Flashcards in Crime + Deviance Deck (43):
What is the difference between crime and deviance?
Crime is something that is actually against the law and you can be punished within the legal system if you break a law.
Deviance is where you break away from the norms and values of society.
Why is deviance socially defined?
Deviance can threaten social order, both a threat and protection to social stability.
What is the difference between formal and informal rules?
Formal = Rules + Regulations put in place
Informal = Expected norms + values
Define social order
Refers to where society is in a stable condition, not mass amounts of crime rates etc
Define social control
Way people's thoughts, behaviour and appearance are regulated in social systems
How does inadequate socialisation lead to crime + deviance?
Don't understand norms and values
Why might relative deprivation lead to crime?
- Cannot afford things middle / upper class have
-Want to break out of poverty but can't, want the material things other classes can afford
How do Marxists explain crime + deviance?
- Believe that is down to status frustration / class
-Bourjesie exploiting the proteriot
How does the labelling theory explain crime + deviance?
If someone is labelled as a 'thug'. may fulfil a self - fulfilling prophecy, live up to their expectations.
How would biologists explain crime?
They would look at genetics / nature.
How would psychologists explain crime?
They would look at their backgrounds / nurture
What are the main sources of official statistics in crime?
Published by the government, or other official bodies / agencies
How far do official statistics measure crime?
Some crime will not be measured. Studies showing crime is 70% more likely to be reported when there is a insurance claim to be made. Some victims don't want to record rape etc.
Explanations for young people getting involved in crime
-Working class teenage boys
-Anti - school subcultures
Why are men more likely to be involved in crime?
-Chivalry thesis (women are more likely to be let off by judges as they are sympathetic)
-Young working class boys are more prone to peer pressure
Why are women less likely to be convicted of a crime?
Define white collar crime
Finically motivated crime committed mainly by middle / upper class men. EG = Tax evasion
Why are there more working - class people in prison than middle class?
-WC more likely to be convicted
-MC more likely to be let off with fines from judges
-WC areas have a larger police presence
Why is the fear of crime greater than the actual level of crime?
The media exaggerate crime, making it seem a lot worse than it actually is for a good story
-Link to journalism / sociologist
Impact of crime on communities
-More likely to have larger police presence
-Feel unsafe in own homes
-Rips apart friendly communities
-Higher security (CCTV) which could lead to higher expenses made by people
Why is youth crime seen as a social problem?
-Haven't been socialised properly
-Schools need to do more for WC criminals
-Programmes need to be started to help prevent youth crime
WILLIS CASE STUDY
'Learning to labour' WC boys reject values of their school and form anti - school subcultures
JANSSON CASE STUDY
Crimes more likely to be reported to the police where there is a insurance claim
MAGUIRE CASE STUDY
Many more males, young people, black people, poor people and poorly educated people in prison population relative to general population
OFFENDER KEY STATS
20% offenders were female
80% offenders were male
Define agents of social control
Things that deter people from crime, for example
Group of people who pull away from societies norms and values
Define antisocial behaviour
Things that are not seem acceptable to be doing in a public setting, for example
-Swearing loudly in a library
Where judges are more likely to be sympathetic towards women and let them off with lower sentences
Punishment for committing a crime, doing tasks for the local community
Define computer crime
Using computers to engage in illegal / unlawful acts
Compliance with standards, rules and laws
White collar crime
How much crime is happening in a particular location
Define the 'dark figure'
Unreported crime in official statistics
Legal control over access to information stored on computers
Breaking away from societies norms and values
Stealing someone else's identity to commit crime
One that can be punished
The court system (judges, jury etc)
Labelling someone as something, which then they fulfil a self - fulfilling prophecy
-What decisions a person makes in their life
-Making up all their personality