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Flashcards in Core Test Deck (100):
1

X-ray examinations are preformed on orders issued by:
1. Limited x-ray machine operators
2. Physicians
3. Radiologic Techs
4. Nurses

2. Physicians

2

The absorption of x-ray matter is called:
1. Scatter
2. Attenuation
3. Fog
4. Remant Radiation

2. Attenuation

3

At what kVp levels do Compton interactions occur:
1. High
2. Low
3. Above the diagnostic range
4. Throughout the diagnostic kVp range

4. Throughout the diagnostic kVp range

4

If the size of the x-ray field increases, what happens to scatter radiation fog?
1. Scatter radiation fog increases
2. Scatter radiation fog decreases
3. Scatter radiation fog is not affected by field size
4. The effect of field size on scatter radiation fog is dependent upon focal spot size

1. Scatter radiation fog increases

5

The unit used to indicate the total quantity of x-ray in an exposure is:
1. mAs
2. SID
3. kVp
4. Volts

1. mAs

6

A health care worker's single best protection against disease is:
1. Frequent hand hygiene
2. Vaccination
3. Barrier technique
4. Protective masks

1. Frequent hand hygiene

7

When an electron is removed from an atom, the atom is said to be:
1. Radioactive
2. A nuclide
3. Unstable
4. Ionized

4. Ionized

8

The filament of a x-ray tube is made of:
1. Glass
2. A coil of stainless steel wire
3. A coil of tungsten wire
4. A fluorescent tube

3. A coil of tungsten wire

9

The conventional radiation unit for measuring patient dose is:
1. Roentgen
2. REM
3. RAD
4. Sievert

3. RAD

10

The Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states that the following type of cell is most radiosensitive:
1. Brain Cell
2. Embryonic tissue
3. Cells of the gastric mucosa
4. Leukocytes

4. Leukocytes

11

What are the components of film emulsion
1. Gelatin and rare earth phosphors
2. Gelatin and Silver Halide Crystals
3. Polyester and Gelatin
4. Polyester and rear earth phosphors

2. Gelatin and Silver Halide Crystals

12

Which of the following functions involve the autotransformer?
1. kVp selection
2. mA selection
3. Exposure time selection
4. Automatic exposure control

1. kVp selection

13

What is the conventional radiation unit used to express radiation intensity in the air?
1. C/Kg
2. Watt
3. Ohm
4. Roentgen

4. Roentgen

14

Which portion of the cell contains the chromosomes?
1. Plasma membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus
4. Organelles

3. Nucleus

15

How many RAD are equivalent to one (1) Gy?
1. 10
2. 100
3. 1
4. 0.1

2. 100

16

Which of the following are types of intentional misconduct?
1. Assault
2. Battery
3. Invasion of privacy
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

4. 1, 2 and 3

17

Which of the following terms refer to the unseful x-ray beam
1. Secondary radiation
2. Scatter radiation
3. Leakage radiation
4. Primary radiation

4. Primary radiation

18

What is the maximum permissible dose for a pregnant x-ray tech?
1. 0.05 Rem monthly
2. 0.5 Rem annually
3. 1.5 Rem quarterly
4. 5.0 Rem annually

1. 0.05 Rem monthly

19

Which of the following does not influence the amount of scatter radiation emitted by the patient?
1 Thickness of the body part
2 OID
3 kVp
4 Size of the x-ray field

2 OID

20

The four prime factors of x-ray exposure are:
1. Processing, Screen Speed, Contrast, Distortion, and Density
2. Detail, Density, Contrast, Distortion
3. Time, Milliamperage, Density, Kilo-voltage
4. Milliamperage, Time, Kilo-voltage, Distance

4. Milliamperage, Time, Kilo-voltage, Distance

21

Which of the following are the main parts of a cell?
1. Plasma Protein
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

4. 1, 2 and 3

22

As kVp increases, which of the following statements is true?
1. The number of photoelectric interactions decreases
2. Patient dose decreases
3. Coherent scatter interactions increases
4. Patient dose increases

