Cornea, Iris and Lens Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Cornea, Iris and Lens > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cornea, Iris and Lens Deck (40)
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1
Q

Corneal arcus senilis

A

common in elderly
-whitish area around cornea (opacification)
-not pathologic
may be seen in severe hypercalcimia

2
Q

corneal abrasion

A

very painful

  • typically has history of trauma
  • need to use fluoroscene stain, because it is not visible with the naked eye
  • superficial, epithelial layer
3
Q

which CN innervates the cornea?

A

ophthalmic branch of CN V

4
Q

corneal ulcer

A

very painful
long onsetting (a few days)
deep into the stroma
-usually related to an infectious process (herpes)
-opaque and can be seen with the naked eye

5
Q

hypopyon (hypopion)

A

pus layers behind the cornea

  • corneal ulcer
  • iritis
  • result of an inflammatory process in the anterior of the eye
6
Q

corneal scar

A

opaque patch that is secondary to chronic ulceration (abrasions typically don’t scar)

7
Q

iritis

A

inflammation of the iris

  • typically very painful
  • inflammation extends to the limbus
  • associated with other inflammatory conditions (RA, IBS)
8
Q

hyphema

A

blood in the anterior chamber

  • most common cause is trauma
  • will stain to stain
  • can cause severe tension in the eye
9
Q

cataract (peripheral)

A

opacification of the lens

  • common complaint is difficult night vision
  • treatment is surgical correction
  • more at risk of getting it if you have high exposure to UV lights
  • no. 1 cause of blindness world wide
10
Q

glaucoma

A

intraocular pressure

-pressure begins in the anterior portion of the eye

11
Q

open-angle glaucoma

A

angle of canal is open, but flow through trabecular meshwork is slow (overproduction or poor drainage)

  • chronic problem
  • treatment, create less aqueous humor or allow more flow
  • not painful
  • high blood pressure of the eye
12
Q

closed-angle glaucoma

A

iris contracts, angle closes and fluid can’t flow out

  • acute onset
  • painful, red eye
  • headache, nausea, vomiting
  • mid-dilated fixed pupil
13
Q

how does glaucoma cause visual loss?

A

increased pressure in the anterior of the eye over time can compress the retina and optic disc thereby impairing vision

14
Q

glaucomatous cupping

A

pressure spreads the optic disc out and you see a big wide optic disc

15
Q

hirshberg test

A

test of corneal light reflection

-normally is slightly nasal to the center of the cornea

16
Q

esotropia

A

corneal light reflection is positioned lateral to the center

  • eye deviates toward the nose
  • convergent strabismus
  • light reflection looks more lateral
17
Q

exotropia

A

corneal light reflection is positioned nasal to the center (lazy eye)

  • outward deviation of the eye
  • divergent strabismus
  • light reflection looks closer to the nose
18
Q

convergence

A

when eyes come together to focus on an object coming near

19
Q

dysconjugate gaze (strabismus)

A

abnormal alignment of the eye

20
Q

paralytic strabismus

A

weakness or paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles (CN lesions)
-can’t be overcome
-

21
Q

non-paralytic strabismus

A

imbalance in muscular tone and may be overcome

-generally developmental/congenital

22
Q

cover/uncover test

A

can help differentiate between paralytic or non-paralytic strabismus

23
Q

VI cranial nerve palsy

A

paralytic strabismus in which patient cannot abduct laterally (can’t look outward)

24
Q

CN III palsy

A

paralytic strabismus in which pt has an eye deviated outward all the time
-constant dilation

25
Q

CN IV palsy

A

paralytic strabismus in which pt cannot look down and in

-least common

26
Q

amblyopia

A

reduced vision in one or both eyes caused by visual deprivation (seen in childhood)
-strabismus or deprivation

27
Q

nystagmus

A

repetitive, oscillatory, jerky eye movements
-seen in disorders of labyrinth
-cerebellar disease
-dilantin toxicity
pathology indicated especially when the nystagmus is
-vertical and rotary
normal in extremes of gaze

28
Q

which are the most common disease states that cause pathology of the retina?

A

diabetes

hypertension

29
Q

microaneurysms

A

small tiny out pouching in retinal vessels

look like red dots

30
Q

flame hemorrhages

A

ruptures of aneurysms

shaped like a candle flame

31
Q

dot/blot hemorrhages

A

rupture of hemorrhage

32
Q

pre-retinal hemorrhage

A

hemorrhages in front of the retina

33
Q

hard exudates

A

material exudes into the retinal tissue

  • usually lipid and protein material
  • looks like yellow dots
  • infarcted retinal tissue
  • tiny, pinpoint
34
Q

cotton wool spots (soft exudates)

A

look like white or yellowish cotton

-infarcted retinal tissue

35
Q

neovascularization

A

new vessel formation

-very bad

36
Q

proliferative retinopathy

A

has neovascularization

-new vessels are weak and likely to rupture into the vitrous, which will impair vision

37
Q

background retinopathy

A

does not have neovascularization, but does have other evidence of retinopathy (cotton wool spots, hemorrhage)

38
Q

hypertensive retinopathy findings

A

tapering-artery comes to a point on either side of the vein instead of bein perpendicular
AV nicking-vein stops abruptly on either side of artery (thickening of vessel wall)
AV banking-twisting of the vessels
copper wire artery-develops increased like reflex from being engorged
silver wire artery-portion of narrowed artery becomes opaque, no blood is visible

39
Q

macular degeneration

A

degeneration of the macula

  • dry type is atrophy with age and time
  • presents with drusen (white spots)
  • wet type develops edema under the macula and can lift the macula away from underlying structures (more aggressive, but less common)
40
Q

papilledema

A

swelling of the optic nerve

  • fluid behind the eye or brain tumor
  • increased cranial pressure behind the eye

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