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Flashcards in Crime + Deviance Deck (43):
1

What is the difference between crime and deviance?

Crime is something that is actually against the law and you can be punished within the legal system if you break a law.

Deviance is where you break away from the norms and values of society.

2

Why is deviance socially defined?

Deviance can threaten social order, both a threat and protection to social stability.

3

What is the difference between formal and informal rules?

Formal = Rules + Regulations put in place
Informal = Expected norms + values

4

Define social order

Refers to where society is in a stable condition, not mass amounts of crime rates etc

5

Define social control

Way people's thoughts, behaviour and appearance are regulated in social systems

6

How does inadequate socialisation lead to crime + deviance?

Don't understand norms and values

7

Why might relative deprivation lead to crime?

- Cannot afford things middle / upper class have
-Status frustration
-Want to break out of poverty but can't, want the material things other classes can afford

8

How do Marxists explain crime + deviance?

- Believe that is down to status frustration / class
-Bourjesie exploiting the proteriot

9

How does the labelling theory explain crime + deviance?

If someone is labelled as a 'thug'. may fulfil a self - fulfilling prophecy, live up to their expectations.

10

How would biologists explain crime?

They would look at genetics / nature.

11

How would psychologists explain crime?

They would look at their backgrounds / nurture

12

What are the main sources of official statistics in crime?

Published by the government, or other official bodies / agencies

13

How far do official statistics measure crime?

Some crime will not be measured. Studies showing crime is 70% more likely to be reported when there is a insurance claim to be made. Some victims don't want to record rape etc.

14

Explanations for young people getting involved in crime

-Working class teenage boys
-Anti - school subcultures
-Status frustration
-Cultural deprivation

15

Why are men more likely to be involved in crime?

-Chivalry thesis (women are more likely to be let off by judges as they are sympathetic)
-Young working class boys are more prone to peer pressure

16

Why are women less likely to be convicted of a crime?

Chivalry thesis

17

Define white collar crime

Finically motivated crime committed mainly by middle / upper class men. EG = Tax evasion

18

Why are there more working - class people in prison than middle class?

-WC more likely to be convicted
-Peer pressure
-MC more likely to be let off with fines from judges
-WC areas have a larger police presence

19

Why is the fear of crime greater than the actual level of crime?

The media exaggerate crime, making it seem a lot worse than it actually is for a good story
-Link to journalism / sociologist

20

Impact of crime on communities

-More likely to have larger police presence
-Feel unsafe in own homes
-Rips apart friendly communities
-Higher security (CCTV) which could lead to higher expenses made by people

21

Why is youth crime seen as a social problem?

-Haven't been socialised properly
-Schools need to do more for WC criminals
-Programmes need to be started to help prevent youth crime

22

WILLIS CASE STUDY

'Learning to labour' WC boys reject values of their school and form anti - school subcultures

23

JANSSON CASE STUDY

Crimes more likely to be reported to the police where there is a insurance claim

24

MAGUIRE CASE STUDY

Many more males, young people, black people, poor people and poorly educated people in prison population relative to general population

25

OFFENDER KEY STATS

2006
20% offenders were female
80% offenders were male

26

Define agents of social control

Things that deter people from crime, for example
-Police
-Social shame
-Family shame
-Government

27

Define anomie

Group of people who pull away from societies norms and values

28

Define antisocial behaviour

Things that are not seem acceptable to be doing in a public setting, for example
-Swearing loudly in a library

29

Chivalry Thesis

Where judges are more likely to be sympathetic towards women and let them off with lower sentences

30

Community service

Punishment for committing a crime, doing tasks for the local community

31

Define computer crime

Using computers to engage in illegal / unlawful acts

32

Conformity

Compliance with standards, rules and laws

33

Corporate crime

White collar crime

34

Crime rate

How much crime is happening in a particular location

35

Define the 'dark figure'

Unreported crime in official statistics

36

Data protection

Legal control over access to information stored on computers

37

Deviance

Breaking away from societies norms and values

38

Identity theft

Stealing someone else's identity to commit crime

39

Indictable offence

One that can be punished

40

Judiciary

The court system (judges, jury etc)

41

Labelling theory

Labelling someone as something, which then they fulfil a self - fulfilling prophecy

42

Master status

-What decisions a person makes in their life
-Making up all their personality
-Background etc

43

Probation

Suspended sentences