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Flashcards in Control And Coordination Deck (48):
1

Define Homeostasis

The internal environment in which your cell lives need to be kept constant. Temperature, pH levels and glucose need to be within a particular range

2

Explain the stimulus response model

Stimulus to Receptor to Control Centre to Effector to Response

3

Where are photoreceptors found and what do they respond to?

In the eye, respond to Light

4

Where are Mechanoreceptors found and what do they respond to?

In the Ear, respond to Sound

5

Where are Chemoreceptors found and what do they respond to?

Found in nose and on tongue, respond to chemicals

6

Where are Thermoreceptors found and what do they respond to?

Found in skin respond to Temperature

7

What is the central nervous system made up of?

Brain and Spinal cord

8

What is negative feedback?

Involves a response acting opposite to the stimulus. Eg when an increase in blood pressure is detected and the body responds by performing activities that reduce the blood pressure. The reduced stimulus, which removes the need to continue the response is negative feedback

9

What is positive feedback?

Involve a response acting to encourage the stimulus

10

What are the two systems that require communication?

Nervous system and Endocrine System

11

What is the peripheral nervous system?

The nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

12

What does the endocrine system do?

Releases hormones into the bloodstream which target a specific cell leading to a response

13

How does the Endocrine and nervous system work together?

The endocrine system secretes hormones into bloodstream. These hormones affect the development of the nervous system

14

What do sensory neurons do?

Carry impulses generated by the stimulus to the Central nervous system

15

What do interneurons do?

Carry the impulse through the central nervous system

16

What do motor neurons do?

Takes messages away from the nervous system

17

What is another name for sensory neurons?

Afferent

18

What is another name for Interneurons?

Connector Neuron and Relay Neuron

19

What is another name for motor neuron?

Efferent

20

What is the Node of Ranvier

Gaps in between the myelin sheath

21

What is a Axon terminal

End of an axon that passes on the impulse

22

What do Schwann cells do?

Products myelin sheath around the axon

23

What are neurotransmitters?

Chemicals that move across the synapse and bind to the next neuron

24

What is a synapse?

The gap in between neurons that neurotransmitters cross over

25

Describe the journey from the stimulus to response

Stimulus—>Receptor—>Sensory Neuron—>Interneuron-> Motor neuron—>Effector—>Response

26

What are reflex actions?

Only involve a few neurons and require no conscious thought. Eg sneezing

27

What does Myelin do?

Myelin allows nerve impulses to travel at much faster speeds along the axon by forcing it to jump over the Node of Ranvier. Also provides protection for the axon

28

What are conscience actions?

Actions that require thought and take longer to process. Eg scratching your head or clapping

29

How does poison work

The poison blocks the production and action of neurotransmitters at synapses

30

What Receptors are found in the eye?

Rods and cones in the retina

31

What Receptors are found in the nose?

Olfactory nerves

32

What Receptors are found in the ear?

Hairs in the cochlea

33

What Receptors are found in our skin?

Pain, Heat, Cold, pressure, movement and light contact Receptors

34

What Receptors are found in the tongue?

tastebuds

35

When do hot thermoreceptors detect an increase of body temperature?

Above 37.5 degrees C

36

When do cold thermoreceptors detect an decrease of body temperature?

Below 35.8 degrees C

37

Describe the flow chart for smell

Gaseous molecules—>Mucus in nasal cavity—>Chemoreceptors—>Olfactory Nerve—>Brain—>Smell interpreted

38

What five flavors can your tongue sense?

Bitter, Sour, Salty, Sweet and savory

39

What is the difference between the Endocrine system and the Nerves system?

The endocrine system uses hormones as messengers,
​the nervous system sends messages in the form of electrical impulses

40

What are the five different types of Receptors

Photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors and pain receptors

41

What are the five stimuli detected by the human sense organs

Light, sound, smell, taste and touch

42

Define spinal cord

The spinal cord is a cylindrical structure consisting of neuronal tissue that connects the brain with nerves to and from the rest of the body

43

Define Quadriplegia

Quadriplegia is the loss of sensation and controlled mobility in the upper and lower body, arms and legs

44

Fine paraplegia

Paraplegia is the loss of sensation and controlled mobility in the lower body and legs.

45

Define Paralysis

Paralysis is the loss of movement in a part of the body.

46

What are the two leading causes of spinal injury

Accidents involving motor vehicle occupants and unprotected road users (motor cyclists, pedal cyclists, pedestrians)

47

List the following in order from smallest to largest:
Organs, Organelles, Cells, Molecules, Tissues, systems and Atoms

atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems

48

What is motor neuron disease?

A disease that progressively destroys motor neurons until you become paralysed and die