

101

A parapet is an extension of masonry or steel wall that projects above the roof ____ ft or more.

1 foot.

P 147 says 18-36 inches

P. 229

102

The primary two metals alloyed in steel are ____ and ____.

Iron
Carbon

P. 240

103

Common structural steel has less that _____ of one percent carbon. Cast iron has a carbon content of __ to __ percent.

3/10ths
3 to 4 percent


P. 240

104

The lower carbon content of steel compared to cast iron results in a material that is _____ rather than brittle.

Ductile

P. 241

105

Steels for special applications including bridge strands have tensile strengths as high as ______ psi but have very little ductility

300,000 psi

P. 241

106

An unrestrained steel beam 20 ft long can expand ______ inches.

1.4 inches

P. 242

107

Steel having a density of around _____ pounds per cubic ft.

490

P. 242

108

In older buildings the steel framework was encased in brick or ordinary concrete. A steel column encased in ____ inches of concrete would have a fire resistance of ____ hours.

3 inches
4 hours.

P. 243

109

The most common used spray applied fire resistive materials are mineral fiber or expanded aggregate coating such as ______ and _____

Vermiculite and perlite

P. 243

110

Gypsum board is available as regular or ________.

Type x

P. 244

111

Gypsum includes approximately ____ percent entrapped water.

20 percent

P. 244

112

__________ materials undergo a chemical reaction when exposed to the heat of a fire.

Intumescent

P. 245

113

Steel trusses used in three dimensional space frames in which case they are known as _______.

Delta trusses

P. 248

114

Two common encountered applications of the basic steel truss are the _____ and _____.

Joist girder. (Heavy)
Open web joist

P. 248

115

When round bars are used for the diagonal member the open web truss is known as a ______ joist.

Bar

P. 249

116

Steel arches can span _____ ft

300 ft

P249

117

Steel connections both in the case of rigid connections used with beam and girder frames and heavy trusses frequently use a steel web known as a ______

Gusset plate

P 252

118

________ is the hardened form of cement produced from Portland cement coarse fine aggregate and water.

Concrete

P. 257

119

Reinforced concrete compression strength.

2500-6000 psi

P 259

120

Largest rebar size.
Most common used rebar size

#18 2.257 inches
#5 .625 inches

P. 260

121

Vertical reinforcing bars are known as ________ and are provided to resist the diagonal tension.

Stirrups

P. 260

122

Prestressed co concrete may be more vulnerable to failure than ordinary reinforced concrete. The systems used reinforcing cable and rods made of high strength steel that can yield at temps as low as _______.

752 degrees.

P. 263

123

Theoretically properly cured concrete continues to harden independently at a gradual rate. Normal design strength is reached after _______ days.

28

P. 264

124

The single most important factor in determining the ultimate strength of concrete is the ___________ ratio

Water to cement

P. 264

125

Hardening of concrete involves a chemical process known as ______ in which water combines with particles of cement to form a microscopic gel. As the hardens the gel releases ________.

Hydration
Heat of hydration

P. 264

126

The primary cause of ______ is the expansion of moisture within concrete when heated or frozen.

Spalling

P. 267

127

Because concrete has relatively good insulation properties it tends to retain the heat of an exposing fire and release it slowly in an effect referred to at the ____________.

Heat sink effect

P. 267

128

Precasting concrete became a common practice after ______.

WWII

P. 269

129

Precast concrete slabs are used for shorter spans on ___ft while the tee slabs can be used for slabs up to ____ft.

30
120

P. 270

130

Roofs of buildings can be classified into three styles.

Flat
Pitched
Curved

P. 279

131

Pitch of low slope roof

Up to 3/12

P. 279

132

Pitch of Medium to high slope roof

4/12 to 12/12- 45 degree angle.

P. 280

133

The short lamellas are bolted together in a diagonal pattern with a special plate known as a ___________.

Lamella washer

P. 282

134

Fink and Pratt trusses are most common types used for ______ roofs.

Pitched

P. 289

135

Corrugated steel used in roof decking ranges from _____ gauge the thinnest to ____ gangue the thickest.

29
12

P. 290

136

The three general categories of membrane roofs used are _____,_____,_____

Built up
Single ply
Fluid applied

137

Built up roofs that use gravel as the wear course are commonly known as ___________ roofs.

Tar and gravel.

P. 294

138

Asphalt shingles common size

12x36.

P. 294

139

Wood ________ are thin tapered slabs of wood that are sawn from pieces of a tree truck

Wood _______ are manually or machine split From the wood and are thicker than shingles

Shingle
Shakes.

P. 296

140

Slate is a durable material and can have a life expectancy of _______.

150 years.

P. 297

141

The curved clay tiles are know as _____ tiles and are used in genuine and imitation Spanish style architecture.

