Flashcards in COPD Deck (16)
What are the four obstructive lung diseases?
Compare Obstructive to Restrictive disorders
Where do they occur?
Problems on inspiration or expiration?
Obstructive occurs in the upper airways, restrictive occurs in the lower airways
reduced in obstructive, increased in restrictive
obstructive has a problem with expiration; restrictive has a problem with inspiration
What are some causes of emphysema?
smoking (activate macrophages and elastase)
a1-antitrypsin deficiency (destruction of elastic material)
Does emphysema affect the respiratory bronchioles or the alveolar duct? Is it centriacinar or panacinar?
respiratory bronchioles, centriacinar- if caused by smoking
alveoli, panacinar- if caused by genetic deficiency (MUCH less common)
How does destruction of the elastic tissue relate to emphysema's symptoms?
Lack of elastic in bronchioles causes collapse with negative pressure of exhalation. Trapped air distends the bronchioles and alveoli.
What are some clinic findings with emphysema?
What is criteria for chronic bronchitis?
productive cough for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years
What causes chronic bronchitis?
(both cause increased mucous secretion)
What are some clinical findings with chronic bronchitis?
edema of mucus membranes
increased mucus glands
What is the Reid index?
mucus gland thickness: total thickness
What is bronchiectasis? What can cause it?
destruction of cartilage and elastic lung tissue (symptoms similar to chronic bronchitis)
What are some clinical features of bronchiectasis?
How is cystic fibrosis inherited? What is the mutation? Who is most likely to get it?
autosomal recessive inheritance
chromosome 7 deletion leading to defective chloride transporter
What (other than an early and nasty death) is seen with cystic fibrosis?
malabsorption (mucus coats the intestines)
type 1 diabetes
meconium ileus (bowel obstruction in newborns)
What does cystic fibrosis look like grossy?
dialated airways filled with pus
appearance of "cysts"