Flashcards in construction management materials Knocklemann quiz 1 Deck (83):
Refined ores extracted from the earth.
Copper price, Rebar, Wire, Structural steel.
Ductile, strong, great tensile strength
characteristics of metals
1. metals, 2. Non-metallic Inorganic Materials, 3. polymers, 4. Organic Materials
Also extracted from the Earth. Examples are sand, limestone, gypsum. Characteristics of this Material are Hard, Ridged, Brittle, Heavy especially useful when compressive forces are expected.
Non-Metallic Inorganic Materials
Consist of large molecules of structural units connected by chemical bonds. Examples are Pipes, adhesives, roofing, insulation.
Mechanical properties measure a materials resistance to forces.
Created when forces pull on a member.
Created when forces push on a member.
Forces that work in opposite directions parallel with the plane of the force.
Carbon based products. Examples are Wood, Paper, Grasses, Asphalts. Characteristics are Great variation in material characteristics.
Material can be deformed and not break. Examples are copper, tin, mild steel, and aluminum.
Materials ability to resist indentation or surface scratching.
Resistance of a material cyclic load.
Ability of a material to resist a rapidly applied load.
The rate at which water flows through building material. The Unit is called Permeance or "Perms"
1. Thermal Conductance
3. Change of state
4. Heat Capacity
Typically soft materials that can absorb sound. Ridged or hard materials that have slots or holes at varying sizes and placements.
2. Ultraviolet Degradation
A Chemical reaction between a material and oxygen in the atmosphere.
Many natural synthetic palmers are attacked by ultraviolet radiation, and products using these materials may crack or disintegrate if they are not Uv-stable.
Ultra violet degradation
Materials that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared to competing products that serve the same purpose.
environmentally preferable products (EPPS)
A procedure for comping and analyzing the inputs and outputs of resources and energy and their associated environmental impacts directly attributable to the functioning of a material or service system throughout its life cycle.
Life cycle analysis
The process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. Human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization.
Natural resources / Habitat Degradation
The total energy consumed by all processes associated with the production and use of a material.
Wood, Cork, and Bamboo are examples of...
Recycled and Post consumer/Post Industrial/Agricultural Materials
Cellulose Insulation, Plastic Bottles, Fly Ash
Acceptable indoor Air quality is air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations.
Indoor air quality
Compounds released to the atmosphere as a coating dries.
Volatile organic Compounds (VOCs)
Timber (in preference to steel)
Concrete Reinforced with timber, bamboo or natural fibers.
Geo-textiles and other products made from crops.
Materials that are accredited as being responsibly sourced (such as FSC timber)
Sustainable Construction Materials
Typically sold in random lengths and thickness. Is old by volume.
Typically sold by the "Board Foot" 1" thick x 12" wide x 12" long
Typically sold by designating it's "Nominal size"
Example: A 2x4 is actually 1-1/2" x 3-1/2"
Produces boards with the edges of the annual rings showing. Wood flooring is typically cut this way since the annual rings are hard and withstand wear better.
Produces the maximum yield and is therefore the most common method. Produces a wide stock.
1. Air dried Lumber
2. Kiln-Dried Lumber
3. Unseasoned lumber
Slow process, involves stacking lumber with spacers. Quality control problems hard to regulate.
Air dried lumber
Temperature, Humidity and Air circulation are controlled. Better quality control, More quickly dried.
Less stable, Continues to dry after use. Warping, twisting, and shrinking problems are common.
1. Bending 2. shear 3. Modulus of Elasticity 4. Tension 5. Compression
Structural properties of wood
When the underside of the floor system is not finished with drywall or plaster, the maximum allowable deflection is 1/240 of the length of the joist.
When the underside of the floor system is----with drywall or plaster the maximum allowable deflection is-------- of the length of the joist or ------ whichever is less.
1/360 or 1/2 inch, Whichever is less
A Measure of a beams resistance to deflection, or its stiffness. The ratio of the amount a material will deflect in proportion to the applied load.
Modulus of Elasticity
Notches in floor Joists may occur in the top of bottom of the meter but may not be located in the middle third of the span.
A notch may not exceed one - sixth of the depth of the joist except at the very end where it may be one-fourth of the joist depth.
The length of joist notes cannot exceed one-third of the depth of the member.
Holes bored in joists must not be larger than one-third the depth of the joists.
Holes cannot be located within two inches of the top or bottom edge of the member, or to any other hole located in the member.
Holes cannot be located within 2" of any notch.
Thermal properties, decorative properties, decay resistance, Insect damage.
Other properties of wood
Wood is a good insulator but not as good as materials specifically designed for insulation. R value .71-1.41 per inch.
Thermal properties of wood
When studs show threw drywall.
Natural color variation in wood, Grain variation in wood, Ability to take on color stains and finishes.