Mission

P. 297

142

________ corrosion occurs when some types of dissimilar metals are in contact.

Galvanic

P. 298

143

Green design roofs may include reflective systems known as ________ and intentionally enhances biodiversity known as _______ roofs.

Green
Brown

P. 300

144

A photovoltaic system produces reliable ______ that can be used in a wide range of applications including with a buildings systems.

Clean energy

P. 301

145

Model building codes define a high rise building as being more than _________ ft in height.

Fire protection definition is any building with occupied stories beyond the effective reach of fire equipment located at the street.

Defining a high rise says a high rise may be defined as exceeding ____ to ___ ft. Other jurisdictions may define a high rise as exceeding ___ ft or ____ stories.

1. 75 ft
2. 80-100 ft
3. 50 for or 5 stories

P. 310

146

Two developments that made high rise buildings possible and practical at the end of the 19th century were _____ and ______.

Steel and elevators

P. 311

147

The first model building codes introduced in the 20s and 30s required ____ and _____ to be enclosed.

Stairs. Elevators

P. 312

148

In buildings up to ____or ____ stories it might be possible to advance hoselines manually up stairwell.

9 to 10

P. 314

149

All model building codes require smoke proof exit enclosures in all stairs serving _____ ft or higher.

75 ft

P. 317

150

Many high rise buildings especially buildings and hotels are designed with a _________ floor plan

Central core

P. 318

151

Only consider using elevators if the fire is above the ______ floor.

5th

P. 320

152

As a result codes contain mandatory for the recall (phase 1) of all passengers elevators with vertical travel greater than ______ft in the event of fire.

25ft.

P. 320

153

Underground buildings may have occupancy area _____ ft or more lower than their primary exit

30 ft

P 322

154

Smoke proof enclosure are now required for buildings with levels more than ___ ft below level of discharge.

30 ft

155

Where buildings have floors more than _____ ft below the level of exit discharge separation of each level into two approximately equally sized compartments may be required.

60 ft

P. 324

156

Building codes require that mall walkways be minimum of ___ for wide.

P. 329

157

Mall are usually designed with one or more larger well known perimeter stores known as ___________.

Anchor stores.

P. 329

158

Functionally an _____ is a large vertical opening extending through two or more floors of a building that is not used for building services such as enclosed stairs elevators or building utilities.

Atrium

P. 332

159

Some codes now waive the requirements for sprinklers where the ceiling of atriums are more than _____ ft above the floor.

55 feet

P. 333

160

An _____ can be defined as an event that produces a rapid release of energy. This sudden release of energy produces outward pressure referred to as ___________. What distinguishes an explosion from other occurrences such as ordinary combustion is the _____ with which the process occurs.

Explosion
Blast wave
Speed.

P. 334

161

The maximum pressure reached during an explosion may exceed _____ times the atmospheric pressure.

10 times.

P. 333

162

Ideally explosion vent panels should not weigh more than ____ per sq ft.

3 pounds

P. 336

163

Warehouse may have multiple rows of racks wider than ____ft and aisles narrower than _____ ft

Storage rack can range from ____ ft to ___ ft high.

12
3.5
12
100

P. 338

164

Newer building codes require that a minimum of _____ lighted stairway be provided when building construction reaches a height above ___ stories or ___ ft.

One
4 stories
50ft

P. 348

165

Newer building codes require that a minimum of _____ lighted stairway be provided when building construction reaches a height above ___ stories or ___ ft.

One
4 stories
50ft

P. 348

166

Any operation that requires the use of tools or machines that may produce a source of ignition.

Hot work

P. 350

167

The most common temporary fire protection measure is the installation of ______ with outlets.

Standpipes

P. 351

168

Building and fire codes typically require that standpipes be extended before the construction reaches _____ for above the lowest level of Fire dept access.

40 ft

P. 351

169

Nfpa 241 requires the presence of a _____ rated extinguisher during _____ operations as a precaution against the ignition of combustible materials.

20 B
Roofing

P. 352

170

The primary hazard unique to renovating and remodeling is the disturbance of hazardous substances such as ________.

Asbestos

P. 352

171

Restoring or updating a buildings features including finishing materials furnishings and overall appearance.

Renovate

P. 352

172

Restructuring of a buildings spaces and occupancy features.

Remodeling

P. 352

173

The most dangerous time in a buildings lifespan is during its___________.

Demolition

P. 362

174

_________ demolition is performed with hand tools or machines. ____________ demolition is performed with larger equipment.

Piecemeal
Controlled collapse

P. 363

175

During _________ demolition an unexpected collapse will likely require rescue response because workers involved in the demolition may still be on and in the structure.

Piecemeal

P. 363

176

The primary cause of _________ is the removal of large amounts of underground water or oil over many years beneath built up areas.

Subsidence

P. 368