Cornea, Iris and Lens Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cornea, Iris and Lens Deck (40):
1

Corneal arcus senilis

common in elderly
-whitish area around cornea (opacification)
-not pathologic
may be seen in severe hypercalcimia

2

corneal abrasion

very painful
-typically has history of trauma
-need to use fluoroscene stain, because it is not visible with the naked eye
-superficial, epithelial layer

3

which CN innervates the cornea?

ophthalmic branch of CN V

4

corneal ulcer

very painful
long onsetting (a few days)
deep into the stroma
-usually related to an infectious process (herpes)
-opaque and can be seen with the naked eye

5

hypopyon (hypopion)

pus layers behind the cornea
-corneal ulcer
-iritis
-result of an inflammatory process in the anterior of the eye

6

corneal scar

opaque patch that is secondary to chronic ulceration (abrasions typically don't scar)

7

iritis

inflammation of the iris
-typically very painful
-inflammation extends to the limbus
-associated with other inflammatory conditions (RA, IBS)

8

hyphema

blood in the anterior chamber
-most common cause is trauma
-will stain to stain
-can cause severe tension in the eye

9

cataract (peripheral)

opacification of the lens
-common complaint is difficult night vision
-treatment is surgical correction
-more at risk of getting it if you have high exposure to UV lights
-no. 1 cause of blindness world wide

10

glaucoma

intraocular pressure
-pressure begins in the anterior portion of the eye

11

open-angle glaucoma

angle of canal is open, but flow through trabecular meshwork is slow (overproduction or poor drainage)
-chronic problem
-treatment, create less aqueous humor or allow more flow
-not painful
-high blood pressure of the eye

12

closed-angle glaucoma

iris contracts, angle closes and fluid can't flow out
-acute onset
-painful, red eye
-headache, nausea, vomiting
-mid-dilated fixed pupil

13

how does glaucoma cause visual loss?

increased pressure in the anterior of the eye over time can compress the retina and optic disc thereby impairing vision

14

glaucomatous cupping

pressure spreads the optic disc out and you see a big wide optic disc

15

hirshberg test

test of corneal light reflection
-normally is slightly nasal to the center of the cornea

16

esotropia

corneal light reflection is positioned lateral to the center
-eye deviates toward the nose
-convergent strabismus
-light reflection looks more lateral

17

exotropia

corneal light reflection is positioned nasal to the center (lazy eye)
-outward deviation of the eye
-divergent strabismus
-light reflection looks closer to the nose

18

convergence

when eyes come together to focus on an object coming near

19

dysconjugate gaze (strabismus)

abnormal alignment of the eye

20

paralytic strabismus

weakness or paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles (CN lesions)
-can't be overcome
-

21

non-paralytic strabismus

imbalance in muscular tone and may be overcome
-generally developmental/congenital

22

cover/uncover test

can help differentiate between paralytic or non-paralytic strabismus

23

VI cranial nerve palsy

paralytic strabismus in which patient cannot abduct laterally (can't look outward)

24

CN III palsy

paralytic strabismus in which pt has an eye deviated outward all the time
-constant dilation

25

CN IV palsy

paralytic strabismus in which pt cannot look down and in
-least common

26

amblyopia

reduced vision in one or both eyes caused by visual deprivation (seen in childhood)
-strabismus or deprivation

27

nystagmus

repetitive, oscillatory, jerky eye movements
-seen in disorders of labyrinth
-cerebellar disease
-dilantin toxicity
pathology indicated especially when the nystagmus is
-vertical and rotary
normal in extremes of gaze

28

which are the most common disease states that cause pathology of the retina?

diabetes
hypertension

29

microaneurysms

small tiny out pouching in retinal vessels
look like red dots

30

flame hemorrhages

ruptures of aneurysms
shaped like a candle flame

31

dot/blot hemorrhages

rupture of hemorrhage

32

pre-retinal hemorrhage

hemorrhages in front of the retina

33

hard exudates

material exudes into the retinal tissue
-usually lipid and protein material
-looks like yellow dots
-infarcted retinal tissue
-tiny, pinpoint

34

cotton wool spots (soft exudates)

look like white or yellowish cotton
-infarcted retinal tissue

35

neovascularization

new vessel formation
-very bad

36

proliferative retinopathy

has neovascularization
-new vessels are weak and likely to rupture into the vitrous, which will impair vision

37

background retinopathy

does not have neovascularization, but does have other evidence of retinopathy (cotton wool spots, hemorrhage)

38

hypertensive retinopathy findings

tapering-artery comes to a point on either side of the vein instead of bein perpendicular
AV nicking-vein stops abruptly on either side of artery (thickening of vessel wall)
AV banking-twisting of the vessels
copper wire artery-develops increased like reflex from being engorged
silver wire artery-portion of narrowed artery becomes opaque, no blood is visible

39

macular degeneration

degeneration of the macula
-dry type is atrophy with age and time
-presents with drusen (white spots)
-wet type develops edema under the macula and can lift the macula away from underlying structures (more aggressive, but less common)

40

papilledema

swelling of the optic nerve
-fluid behind the eye or brain tumor
-increased cranial pressure behind the eye

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