2. Patient dose decreases

23

Which of the following result from an indirect hit?
1. Free radicals
2. Enzymes
3. DNA breakage
4. Genetic damage

1. Free radicals

24

A device for removing long wave length radiation from the primary beam is a:
1. Collimator
2. Rheostat
3. Rectifier
4. Filter

4. Filter

25

Which of the following statements regarding technique charts is true?
1. Technique charts are the same for every imaging department
2. Technique charts remain the same regardless of IR, grid, SID, and other factors
3. Technique charts are used by inexperienced operators so having one is optional
4. Technique charts are unique to each x-ray machine and facility

4. Technique charts are unique to each x-ray machine and facility

26

The omission of reasonable care or caution defines:
1. Libel
2. Slander
3. Defamation of character
4. Negligence

4. Negligence

27

Which of the following is the main influence on the intensity of x-ray radiation?
1. Size of the film
2. Size of the focal spot
3. OID
4. SID

4. SID

28

Technique charts are based upon:
1. Patient weight and body habits
2. Processor temperature and replenishment rates
3. Thickness of the body part to be radiographed
4. Nature of the suspected pathologic condition

3. Thickness of the body part to be radiographed

29

If the kVp increased and the mAs is decreased, skin exposure will be:
1. Multiplied by a factor of 1/4th
2. Increased
3. Decreased
4. Unchanged

3. Decreased

30

The type of interaction of radiation with matter that forms characteristic radiation is called:
1. Coherent scatter
2. Compton effects
3. Photoelectric Effect
4. Photodisintergation

3. Photoelectric Effect

31

X-rays that are traveling in a useful direction exit via the:
1. Tube housing
2. Tube port
3. Patient
4. Image receptor system

2. Tube port

32

The principal factor controlling quality of x-rays is:
1. mAs
2. kVp
3. Focal spot size
4. Part film distance

2. kVp

33

In radiography, patient dose is usually calculated:
1. at the target origin
2. By using the film badge worn on the collar
3. Un the mitochondrial DNA
4. At the skin

4. At the skin

34

Which of the following is true regarding pediatric anatomy?
1. It is the same as adults.
2. The pediatric skeleton is denser than an adults
3. "Baby fat" is more difficult to penetrate than an older child's muscle tone
4. The pediatric skeleton os easier to penetrate then the adult skeleton

4. The pediatric skeleton os easier to penetrate then the adult skeleton

35

What two specialized instruments are required for monitoring processor performance?
1. Densitometer and Sensitometer
2. Densitometer and step wedge
3. Sensitometer and speed step
4. Speed step and thermometer

1. Densitometer and Sensitometer

36

Select the best definition for mAs
1. The amount of current passing through the x-ray tube for a given period of time
2. The lower the mAs, the higher the degree of density
3. The anatomical and pathological characteristics of the patient
4. If you double the mAs, density is doubled

1. The amount of current passing through the x-ray tube for a given period of time

37

Calculate the exposure time required to produce 50 mAs when using 200 mA station
1. 0.25 Seconds
2. 4 Seconds
3. 2.5 Seconds
4. 0.4 Seconds

1. 0.25 Seconds

38

The principle underlying the creation of a space charge in the x-ray tube is:
1. Electromagnetic induction
2. Variable resistance
3. Quantium theory
4. Thermionic emission

4. Thermionic emission

39

Intensifying screens reduce the amount of radiation needed for an exposure by:
1. Converting x-ray photons to light photons
2. Converting light to x-rays
3. Reducing the percentage of high energy photons
4. Reducing the percentage of low energy photons

1. Converting x-ray photons to light photons

40

The unit commonly used to report occupational dose to radiation workers in the US is:
1. mR
2. Rad
3. Rem
4. mGy

3. Rem

41

The overall darkness, or blackness, within a radiograph image is referred to as:
1. Density
2. Contrast
3. Recorded detail
4. mAs

1. Density

42

What is a direct hit?
1. Breakage is a DNA molecule as a result of an interaction with an x-ray photon
2. Breakdown of a water molecule from interaction with an x-ray photon
3. Interruption of cell mitosis caused by an interaction with an x-ray photon
4. Accurate x-ray centering combined with appropriate exposure factors.

