COPD Flashcards Preview

AY Respiratory > COPD > Flashcards

Flashcards in COPD Deck (16):
1

What is chronic bronchitis?

Chronic inflammation of the airways
Productive cough on most days for 3 months for 2 years

2

What is emphysema?

Alveoli are enlarged and damaged
reduces area for gas exchange

3

What are pink puffers?

Increased alveolar ventilation
Normal PaO2 Low PaCO2
Breathless but not cyanosed
Progress to type 1 respiratory failure

4

What are blue bloaters?

Decreased alveolar ventilation
Low PaO2 High PaCO2
Cyanosed but not breathless
Progress to cor pulmonae

5

Symptoms of COPD

Cough
Sputum
Dyspnoea
Wheeze
(Maybe) cyanosed

6

Signs of COPD

Tachypnoea
Use of accessory muscles
Hyperinflation
Decreased chest expansion
Hyperesonant on percussion
Quiet breath sounds
Wheeze
cor pulmonae

7

Investigations for COPD

Peak flow (decreased)
Spirometer (low FEV, normal FVC, decreased FEV/FVC)
Trial of oral steroids
ABGa (hypoxia, hypercapnia)

8

General treatment of COPD

Smoking cessation
Exercise
Nutrition
Pneumococcal vaccine
Pulmonary rehab/ palliative care
p.r.n. SAMA (ipratropium) or B2 agonist

9

Treatment of mild/moderate COPD

Inhaled LAMA (tiotropium) or LABA (salmetarol)

10

Treatment of severe COPD

Combination of LABA + corticosterd or tiotropium

11

Action if already on severe COPD treatment but still symptomatic

LABA + LAMA + corticosteroid
Refer to specialist

12

What is alpha 1 antitripsin?

A protease inhibitor produced in the liver
Secreted into the blood and diffuses into the lungs

13

What does aloha 1 antitripsin do?

Inhibits proteome tic enzymes in the lungs which are capable of destroying alveolar connective tissue

14

What does aloha 1 antitripsin deficiency predispose to?

Emphysema

15

Management of infective exacerbation of COPD

i - ipratropium
S - salbutamol
O - oxygen
A - amoxicillin
P - prednisolone

16

2 pathologies of COPD

Chronic bronchitis
Empyema