Criminal Inv-Chapter 1, Evolution of Policing and Investigation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 1, Evolution of Policing and Investigation Deck (83):
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Authors

Charles A Lushbaugh-retired Lt. Sacramento County Sheriffs Dept, Lecturer at California State Univ,
Paul B Weston- deceased

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Edition is dedicated

daughter Jennifer and son David and their boys; Scott, Miles and Desmond

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Evolution of Policing and Investigation

Chapter 1

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Police agencies first being formed in this country were modelled after the___

London Metropolitan Police

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Before there was a criminal justice system, individual citizens played a much larger role in providing for______________

his own personal protection and dealing with any crime victimization.

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principle of Posse Comitatus

means power or force of the community to enforce laws

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hearings of the accused when before a disinterested third party, typically the ___

local lord or magistrate

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This statute was passed requiring all towns to have men on the streets after dark to provide safety

1285 Statute of Winchester
due to populations increased and cities and towns grew, the small tight-knit agrarian community failed to control crime

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All able bodies males were required to serve on a rotational basis, without pay.

night watchmen

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watchman were supervised by

constable-also a private citizen, who served a voluntary one-year term

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The statute also required citizens to come to the aid of the night watchmen whenever they gave ----for assistance

hue and cry

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statute required all males between the ages of ___ and ____ to keep arms for the purpose of rendering aid and subdue offenders

15 and 60

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Parliament, in 1689 established _____ for the conviction of crimes.

rewards

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1750 the reward for the conviction of a robbery suspect was increased to ____

140 pounds, a sum equal to three to four year of income for a skilled workman

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motivated by the reward money and their ability to confiscate the possessions of criminal, often criminals themselves

thief-takers- system of reward gave the thief-takers a bad reputation and some suspected of encouraging crimes for purpose of solving them

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1748 crime had increased in England and it capital, London, was recognized as one of the most dangerous cities in Europe. Same year, former novelist, playwright and attorney was named magistrate for the Bow Street court

Henry Fielding.

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was known as one of the worst crime ridden areas in Londaon

Bow Street

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who organized a group of former constables and thief-takers to carry out investigations and bring suspect to trial and what was the name they came to be known?

Henry Fielding
runners

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who took over after Henry Fielding passed away in 1754

his brother, John Fielding

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John Fielding organized mounted patrols, foot patrols in streets and employed between how many officers to patrol Bow Street area

300 and 400 officers

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Fielding established the Police Gazette to serve what purpose

encouraged victims to report crimes
victims would recieve assitance from runners in the investigations of crimes.
published info about criminal activity, names and description of wanted criminals

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how long did John Fielding served as magistrate of the Bow Street court

25 years- was knighted for his efforts in crime fighting.

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John Fielding is considered to be the ____

Father of modern police detective.

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in ___ became the British Home Secretary,

1822, Robert Peel

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British Home Secretary was responsible for ___

internal security of England.

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1829 Peel presented a reform bill that started __

Londons Metropolitan Police

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officers came on duty in ___

September 1829

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Turnover was high largely due to ____

improper conduct

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the "peelers" who were both feared and hated soon became the ____

bobbies- a names used in reference to Robert Peel and a term of respect and appreciation.

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Known today as the Father of policing and would go on to become the Prime Minister of England and knighted for his service to his country

Robert Peel

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much like England, the ____ ___ system of policing in the United States was overwhelmed with crime as a result of ____ and ____

night-watch
urbanization and immigration

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Riots in the major cities such as ___,___ and __ showed that the time for police had come.

Philadelphia
Boston
new york

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1845 the city of ___established a police force modelled after the London Metropolitan Police

New York

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early police depts in America were formed at city level of government. These cities were under control of corrupt political machines operating under the ____

spoils system

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Spoils system

politicians extorted money from people and companies wanting to due business with city.
this influence corrupted the new police dept as well

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Under the "spoils system", formed of _____ existed, whereby an applicant had to have political friends to become a police officer

patronage

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Chief advocate of reforming the police was

August Vollmer- Chief of police in Berkley, CA from 1905-1932

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Vollmer and other reformers advocated the following agenda:

1. Policing should be professional that serves community on a non partison basis
2. politics should be eliminated from policing
3. Law Enf agencies should be headed by qualified chief executive
4. Law Enf agencies should raise the hiring and training standards for new recruits
5. Agencies should apply modern management principles and advocate centralized command and control of police operations
6. Agencies should create specialized units such as traffic, juvenile and vice

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To accomplish the goals of these reformers, reformers advocated the use of _____for selection and promotion of police personnel.

Civil Service System

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Vollmer wrote extensivley about police and became _____during the 1920s

president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police

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____ is considered to be the Father of modern policing in America

Vollmer

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a major social event that had tremendous impact on moving policing towards professionalism

Great Depression of 1930s

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The use of science to answer legal questions is known as

forensics

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the application of scientific techniques in collecting and analyzing physical evidence.

criminalistics

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Father of forensic toxicology

Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853)- study of effects of poisons

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earliest advocate of criminal investigation as a science was

Hans Gross (1848-1915)- professor of criminology at Univ of Vienna.

