Flashcards in Control And Coordination Deck (48):
The internal environment in which your cell lives need to be kept constant. Temperature, pH levels and glucose need to be within a particular range
Explain the stimulus response model
Stimulus to Receptor to Control Centre to Effector to Response
Where are photoreceptors found and what do they respond to?
In the eye, respond to Light
Where are Mechanoreceptors found and what do they respond to?
In the Ear, respond to Sound
Where are Chemoreceptors found and what do they respond to?
Found in nose and on tongue, respond to chemicals
Where are Thermoreceptors found and what do they respond to?
Found in skin respond to Temperature
What is the central nervous system made up of?
Brain and Spinal cord
What is negative feedback?
Involves a response acting opposite to the stimulus. Eg when an increase in blood pressure is detected and the body responds by performing activities that reduce the blood pressure. The reduced stimulus, which removes the need to continue the response is negative feedback
What is positive feedback?
Involve a response acting to encourage the stimulus
What are the two systems that require communication?
Nervous system and Endocrine System
What is the peripheral nervous system?
The nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
What does the endocrine system do?
Releases hormones into the bloodstream which target a specific cell leading to a response
How does the Endocrine and nervous system work together?
The endocrine system secretes hormones into bloodstream. These hormones affect the development of the nervous system
What do sensory neurons do?
Carry impulses generated by the stimulus to the Central nervous system
What do interneurons do?
Carry the impulse through the central nervous system
What do motor neurons do?
Takes messages away from the nervous system
What is another name for sensory neurons?
What is another name for Interneurons?
Connector Neuron and Relay Neuron
What is another name for motor neuron?
What is the Node of Ranvier
Gaps in between the myelin sheath
What is a Axon terminal
End of an axon that passes on the impulse
What do Schwann cells do?
Products myelin sheath around the axon
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that move across the synapse and bind to the next neuron
What is a synapse?
The gap in between neurons that neurotransmitters cross over
Describe the journey from the stimulus to response
Stimulus—>Receptor—>Sensory Neuron—>Interneuron-> Motor neuron—>Effector—>Response
What are reflex actions?
Only involve a few neurons and require no conscious thought. Eg sneezing
What does Myelin do?
Myelin allows nerve impulses to travel at much faster speeds along the axon by forcing it to jump over the Node of Ranvier. Also provides protection for the axon
What are conscience actions?
Actions that require thought and take longer to process. Eg scratching your head or clapping
How does poison work
The poison blocks the production and action of neurotransmitters at synapses
What Receptors are found in the eye?
Rods and cones in the retina
What Receptors are found in the nose?
What Receptors are found in the ear?
Hairs in the cochlea
What Receptors are found in our skin?
Pain, Heat, Cold, pressure, movement and light contact Receptors
What Receptors are found in the tongue?
When do hot thermoreceptors detect an increase of body temperature?
Above 37.5 degrees C
When do cold thermoreceptors detect an decrease of body temperature?
Below 35.8 degrees C
Describe the flow chart for smell
Gaseous molecules—>Mucus in nasal cavity—>Chemoreceptors—>Olfactory Nerve—>Brain—>Smell interpreted
What five flavors can your tongue sense?
Bitter, Sour, Salty, Sweet and savory
What is the difference between the Endocrine system and the Nerves system?
The endocrine system uses hormones as messengers,
the nervous system sends messages in the form of electrical impulses
What are the five different types of Receptors
Photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors and pain receptors
What are the five stimuli detected by the human sense organs
Light, sound, smell, taste and touch
Define spinal cord
The spinal cord is a cylindrical structure consisting of neuronal tissue that connects the brain with nerves to and from the rest of the body
Quadriplegia is the loss of sensation and controlled mobility in the upper and lower body, arms and legs
Paraplegia is the loss of sensation and controlled mobility in the lower body and legs.
Paralysis is the loss of movement in a part of the body.
What are the two leading causes of spinal injury
Accidents involving motor vehicle occupants and unprotected road users (motor cyclists, pedal cyclists, pedestrians)
List the following in order from smallest to largest:
Organs, Organelles, Cells, Molecules, Tissues, systems and Atoms
atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems