Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 1, Evolution of Policing and Investigation Deck (83):
Charles A Lushbaugh-retired Lt. Sacramento County Sheriffs Dept, Lecturer at California State Univ,
Paul B Weston- deceased
Edition is dedicated
daughter Jennifer and son David and their boys; Scott, Miles and Desmond
Evolution of Policing and Investigation
Police agencies first being formed in this country were modelled after the___
London Metropolitan Police
Before there was a criminal justice system, individual citizens played a much larger role in providing for______________
his own personal protection and dealing with any crime victimization.
principle of Posse Comitatus
means power or force of the community to enforce laws
hearings of the accused when before a disinterested third party, typically the ___
local lord or magistrate
This statute was passed requiring all towns to have men on the streets after dark to provide safety
1285 Statute of Winchester
due to populations increased and cities and towns grew, the small tight-knit agrarian community failed to control crime
All able bodies males were required to serve on a rotational basis, without pay.
watchman were supervised by
constable-also a private citizen, who served a voluntary one-year term
The statute also required citizens to come to the aid of the night watchmen whenever they gave ----for assistance
hue and cry
statute required all males between the ages of ___ and ____ to keep arms for the purpose of rendering aid and subdue offenders
15 and 60
Parliament, in 1689 established _____ for the conviction of crimes.
1750 the reward for the conviction of a robbery suspect was increased to ____
140 pounds, a sum equal to three to four year of income for a skilled workman
motivated by the reward money and their ability to confiscate the possessions of criminal, often criminals themselves
thief-takers- system of reward gave the thief-takers a bad reputation and some suspected of encouraging crimes for purpose of solving them
1748 crime had increased in England and it capital, London, was recognized as one of the most dangerous cities in Europe. Same year, former novelist, playwright and attorney was named magistrate for the Bow Street court
was known as one of the worst crime ridden areas in Londaon
who organized a group of former constables and thief-takers to carry out investigations and bring suspect to trial and what was the name they came to be known?
who took over after Henry Fielding passed away in 1754
his brother, John Fielding
John Fielding organized mounted patrols, foot patrols in streets and employed between how many officers to patrol Bow Street area
300 and 400 officers
Fielding established the Police Gazette to serve what purpose
encouraged victims to report crimes
victims would recieve assitance from runners in the investigations of crimes.
published info about criminal activity, names and description of wanted criminals
how long did John Fielding served as magistrate of the Bow Street court
25 years- was knighted for his efforts in crime fighting.
John Fielding is considered to be the ____
Father of modern police detective.
in ___ became the British Home Secretary,
1822, Robert Peel
British Home Secretary was responsible for ___
internal security of England.
1829 Peel presented a reform bill that started __
Londons Metropolitan Police
officers came on duty in ___
Turnover was high largely due to ____
the "peelers" who were both feared and hated soon became the ____
bobbies- a names used in reference to Robert Peel and a term of respect and appreciation.
Known today as the Father of policing and would go on to become the Prime Minister of England and knighted for his service to his country
much like England, the ____ ___ system of policing in the United States was overwhelmed with crime as a result of ____ and ____
urbanization and immigration
Riots in the major cities such as ___,___ and __ showed that the time for police had come.
1845 the city of ___established a police force modelled after the London Metropolitan Police
early police depts in America were formed at city level of government. These cities were under control of corrupt political machines operating under the ____
politicians extorted money from people and companies wanting to due business with city.
this influence corrupted the new police dept as well
Under the "spoils system", formed of _____ existed, whereby an applicant had to have political friends to become a police officer
Chief advocate of reforming the police was
August Vollmer- Chief of police in Berkley, CA from 1905-1932
Vollmer and other reformers advocated the following agenda:
1. Policing should be professional that serves community on a non partison basis
2. politics should be eliminated from policing
3. Law Enf agencies should be headed by qualified chief executive
4. Law Enf agencies should raise the hiring and training standards for new recruits
5. Agencies should apply modern management principles and advocate centralized command and control of police operations
6. Agencies should create specialized units such as traffic, juvenile and vice
To accomplish the goals of these reformers, reformers advocated the use of _____for selection and promotion of police personnel.
Civil Service System
Vollmer wrote extensivley about police and became _____during the 1920s
president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police
____ is considered to be the Father of modern policing in America
a major social event that had tremendous impact on moving policing towards professionalism
Great Depression of 1930s
The use of science to answer legal questions is known as
the application of scientific techniques in collecting and analyzing physical evidence.
Father of forensic toxicology
Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853)- study of effects of poisons
earliest advocate of criminal investigation as a science was
Hans Gross (1848-1915)- professor of criminology at Univ of Vienna.
