Flashcards in Crime and Deviance - Labelling Theory Deck (12):
What did Becker (1963) say about deviance?
No act is deviant in itself, it is simply a social construct.
What do labelling theorists say about selective enforcement?
They argue that social control agencies tend to label certain groups as criminal.
What did Piliavin and Briar (1964) say about selective enforcement?
Police decisions to arrest ere based on stereotypical ideas about manner, dress, gender, class etc.
What did Cicourel (1976) say about stereotypes?
Police use typifications of the typical delinquent, those matching the description are more likely to be stopped, arrested and charged.
What does Cicourel argue about crime statistics?
That we cannot take them at face value due to the over-representation of working-class crime.
What is primary deviance?
Acts that go publicly unlabelled, those who commit them do not usually see themselves as deviant.
What is secondary deviance?
Deviance caused by a societal reaction i.e. labelling.
How does labelling cause deviance?
It causes people to be stigmatised and excluded from normal society.
How did Young (1971) illustrate the SFP?
He studied hippies who were labelled as junkies and prosecuted which led to them forming a deviant subculture.
What is the deviance amplification spiral?
The process by which an attempt to control deviance actually ends up increasing, ending up in more control and then more deviance.
Where was the deviance amplification spiral most seen in Cohen's study?
In the case of the Mod and Rockers.