Decorative properties of wood
Insect damage can occur in living trees and cut lumber. Termites are the most notorious, carpenter bees, beetles
Wood insect damage
1. Fire-retardant treatments
2. pressure treated wood
Fire retardant chemicals are forced into the wood structure.
Coatings form a surface film when exposed to fire thereby insulating the wood.
Fire retardant chemical coatings
A process that forces preservatives deep into the cellular structure of the wood. Common types are Alkaline copper quit and Copper Azole. Chemicals traditionally used for pressure treated wood, like chromatid copper Arsenate (CCA) have been found to be hazardous. CCA is no longer available for residential or general commercial application.
pressure treated wood
A common building product that has been around for all most 100 years. The Panels are constructed out of thin layers or piles of wood. The Grain of each ply layer is arranged perpendicular to the previous layer. Panels typically have an odd number of layers.
Plywood or other panel products
Provides ratings and performance standards for plywood. APA Performance panels include Plywood, wood siding, composite ply, OSB. Specialty plywoods include: Hardwood plywood, High-density overlay, Medium-density overlay, exposure rated.
APA American plywood Association
large sheet sizes, cover large areas easily, uniform thickness, stable-no shrinkage, do not warp, use woods efficiently, little waste, often veneered over-helps to save rainforests.
Advantages of Manufactured wood panels
1. Structural composite lumber
2. wood trusses
3. Glue Laminated wood beams
4. Laminated veneer lumber
5. laminated strand lumber
6. parallel strand lumber
7. structural insulated panels
structural building components
Includes laminated lumber (LVL), parallel strand lumber (PSL), laminated strand lumber (LSL) and oriented strand lumber (OSL), is a family of engineered wood products created by layering dried and graded wood veneers, strands or flakes with moisture resistant adhesive
structural composite lumber
Wood structural members constructed from 2 x stock connected with metal gusset plates.
Is an engineered wood product that uses multiple layers of thin wood assembled with adhesives. It is typically used for headers, beams, rim board, and edge forming material.
Laminated veneer lumber
Also called glum, is a type of structural engineer wood product comprising a number of layers of dimensioned lumber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives.
Glue laminated wood beam
Engineered wood products created by layering dried and graded wood veneers, stands or flakes with moisture resistant adhesive.
laminated strand lumber
Is a high strength structural composite lumber product manufactured by gluing strands of wood together under pressure. It is a proprietary product marketed under the trade name Parallam.
Parallel strand lumber
2st century building material. High performance building system for residential and light commercial construction. The panels consist of an insulating foam core sandwiched between two structural facings, typically oriented strand board.
Structural insulated panel
Fire resistive Non-combustible, commonly found in high-rise buildings. 3 hour assembly exterior walls. 3 Hour assembly structural frame. 2 hour assembly floor and ceiling assembly. 1-1/2 hour assembly roof protection.
Type I A
Fire resistive Non-combustivle. Commonly found in mid-rise office buildings. 2 hour assembly exterior walls. 2 hour assembly structural frame. 2 hour assembly floor and ceiling. 1 hour assembly roof protection
Type I B
Protected non-combustible. Commonly found in Newer school buildings.
1 hour Assembly exterior walls. 1 hour Assembly structural frame. 1 hour assembly floor and ceiling. 1 hour assembly roof protection.
Types II A
unprotected Non-combustible. Most common type in commercial construction. Building construction of non-combustible materials but these materials have no fire resistance.
Types II B
Protected combustible. Exterior walls are of non-combustible materials or fire-retartent wood framing. Often referred to as "Ordinary Construction" Very common in older city buildings. Brick or block walls and protected wood floor and roof assemblies. Wood roof or floor assembly 1 hour fire protection.
Types III A
Unprotected combustible. Exterior walls are of non-combustible materials or fire retardant wood framing. Often referred to as "ordinary Construction" very common in older city warehouse buildings. Brick or block walls and unprotected wood floor and roof assemblies. No fire protection.
Types III B
Heavy Timber construction. Exposed wood so there is no fire resistance. Minimum member size 8"x8"
Protected wood frame, Commonly used in the construction of newer apartment buildings. No exposed wood visible. 1 hour exterior walls, 1 hour structural frame, 1 hour floor/ceiling/roof
Unprotected wood frame. Exposed wood visible. No fire resistance. Common construction type used in residential construction.
A light timber frame for buildings in which a platform is constructed at each floor and the studs for the next floor are erected on this platform usually with an intervening soleplate.
Made up of many lightweight wall members called studs rather than using fewer, heavier supports called posts, and was nailed together. The studs extend from two stories from sill to plate.
Becoming more popular due to increased cost of quality wood framing.
Members have prefabricated holes to lighten them and to allow plumbing and electrical systems to pass. Framing is straight and true with consistent quality. Last longer and is non combustible.
Light gage steel frame construction benefits