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Flashcards in Credit Concepts Deck (74):
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Modulating

Moving from one key to another

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Relative Major

A major key with the same sharps/flats as the relative minor

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Relative minor

A minor key with the same amount of sharps/flats as the relative minor

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Tonal

Music which is based in a standard key

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Atonal

Music not based in a standard key

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Trill

Rapid movement between two adjacent notes

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Grace Note

Short ornamental note

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Interval

The distance between 2 notes

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Syllabic word setting

Vocal music where each syllable is given one note

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Melismatic word setting

Several notes sung to one syllable

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Word Painting

When a word is given a setting appropriate to its meaning

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Blues scale

A scale using blues notes (eg C Eflat F Fsharp G Bflat C)

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Whole tone scale

A scale made only of tones. Has a dreamy sound

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Modal

Music based on a mode rather than a major or minor scale. Found in medieval music

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Modulation to relative major

Music moving from a minor key into the relative major key, 3 steps higher

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Modulation to relative minor

Music moving from a major key to the relative minor, 3 steps lower

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Perfect Cadence

A phrase which sounds complete. V-I

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Imperfect cadence

A phrase ending which sounds incomplete. Any-V

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Tierce de picardie

A perfect cadence in a minor key where the final chord is a major chord.

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Discord

An interval or a chord in which the notes clash with one another

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Suspension

Where a note in a chord is held over to become a discordant part of the following chord. It is then resolved by step

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Passing note

A note which moves between two notes of the same chord which are a 3rd apart. Passing notes are in a melody part between harmony notes on the beat

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Cross rhythms

Two conflicting rhythmic patterns used either together or one after the other

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Triplet

Three equal-value notes within one beat

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Pedal

A held or repeated note in the bass line while the harmonics change above it

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Inverted Pedal

This is the same as a pedal except that the held note is in an upper part rather than the bass

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Ground bass

A repeated bass line under a changing melodic line

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Alberti bass

A broken chord accompaniment in the bass

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Homophony

The parts or voices move together in chords- melody and accompaniment. Opposite of polyphonic

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Polyphony

Several strands of independent melody woven together

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Obbligato

A part for solo instrument, usually in a song, which compliments the melody. Also known as a counter melody

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Countermelody

A melody written specifically to compliment the main melody. If it's higher than the main melody, it is often known as a descant

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Strophic

Verse form. Where the same music is used for a succession of verses in a song. Often in pop and folk music

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Through-Composed

Another song structured which is used when the song lyrics are not presented in verses. The music is therefore more complex and less repetitive (eg Bohemian Rhapsody)

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Coda

A short piece of music which serves to round off a section or piece of music

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Cadenza

An important part of a concerto when the soloist is given the opportunity to display their technique or beauty of tone. Usually unaccompanied. A trill indicates the end of the cadenza. It was originally unaccompanied

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Mezzo soprano

A voice lower than a soprano but higher than an alto

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Countertenor

A high male voice where the singer uses his falsetto range

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Baritone

A voice lower than a tenor, but higher than a bass

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Muted

Means "muffled". String instruments are muted by a clamp on the bridge; brass instruments by a mute in the bell

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Glissando

Sliding from one note to another, playing each note in between

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Flutter tonguing

An effect where a wind player blows a note while rolling their tongue

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Double stopping

Playing two strings at once, usually with a bow

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Arco

An instruction for the player to return to using the bow. Used after pizzicato

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Pizzicato

Instruction for player to pluck, rather than bow

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Col legno

When a string player strikes the strings with the wood of the bow rather than bowing normally

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Tremolando/tremolo

Making the bow shiver on the strings

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Vibrato

Variation in the intensity of a note, often coupled with a slight variation in pitch

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A cappella

Unaccompanied voices

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Register

A range of notes on an instrument or voice

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Dixieland

A style of instrumental jazz featuring improvisation

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Boogie-woogie

A blues style played by piano

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Impressionist

A musical style from the early 1900s which set out to convey moods and emotions in an ambiguous way. Rules of composition became less important than the effects produced

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Minimalist

A style from 1950 onwards which used repetition in an extreme form and where change took place gradually

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Aleatoric

Chance music. Where some elements of a composition are decided by chance or the performer rather than the composer

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Classical

The musical period from 1750-1810 encompassing music by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Lies between the Baroque and Romantic periods

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Scherzo

Took over from the minuet and trio. Much faster, lighter and livelier. A musical joke

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Cantata

A sung piece. Features chorus, vocal soloists and orchestra. Often sacred in mood

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Oratorio

Equivalent of a religious opera. A story on a sacred text featuring solo voices, chorus and orchestra. Not acted or staged

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Passion

An oratorio based specifically on the crucifixion of Christ

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Hymn tune

A simple religious song used for worship

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Chorale

A German hymn tune often the basis for an oratorio/cantata. Generally homophonic; sung in 4 parts SATB. There is often a pause at the end of each phrase

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Pibroch

The classical music of the highland bagpipe. In theme and variation form. Not dance music, but slow and sombre

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Recitative

Music in an opera/oratorio/cantata where the singer speaks the story

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Aria

A song which often follows a recitative, in which the singer expresses the character's feelings

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Chorus

A large group of singers who sing in harmony. In an opera they would play a group of characters (eg villagers/soldiers)

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Soul

A blend of blues and gospel originally produced by black performers. Highly emotional

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Country

An American style of popular music derived from rural folk music

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Indian

Music which originated in India. Instruments included the sitar and tabla

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12 string guitar

A steel-strung guitar tuned in the usual way but with a pair of strings for each note. Much louder

70

Slide guitar

A technique of playing a guitar using a metal tube over the left hand finger. Sometimes the neck of a bottle was used

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Fretless bass guitar

A bass guitar which can play more expressively due to its having no frets. Can use glissando therefore

72

Sitar

An Indian instrument of the guitar family. Played with a plectrum. Extra strings vibrate in sympathy, providing extra resonance and making the sound very distinctive

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Tabla

Hand drums used in Indian classical music along with the sitar