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Gross published ______1906

System der Kriminalistik (Criminal Investigation)
H

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Gross greatest contribution to the introduction of science in criminal investigation was the advocacy of

a parallel system of inquiry based on the crime scene

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___developed the first means of human identification known as "anthropometry"

Alphonse Bertillon- measurements of various parts of body along with photograph.

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Bertillon system worked well for over two decades until unraveled by the ____

Will West case in 1903

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Bertillon's system was replaced by the identificaiton of individuals through ___

fingerprints

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who is still considered to be the Father of criminal identification

Alphonse Bertillon

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provided the first definitive study of fingerprints in his book "Finger Prints"

Francis Galton

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authored in 1910, the first significant text in the field of questioned documents.

Albert S Osborn- repsonsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by courts

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Founder and director of Institute of Criminalistics at University of Lyons.

Edmond Locard- he pursuaded the police dept in Lyons, France to finance a small police lab.

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Locard is perhaps best known today for his ___

exchange principle

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when a criminal came in contact with another object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occured, primarily of hairs and fibers

exchange principle

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expanded upon the discovery that blood can be grouped into 4 different categories: A,B,AB and O.

Leon Lattes- professor of medicine in Turin, Italy.

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who devised a procedure for determining the blood group from dried bloodstains and applied this tech to criminal investigations

Leon Lattes

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Who's determination of whether a fired bullet originating from suspects weapon required a comparison with a bullet that had been fired and retrieved from suspects gun

Calvin Goddard-

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Goddard refined the tech for making these determinations by using ____

a comparison microscope

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1985, discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at Leicester Univ, England.

Alec Jeffreys

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DNA discovery gave the scientific community a meand to link biological evidence such as

blood, semen, hair, and tissue to a single indiv.

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According to the US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, there are over ___police Depts and over ___sheriffs depts in US

12,600 pd
3000 sheriff

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Police dept and sheriff dept employ over ___ sworn officers

600,000

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Vast majority of officers, ____are employed by city police dept

73 percent

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Oldest federal law enforcement agency, created in 1789

Marshal's Service- OK Corral in Tombstone,Ar 1881
Marshals guarded first African American student at Ole Miss in 1962

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Roots back to 1830, Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations

Postal Inspection Service-1880 the title of special agent was changed by Congress to post office inspector. 1954 changed to Postal Inspector
1984, the service was given responsibility of investigating the use of mail to distribute child porn.
They were a key component of multi-agency task force with investigating the Unabomber case

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created in 1865 to suppress counterfeiting of US currency.

Secret Service-1902 responsible for protecting President following the assissination of Pres McKinley. They protect vice pres, major pres candidates, pres immediate family, former pres

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1902 congress passed legislation making federal crimes on use of fraudelent credit cards and debit.
Who investigates these crimes

Secret Service investigates these crime and others; federal-interest computer fraud, fraudulent identification documents such as passports.

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patriot act in 2001

nationwide electronic crimes taskforce to detect and suppress computer-based crimes. Secret Service investigate these.

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Since 2003, Secret Service has been under the ____

Dept of Homeland Security. since the reorganization, the agency as made over 29,000 arrests, seized over $295 millon in couterfeit currency and closed crimes cases where actual losses amounted to $3.7 billion

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created in 1908, they investigated crimes involving banking, bankruptcy, naturalization, anitrust, and land fraud.

FBI-

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First major expansion came in 1910 when FBI became responsible for the enforcment of the ___

Mann Act-prohibits transportation of women over state lines for immoral purposes.

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With the entry of WW 1, FBI acquired responsibility for the investigation and enforcement of ___

Espionage Act, Selective Service Act, Sabotage Act

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In 1924, who became the director of the FBI.

J. Edgar Hoover. remained director until his death in 1972.

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Facts about FBI

1932- the Bureau established it crime laboratory
1935- agency changed its name from the Bureau of Investigation to FBI.

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this agency is a tax-collecting, enforcement and regulatory arm of US Dept of Treasury

ATF-Bureua of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.
ATF- one of youngest tax-collecting agencies,
1972- seperated from the IRS

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Traced it roots back 200 yrs when Congress first imposed a tax on imported spirits.

ATF
1863- Congress authorized hiring detectives to aid in prevention, detection and punishment of tax evaders.
1875- federal investigators broke up the "Whiskey Ring" an assoc of grain dealers, politicians, revenue agents who had defrauded the gov.

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ratification of the 18th Amend to Constitution in 1919

banned manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors in this country. "T-men", short for treasury men, involved in the enforcement, Eliot Ness. Ness brought down Chicago gangster Al Capone.

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1982 Congress passed the Anti-Arson Act

declaring that arson is a federal crime and gave ATF the responsibility for investigating those crimes.

82

President Nixon through an executive order created this agencey

DEA- of its formation the agency had 1470 agents
and budget of 75 million.
Today, agency has over 5,000 agents and budget in excess of $2 billon.

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what agency has eighty-seven foreign offices in sixty-three countries around the world

DEA