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Flashcards in COPD Deck (65)
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1

Is it true that COPD is mainly underdiagnosed?

True

2

What percentage of people diagnosed with COPD are smokers?

15-20%

3

What genes play a role in the etiology of COPD?

TNF, surfactant, proteases and antiproteases

4

Inherited mutation in alpha-1 _ gene leads to _ deficiency

antitrypsin; AAT

5

True or false: Impairment of fetal development resulting in low birthweight is a predisposing factor to COPD

True

6

True or false: Infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia are susceptible to developing COPD

True

7

What are the 3 COPD phenotypes?

Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis

8

What phenotype is characterized by airway inflammation and obstruction of the major and small airways?

chronic bronchitis

9

What phenotype has a productive cough for at least 3 consecutive months over 2 years to be diagnosed?

chronic bronchitis

10

What phenotype is characterized by loss of lung elasticity and abnormal enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles with destruction of the alveolar walls and capillary beds?

Emphysema

11

What is bronchiectasis?

Permanent dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles due to destruction of the muscle and elastic supporting tissue

12

T/F: Sinitus is a commonly seen in past medical Hx of patients with COPD

False

13

T/F: acute eosinophilic inflammation is seen within the bronchioles in COPD

False, this type of inflammation is seen in asthma

14

What is the chronic obstruction of the airways due to inflammation and irreversibility characteristics of?

COPD

15

T/F: The pathologic changes of COPD include squamous metaplasia of epithelium, parenchymal destruction, mucus gland metaplasia and enlargement

True

16

T/F: The pathologic changes of COPD include fragile epithelium, thickening of basement membrane, mucus gland metaplasia and enlargement

False; this is true of asthma

17

What causes the loss of lung elastic recoil in COPD?

The proteases mediate degradation of connective tissue elements in the lungs

18

_fibrosis is caused by the imbalance of the lungs repair and defense mechanisms

Peribronchiolar

19

What is the key factor in developing irreversible airflow limitation seen in COPD?

Fibrosis of the small airways leading to remodeling

20

Inflammation and _ injury play a role in mucus hypersecretion

oxidant

21

Increased tone n airway SM due to _ of the bronchi with _ due to persistent _

hyperactivity, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

22

"blue bloaters" is a term used for_

chronic bronchitis

23

Which phenotype would you expect to see cyanosis and edema in the abdomen and legs?

chronic bronchitis

24

When would you expect to see ciliary function impaired?

chronic bronchitis

25

Why does the body increase RBC production in chronic bronchitis?

In hopes to try and oxygenate the blood but the blood just gets thicker increasing pulmonary pressure

26

What phenotype of COPD is known as "pink puffers"

Emphysema

27

The breakdown of _ in the alveolar septa and bronchial walls by _ is seen in _

elastin, proteases, emphysema

28

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is seen in _

emphysema

29

Proteases are released from _, alveolar macrophages and other inflammatory cells

neutrophils

30

_destruction destroys portions of the pulmonary capillary bed leading to ventilation and perfusion mismatch leading to hypoxemia

septal