Gross published ______1906
System der Kriminalistik (Criminal Investigation)
Gross greatest contribution to the introduction of science in criminal investigation was the advocacy of
a parallel system of inquiry based on the crime scene
___developed the first means of human identification known as "anthropometry"
Alphonse Bertillon- measurements of various parts of body along with photograph.
Bertillon system worked well for over two decades until unraveled by the ____
Will West case in 1903
Bertillon's system was replaced by the identificaiton of individuals through ___
who is still considered to be the Father of criminal identification
provided the first definitive study of fingerprints in his book "Finger Prints"
authored in 1910, the first significant text in the field of questioned documents.
Albert S Osborn- repsonsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by courts
Founder and director of Institute of Criminalistics at University of Lyons.
Edmond Locard- he pursuaded the police dept in Lyons, France to finance a small police lab.
Locard is perhaps best known today for his ___
when a criminal came in contact with another object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occured, primarily of hairs and fibers
expanded upon the discovery that blood can be grouped into 4 different categories: A,B,AB and O.
Leon Lattes- professor of medicine in Turin, Italy.
who devised a procedure for determining the blood group from dried bloodstains and applied this tech to criminal investigations
Who's determination of whether a fired bullet originating from suspects weapon required a comparison with a bullet that had been fired and retrieved from suspects gun
Goddard refined the tech for making these determinations by using ____
a comparison microscope
1985, discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at Leicester Univ, England.
DNA discovery gave the scientific community a meand to link biological evidence such as
blood, semen, hair, and tissue to a single indiv.
According to the US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, there are over ___police Depts and over ___sheriffs depts in US
Police dept and sheriff dept employ over ___ sworn officers
Vast majority of officers, ____are employed by city police dept
Oldest federal law enforcement agency, created in 1789
Marshal's Service- OK Corral in Tombstone,Ar 1881
Marshals guarded first African American student at Ole Miss in 1962
Roots back to 1830, Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations
Postal Inspection Service-1880 the title of special agent was changed by Congress to post office inspector. 1954 changed to Postal Inspector
1984, the service was given responsibility of investigating the use of mail to distribute child porn.
They were a key component of multi-agency task force with investigating the Unabomber case
created in 1865 to suppress counterfeiting of US currency.
Secret Service-1902 responsible for protecting President following the assissination of Pres McKinley. They protect vice pres, major pres candidates, pres immediate family, former pres
1902 congress passed legislation making federal crimes on use of fraudelent credit cards and debit.
Who investigates these crimes
Secret Service investigates these crime and others; federal-interest computer fraud, fraudulent identification documents such as passports.
patriot act in 2001
nationwide electronic crimes taskforce to detect and suppress computer-based crimes. Secret Service investigate these.
Since 2003, Secret Service has been under the ____
Dept of Homeland Security. since the reorganization, the agency as made over 29,000 arrests, seized over $295 millon in couterfeit currency and closed crimes cases where actual losses amounted to $3.7 billion
created in 1908, they investigated crimes involving banking, bankruptcy, naturalization, anitrust, and land fraud.
First major expansion came in 1910 when FBI became responsible for the enforcment of the ___
Mann Act-prohibits transportation of women over state lines for immoral purposes.
With the entry of WW 1, FBI acquired responsibility for the investigation and enforcement of ___
Espionage Act, Selective Service Act, Sabotage Act
In 1924, who became the director of the FBI.
J. Edgar Hoover. remained director until his death in 1972.
Facts about FBI
1932- the Bureau established it crime laboratory
1935- agency changed its name from the Bureau of Investigation to FBI.
this agency is a tax-collecting, enforcement and regulatory arm of US Dept of Treasury
ATF-Bureua of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.
ATF- one of youngest tax-collecting agencies,
1972- seperated from the IRS
Traced it roots back 200 yrs when Congress first imposed a tax on imported spirits.
1863- Congress authorized hiring detectives to aid in prevention, detection and punishment of tax evaders.
1875- federal investigators broke up the "Whiskey Ring" an assoc of grain dealers, politicians, revenue agents who had defrauded the gov.
ratification of the 18th Amend to Constitution in 1919
banned manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors in this country. "T-men", short for treasury men, involved in the enforcement, Eliot Ness. Ness brought down Chicago gangster Al Capone.
1982 Congress passed the Anti-Arson Act
declaring that arson is a federal crime and gave ATF the responsibility for investigating those crimes.
President Nixon through an executive order created this agencey
DEA- of its formation the agency had 1470 agents
and budget of 75 million.
Today, agency has over 5,000 agents and budget in excess of $2 billon.