1. Breakage is a DNA molecule as a result of an interaction with an x-ray photon

43

What is the guiding Philosophy of radiation protection
1. ALARMA - as long as radiographs are made accessible
2. ALARA - as low as reasonably achievable
3. ALAIS - as long as ionizations are small
4. ALAP - as low as possible

2. ALARA - as low as reasonably achievable

44

Which of the particles are located in an orbit around the nucleus of an atom?
1. Protons
2. Electrons
3. Neutrons
4. Positron

2. Electrons

45

Difficult breathing is called:
1. Tachypnea
2. Cyanosis
3. Dyspnea
4. Apnea

3. Dyspnea

46

The difference in density between adjacent portions in the image is called
1. Tissue density
2. Sharpness of detail
3. Radiographic recorded detail
4. Radiographic contrast

4. Radiographic contrast

47

Scatter radiation affects radiographic appearance by causing:
1. Increased distortion
2. Increased radiographic detail
3. Decreased contrast
4. Decreased density

3. Decreased contrast

48

The efficiency of a gird is base upon the:
1. Grid ratio
2. Grid frequency
3. Grid contrast
4. Grid density
1. 1 Only
2. 1 and 2
3. 3 and 4
4. 1, 2, 3, and 4

4. 1, 2, 3, and 4

49

The EDE limit for the whole body dose of occupational radiation exposure for non-pregnant workers over the age of 18 who are involved in radiation use is:
1. 1.25 Rem per year
2. 5.0 mRem per year
3. 0.5 Rem per year
4. 5.0 Rem per year

4. 5.0 Rem per year

50

Using low kilo-voltage (KV) will result in which of the following:
1. Short scale contrast
2. Long scale contrast
3. High scale contrast
4. Medium scale contrast

1. Short scale contrast

51

What is the proper method to store unopened boxes of x-ray film?
1. Stacked flat with edges of boxes aligned
2. Staked flat with edges of boxes staggered
3. Standing on edge
4. X-ray film cannot be safely stored

3. Standing on edge

52

Marks or exposure on a radiograph that are not part of the intended image are called
1. Fog
2. Ghosts
3. Phantoms
4. Artifacts

4. Artifacts

53

The principal source of scatter radiation in the room is the:
1. X-ray tube
2. Collimator
3. Patient
4. Control booth

3. Patient

54

A device that is placed between the patient and the IR to absorb scatter radiation is called a:
1. Grid
2. Filter
3. Gonad shield
4. Cassette

1. Grid

55

Which of the following occur with high radiation dose?
1. Stochastic effects
2. Short term effects
3. Non-stochastic effects
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1, 2, and 3

3. 2 and 3 only

56

Which of the following wound be practicing beyond the scope of a limited operator?
1. Performing basic x-ray operation
2. Performing office duties
3. Performing mammograms in a private physician office
4. Assisting the physician in patient care

3. Performing mammograms in a private physician office

57

The greatest portion of the x-ray beam is made up of:
1. Characteristic radiation
2. Brem radiation
3. Electrons
4. Heat

2. Brem radiation

58

Which of the following would be a violation of patient confidentially?
1. A technician discusses a patients pathology with another radiographer to get assistance in setting technical factors
2. A technician talks to his friends during lunch about a patients imaging procedure
3. A radiographer asks if a patient is pregnant before taking a radiograph
4. A transporter tells the technician that the patient complained of dizziness while riding in the wheelchair to the x-ray department

2. A technician talks to his friends during lunch about a patients imaging procedure

59

The study of abnormal conditions of the body is termed:
1. Anatomy
2. Pathology
3. Physiology
4. Psychology

2. Pathology

60

What are the two basic divisions of the skeletal system?
1. Functional and nonfunctional
2. Axial and appendicular
3. Moveable and immoveable
4. Bones and soft tissue

2. Axial and appendicular

61

What signed document is required for experimental and substantially risky procedure?
1. Confidentially statement
2. Standard of ethics
3. Informed consent
4. Living will

