Criminal Inv-Chapter 6, Basic Investigative Leads and Informants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 6, Basic Investigative Leads and Informants Deck (32):

Active Informtion

leads to the establishment of a group of suspects


Passive information

a group of suspects has been developed


fingerprints found at crime scenes reveal the

opportunity or presence factor


modus operandi of a criminal is

his or her signature


National Crime Information Center -NCIC

computer system dedicated to law enforcement thru out US, Mexico and Canada. First in operation in 1967 with 2.5 million inquires first year. Today, 2.5 million inquires a day


1994 Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violence Offender Registration ACT.

in honor of 11 yr old Jacob Wetterling who was kidnapped in Minnesota. Requires states create sex offender registries.


1996 Wetterling Act was amended by establishing

a national sex offender database maintained by FBI


first state to pass an offender registration law in 1947

CAlifornia. requires convicted arsonist, drug dealers and sex offenders to register. Drug offender reg. terminates 5 yrs after discharge. Sex offender and arson is lifetime


as long as photographs show 5 or 10 suspects of various types and origins, the practice does not

destroy the validity of future testimony of these witnesses



consists of several hundred plastic slides containing photo reporductions of one small portion of human face: hairsyle, forehead, eyes etc.
composite sketch of suspect


6 types of relationships that form strong personal linkage between person engaged in crim activity

Neighborhood friendship, Juvenile hall and prison,
family relationships, coethnic contacts, buyer-seller interaction, lovers


basic-lead informant

motivated to divulge info to investigator for multitude of reasons.


participant informant

they participate directly in gathering sufficient evidence to warrant an arrest..


special employee- type of informant

paid a fee set in advance for this work. is hired because of knowledge or friendship among local drug sellers


shill- acts as a decoy. informants have been used as shills

in sting operations, aimed at discovering burglars and thieves and recovering stolen property. informant sells property to police playing undercover buyers in order to lure real theives in


Sting operation in Chicago, known as ABSCAM

FBI used participant informants to uncover political corruption. prosecuted US senator, 6 member of US House Rep, several local public officials in Pennsyv, New Jersey


accomplice witness

person liable to prosecution for identical offense. in return for cooperation, prose team offers leniencey


US Supreme Court US v Knotts

noted that scientific enhancement of the beeper raised no constitutional issues that would not be raised by visual surveillance


Audio surveillance

wiretapping and electronic eavsdropping . US Supreme crt called in "dirty business"


Dalia v US 1979

Court ruled, they find no basis for a consitutional rule proscribing all covert entries


US v Katz, 1967

doctrine established that such eavesdropping may properly be conducted under court supervision similiar to procedures now available to police in securing search warrants and warrants of arrest


Consensual electronic surveillance

also known as Participant monitoring.. One consenting party is wired for recording


Contact surveillance

fluorescent preparations to stain a persons hands or clothing upon contact and be observable proof f a connection betwwen stained person and object under surveil.


Title III of Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act--Title III

1968, Congress codified the requirements for obtaining court authority to intercept oral and wire communications.


1994, Title III was amended when Congress passed

Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement ACT - CALEA.


police intelligence process is "cyclical

series of linked activities beginning with the need of users and ending with intelligence reports to specific users.


proactive investitation

based on info provided by informants, co-conspirators and intel gathering activities or data on ongoing crimes.


three different types of lineups

field lineup, photographic lineup,physical lineup.


1972 US Supreme crt determined in US v Wade

lineup is a critical stage of proceedings against defendant and defendant has a right to counsel at these lineups.


____ and _____ are broad areas of investigation basic to any crime.

Motive and opportunity


A diamond fraud case involving no less than $5,500,000, the mastermind,___ ____ ordered two of his crime partners killed (his accountant and her assistant).

Irwin Margolies


Contact surveillance techniques cont. Types

*Tracer preparation- ultraviolet spectrum and become visible only under ultraviolet light
*Tracer paste- good for objects exposed to weather and examined under ultraviolet light
*Felt pens- tracer marking of objects; money or merchandise
*Dye powder- invisible when dry, comes visible when wet