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M2 Renal/Respiratory > COPD > Flashcards

Flashcards in COPD Deck (16):
1

What are the four obstructive lung diseases?

Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Bronchiectasis

2

Compare Obstructive to Restrictive disorders

Where do they occur?
FEV1:FVC
Problems on inspiration or expiration?

Obstructive occurs in the upper airways, restrictive occurs in the lower airways

reduced in obstructive, increased in restrictive

obstructive has a problem with expiration; restrictive has a problem with inspiration

3

What are some causes of emphysema?

smoking (activate macrophages and elastase)
air pollution
a1-antitrypsin deficiency (destruction of elastic material)

4

Does emphysema affect the respiratory bronchioles or the alveolar duct? Is it centriacinar or panacinar?

respiratory bronchioles, centriacinar- if caused by smoking

alveoli, panacinar- if caused by genetic deficiency (MUCH less common)

5

How does destruction of the elastic tissue relate to emphysema's symptoms?

Lack of elastic in bronchioles causes collapse with negative pressure of exhalation. Trapped air distends the bronchioles and alveoli.

6

What are some clinic findings with emphysema?

"pink puffer"
chronic bronchitis

vertical heart
depressed diaphragm

7

What is criteria for chronic bronchitis?

productive cough for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years

8

What causes chronic bronchitis?

inhaled smoke
cystic fibrosis
(both cause increased mucous secretion)

9

What are some clinical findings with chronic bronchitis?

"blue bloater"
cor pulmonale

enlarged heart
edema of mucus membranes
increased mucus glands

10

What is the Reid index?

mucus gland thickness: total thickness

11

What is bronchiectasis? What can cause it?

destruction of cartilage and elastic lung tissue (symptoms similar to chronic bronchitis)

cystic fibrosis
infections
bronchial obstruction
ciliary dyskinesia
asperillosis

12

What are some clinical features of bronchiectasis?

copious sputum
hemoptysis
digital clubbing
cor pulmonale

13

How is cystic fibrosis inherited? What is the mutation? Who is most likely to get it?

autosomal recessive inheritance

chromosome 7 deletion leading to defective chloride transporter

causcasians

14

What (other than an early and nasty death) is seen with cystic fibrosis?

nasal polyps
respiratory infections
malabsorption (mucus coats the intestines)
type 1 diabetes
infertility
biliary cirrosis
meconium ileus (bowel obstruction in newborns)

15

What does cystic fibrosis look like grossy?

dialated airways filled with pus
appearance of "cysts"

16

What are microscopic findings with bronchiectasis?

Inflammation, necrotizing ulceration
squamous metaplasia
bronchial fibrosis
possible lung abscesses

Decks in M2 Renal/Respiratory Class (50):