3. Informed consent

62

Which of the following statements reflects current opinion regarding the effects of diagnostic levels of ionizing radiation
1. It is carcinogenic after a certain number of examinations have been performed
2. Spontaneous abortion will occur it the patient is pregnant
3. A drop in the white blood cell count is followed by acute gastrointestinal destress
4. There is increased risk of cancer, leukemia, birth defects, and cataracts

4. There is increased risk of cancer, leukemia, birth defects, and cataracts

63

What influences the absorption of radiation in body tissues
1. Thickness of the body tissue
2. Density of the body tissue
3. Atomic number of the body tissue
4. Average photon energy of the useful beam
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 1,2 and 3
4. 1,2,3 and 4

4. 1,2,3 and 4

64

Which of the following would cause blurring of the radiographic image?
1. Patient motion
2. Using a grid with a low grid ratio
3. High kVp
4. Low mAs

1. Patient motion

65

A reduction in the radiation field size will cause the contrast to become:
1. Lower, because the kVp will decrease
2. Lower, because primary beam intensity decreases
3. Higher, because the amount of scatter radiation decreases
4. The same, providing all other technical factors remain the same

3. Higher, because the amount of scatter radiation decreases

66

You are a 24 year old x-ray technician who has been working for 5 years, What would your lifetime accumulated dosage be limited to?
1. 25 Rem
2. 24 Rem
3. 5 Rem
4. 0.5 Rem

2. 24 Rem

67

The interaction of x-ray photons with matter is termed
1. Scatter radiation
2. Absorption
3. Attenuation
4. Compton interactions

3. Attenuation

68

Primary beam filtration decreases the amount of radiation absorbed by:
1. Bone marrow
2. Skin
3. Gonads
4. Thyroid tissue

2. Skin

69

Reduction of the useful x-ray field is accomplished through the use of:
1. Aperture Diaphragms
2. Cones
3. Variable rectangular collimator
4. All of the above

4. All of the above

70

A personal monitoring device is primarily used to:
1. Keep Occupational exposure to a minimum
2. Warn the technician when he or she is exposed to radiation
3. Maintain the ALARA principals of lowest possible exposure
4. Ensure that the MPD is not exceeded by the technician

4. Ensure that the MPD is not exceeded by the technician

71

Use of a grid or bucky becomes an issue when the body part size exceeds:
1. 10-12 inches
2. 4-5 inches
3. 4-5 centimeters
4. 15-20 centimeters

2. 4-5 inches

72

A technique of 4 mAs is needed. The 200 mA station is selected; what is the required exposure time?
1. 2msec
2. 4msec
3. 20msec
4. 40msec

2. 4msec

73

An acceptable radiograph is obtained using the large focal spot. if the same technique is used with a small focal spot, what would the results be?
1. Pt dose would be lowered
2. The image would be lighter
3. The image would be sharper
4. The image would have better contrast

3. The image would be sharper

74

This type of scatter radiation is not seen in diagnostic x-ray
1. Coherent
2. Pair production
3. Incoherent
4. classic

2. Pair production

75

The cardinal principles of radiation protection requires the technician to minimize the following:
1. Distance
2. kVp
3. mAs
4. Time

4. Time

76

This factor is directly proportional to the dose received by the patient
1. SID
2. kVp
3. mAs
4. Field size

3. mAs

77

Gonadal shielding shall be used:
1. When the gonads are in the primary beam
2. When the gonads are within 5cm of the edge of the x-ray field
3. At all times regardless of the area of clinical interest
4. Unless the shielding interferes with visualizing the area of clinical interest

4. Unless the shielding interferes with visualizing the area of clinical interest

78

The line focus principal states that the:
1. Actual focal spot is smaller than the effective spot
2. X-ray photons will diverge from the anode of the tube
3. Size of the penumbra depends on the size of the anode
4. Effective focal spot is smaller then the actual focal spot

4. Effective focal spot is smaller then the actual focal spot

79

The relationship between the size of the radiation field and the size of the collimator field must be:
1. The same size
2. Within 2 percent of the SID
3. Within 2 percent of the OID
4. Within 2 inches of each other

