Core Terminology 10: Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Gd 12 LS 2018 > Core Terminology 10: Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Core Terminology 10: Reproduction Deck (58):
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Reproductive strategy

the method by which species ensure that sufficient young survive to make up the next generation

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Fertilisation

fusion of male gamete(n) with a female gamete (n) to produce a zygote (2n)

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Zygote

product of a fertilised egg

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Embryo

the zygote that divides into many cells by mitosis

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External fertilisation

fertilisation outside the female body

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Internal fertilisation

fertilisation inside the female body

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Amniotic egg

A type of egg where the embryo develops inside a fluid-filled sac which is surrounded by a shell

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Oviparous (egg-laying)

embryo develops in an egg, outside the female?s body

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Viviparous

embryo develops inside a uterus inside the female?s body; young are born live

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Ovoviviparous

has eggs with shells, but these are not laid, they are held inside the female?s body until they hatch

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Precocial development

young that are born are able to see, move and look after themselves

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Altricial development

young are not fully developed, born helpless, cannot move around or feed themselves

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Parental care

pattern where parents spend their time feeding and protecting their offspring to ensure that more survive.

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Testes

male reproductive organs where sperm is produced

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Sperm cells

male gametes

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Testosterone

male hormones responsible for secondary male characteristics

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Scrotum

sac-like structure enclosing the testes

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Spermatogenesis

process whereby sperm is formed in the testes

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Epidydimis

stores sperm

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Vas deferens (sperm duct)

transports sperm from the epidydimis to urethra

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Prostate gland

produces alkaline fluid which is added to sperm; protects against the acidity of vagina; increases mobility of sperm

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Cowpers gland

secretes mucous which is added to semen for nutrition

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seminal vesicles

secretes fluid to make sperm more mobile

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penis

transfers sperm to vagina during copulation

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puberty

period between 11 -13 years when sexual maturity is reached

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vasectomy

- male sterilisation (surgical)

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ovaries

female reproductive organs for production of ova/eggs; meiosis

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ova/ovum

female gametes/ egg cells (n)

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oogenesis

production of egg cells

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Fallopian tubes

transports ovum from ovary to uterus; fertilisation takes place

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Uterus/womb

for implantation and development of foetus; contracts during child birth

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Endometrium

inner wall/ lining of uterus

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cervix

opening between uterus and vagina; dilates during child birth

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vagina

sperm deposited here; birth canal

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Gametogenesis

formation of gametes through meiosis

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ovulation

process whereby a ripe ovum is released from the ovary; controlled by LH; usually +/- Day 14.

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fertilisation

process where a male gamete (n) fuses with a female gamete (n) to produce a zygote (2n)

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morula

mass/ball of cells as a result of mitotic division of the zygote

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Blastocyst

hollow ball of cells formed from the mitotic division of the morula

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embryo

first 8 weeks of development

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foetus

from 8 weeks to birth

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pregnancy/gestation

duration/ period from fertilisation to birth

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FSH

follicle stimulating hormone; secreted by hypophysis; stimulates the 10 follicle to develop to a ripe follicle (Graafian follicle)

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LH

Lutenising Hormone; secreted by hypophysis; stimulates ovulation; development of Corpus luteum

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Graafian Follicle

contains the ripe ovum; secretes oestrogen

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Oestrogen

hormone secreted by graafian follicle; causes the thickening of endometrium for implantation; secondary female characteristics

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Corpus luteum

an empty follicle; secretes progesterone

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Progesterone

hormone secreted by corpus luteum; maintains the lining of the endometrium; inhibits FSH

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Menstrual cycle

a 28-day cycle in the female reproductive system; consist of uterine and ovarian cycle

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menstruation

process where endometrium together with unfertilised egg is secreted by the body through bleeding

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Amnion

inner membrane that surrounds the foetus

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Amniotic fluid

fluid in amniotic sac for protection of foetus

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Chorion

outer membrane that plays a role in the formation of the placenta

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placenta

mixture of maternal and embryonic tissue; for nutrition, gaseous exchange; excretion, micro-filter

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Umbilical cord

joins foetus to placenta; carries waste and blood from foetus to placenta

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Acrosome

part of the sperm which produces digestive enzymes to dissolve the membrane of the ovum

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germinal epithelium

layer within ovary that is responsible for formation of ova through meiosis

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Tubular ligation

sterilisation in females where the fallopian tubes are cut to prevent pregnancy