Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 6, Basic Investigative Leads and Informants Deck (32):
leads to the establishment of a group of suspects
a group of suspects has been developed
fingerprints found at crime scenes reveal the
opportunity or presence factor
modus operandi of a criminal is
his or her signature
National Crime Information Center -NCIC
computer system dedicated to law enforcement thru out US, Mexico and Canada. First in operation in 1967 with 2.5 million inquires first year. Today, 2.5 million inquires a day
1994 Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violence Offender Registration ACT.
in honor of 11 yr old Jacob Wetterling who was kidnapped in Minnesota. Requires states create sex offender registries.
1996 Wetterling Act was amended by establishing
a national sex offender database maintained by FBI
first state to pass an offender registration law in 1947
CAlifornia. requires convicted arsonist, drug dealers and sex offenders to register. Drug offender reg. terminates 5 yrs after discharge. Sex offender and arson is lifetime
as long as photographs show 5 or 10 suspects of various types and origins, the practice does not
destroy the validity of future testimony of these witnesses
consists of several hundred plastic slides containing photo reporductions of one small portion of human face: hairsyle, forehead, eyes etc.
composite sketch of suspect
6 types of relationships that form strong personal linkage between person engaged in crim activity
Neighborhood friendship, Juvenile hall and prison,
family relationships, coethnic contacts, buyer-seller interaction, lovers
motivated to divulge info to investigator for multitude of reasons.
they participate directly in gathering sufficient evidence to warrant an arrest..
special employee- type of informant
paid a fee set in advance for this work. is hired because of knowledge or friendship among local drug sellers
shill- acts as a decoy. informants have been used as shills
in sting operations, aimed at discovering burglars and thieves and recovering stolen property. informant sells property to police playing undercover buyers in order to lure real theives in
Sting operation in Chicago, known as ABSCAM
FBI used participant informants to uncover political corruption. prosecuted US senator, 6 member of US House Rep, several local public officials in Pennsyv, New Jersey
person liable to prosecution for identical offense. in return for cooperation, prose team offers leniencey
US Supreme Court US v Knotts
noted that scientific enhancement of the beeper raised no constitutional issues that would not be raised by visual surveillance
wiretapping and electronic eavsdropping . US Supreme crt called in "dirty business"
Dalia v US 1979
Court ruled, they find no basis for a consitutional rule proscribing all covert entries
US v Katz, 1967
doctrine established that such eavesdropping may properly be conducted under court supervision similiar to procedures now available to police in securing search warrants and warrants of arrest
Consensual electronic surveillance
also known as Participant monitoring.. One consenting party is wired for recording
fluorescent preparations to stain a persons hands or clothing upon contact and be observable proof f a connection betwwen stained person and object under surveil.
Title III of Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act--Title III
1968, Congress codified the requirements for obtaining court authority to intercept oral and wire communications.
1994, Title III was amended when Congress passed
Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement ACT - CALEA.
police intelligence process is "cyclical
series of linked activities beginning with the need of users and ending with intelligence reports to specific users.
based on info provided by informants, co-conspirators and intel gathering activities or data on ongoing crimes.
three different types of lineups
field lineup, photographic lineup,physical lineup.
1972 US Supreme crt determined in US v Wade
lineup is a critical stage of proceedings against defendant and defendant has a right to counsel at these lineups.
____ and _____ are broad areas of investigation basic to any crime.
Motive and opportunity
A diamond fraud case involving no less than $5,500,000, the mastermind,___ ____ ordered two of his crime partners killed (his accountant and her assistant).