2. Within 2 percent of the SID

80

The anode heel effect can be used when doing the following exam(s)?
1. T-spine
2. Tib-fib
3. Femur
4. All of the above

4. All of the above

81

What term is applied to joints that are freely moveable?
1. Syarthrosis
2. Amphiarthrosis
3. Diarthrosis
4. Biarthrosis

3. Diarthrosis

82

As the skeleton ages, the bones tend to lose their calcium content becoming porous and more radiolucent. This condition is known as:
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Osteomyelitis
3. Osteoporosis
4. Osteopetrosis

3. Osteoporosis

83

Radiographing the wrong patient or wrong body part could legally be considered:
1. Assault
2. Battery
3. Negligence
4. False imprisonment

2. Battery

84

What term is used when a patient faints?
1. Vertigo
2. Apnea
3. Bradycardia
4. Syncope

4. Syncope

85

A personnel monitoring device capable of measuring as low as 5mrem is known as a(n)?
1. Film badge
2. TLD
3. OLD
4. Pocket dosimeter

2. TLD

86

Total filtration of an x-ray tube capable of operating at 70 kVp and above must be at least:
1. 0.5mm pb
2. 2.5mm pb
3. 0.5mm Al
4. 2.5mm Al

4. 2.5mm Al

87

Any difference between a radiographic image and the part being imaged is considered to be:
1. Magnification
2. Distortion
3. Elongation
4. Foreshortening

2. Distortion

88

This dose responsive curve is used to represent possible genetic effects of x-radiation
1. Linear, threshold
2. Linear, non-threshold
3. Non-linear, threshold
4. Non-linear, non-threshold

2. Linear, non-threshold

89

One hundred (100) mSv is equal to:
1. 100 mrem
2. 1 Rem
3. 10 Rem
4. 100 Rem

3. 10 Rem

90

Personal protective devices are required to be a minimum thickness of:
1. 0.25mm lead equiv
2. 1.25mm lead equiv
3. 0.5mm lead equiv
4. 2.5mm lead equiv

1. 0.25mm lead equiv

91

OSHA requires that protective goggles, masks, and gloves be worn whenever technicians:
1. Process film manually
2. Start up or shut down the automatic film processor
3. Mix or Pour processing chemicals
4. Enter the darkroom for any reason

3. Mix or Pour processing chemicals

92

When communicating with elderly patients, technicians should use the following procedure:
1. Shout into the patients ear
2. Speak slowly and clearly
3. Receive validation from the patient
1. 1 and 2
2. 2 and 3
3. 1 and 3
4. 1 2 and 3

2. 2 and 3

93

Radiation in an x-ray room coming from anywhere other than the tube port is known as:
1. Leakage radiation
2. Stray radiation
3. Remnant radiation
4. Scatter radiation

4. Scatter radiation

94

All of the following could be considered somatic effects except:
1. Chromosomal damage
2. Radiolysis
3. Cataractegenesis
4. Mutations in offspring

4. Mutations in offspring

95

The blurring along the margins of a radiograph image, caused by the penumbra, effects radiograph
1. Detail
2. Distortion
3. Density
4. Contrast

1. Detail

96

A latent image is one that:
1. Has been chemically processed
2. Remains on the intensifying screen
3. Appears as a clear film after being processed
4. Cannot be seen until the film is processed

4. Cannot be seen until the film is processed

97

The conventional unit of measurement for radiation in the air is the
1. Coulomb
2. Roentgen
3. Becquerel
4. Curie

2. Roentgen

98

The most common type of x-ray beam restriction device in use today is the:
1. Aperture diaphragm
2. Positive beam limiter
3. Variable rectangular collimator
4. Cylinder cone

3. Variable rectangular collimator

99

An AEC that measures electrical current emitted by ionized atoms of dry air is the
1. Photo-timer
2. Scintillation chamber
3. Photomultiplier
4. Ionization chamber

4. Ionization chamber

100

In an x-ray machine panel, current flowing through a rheostat is used to control the:
1. Line voltage fluctuation
2. Kilo-voltage
3. Milliamperage
4. Time (in seconds)

4. Time (in seconds)