Criminal Inv-Chapter 8, Crimes of Violence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 8, Crimes of Violence Deck (53):
1

First Degree murder

premeditated killing of another human being with malice or wrongful intent. If death occurs as result of commission of a felony, such as arson, robbery, burglary, sexual asslt, then felony murder would apply, without intent or premeditation

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second degree murder

killing of another without the element of premeditation

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Manslaughter

unlawful killing of another without malice or premeditation either voluntarily or involuntarily.

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voluntary manslaughter

killing that is done in the heat of passion

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involuntary manslaughter

when death occurs while perpetrator was involved in commission of unlawful act not amounting to felony, such as DWI

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Corpus delicti of criminal homicide

death of a human being
of a criminal agency
that a criminal agency was the proximate cause of death

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criminal agency

means that the death was caused by another person's unlawful act or omission

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FBI Uniform Crime Reporting program estimated in 2008 how many people murdered nationwide

16272. Decrease of 4 percent from previous year

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Number of person murdered equates to

5.4 murders per one hundred thousand inhabitants

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___percent of these murders are cleared by arrest or an exceptional clearance

64 percent

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suspicious death investigations

Police investigate all cases in which circumstances of death indicate violence or foul play- that is,some criminal agency

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Detection of criminal homicide is based on finding answers to 4 classic questions

what was cause of death
what were the means (agency) that caused death
was the homicide excusable or justifiable
who was responsible for causing death

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in suspicious death cases, it is duty of ___ ___to make certain that an examination conducted in a police laboratory

police investigator

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areas of the body showing lividity indicate

the position after death

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pathologists classify and report the nature of wounds

incised wounds-spindle shaped in stabbing, linear in cutting
lacerated wound-irregularly edged, some tearing
contusions-bruises, discoloration , hematoma
abrasions- scratches, trivila wounds
gunshot wounds
antemorten or postmortem
age of wound- signs of healing or decay
opinion about wound- accidental, homicidal, hesitation, suicide and defense

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what indicates the time of death in on the scene exam.

body temperature, lividity and rigor mortis

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what affords the pathologist a means of fixing the time of death within reasonable limits

general appearance of body and its stomach contents

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toxicologist

detection of chemical, physical and biological toxins

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window of death

activity in which the victim was engaged prior to or at the time of death can be timed within reasonable limits

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algor mortis

after death the body begins to cool until it reaches ambient air temperature. Occures within 18 to 20 hrs. Algor mortis is considered to be one of more reliable indicators of time of death.

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rigor mortis

biochemical changes in body after death produce stiffening of muscles. appears within 2 to 6 hours. begins in jaw and neck and proceeds to trunk and extremities. complete within 6 to 12 hrs. Rigidity remains for 2 to 3 days and disappears in same order.

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postmortem lividity

when blood stops circulating, it begins to settle to the lowest portion of body. noticeable approx within 1 hr after death and fully developed within 3 to 4 hrs.

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Lividity

blue or reddish marks on skin. Fresh livid stains are not produced by a change in position 12 hrs after death

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lividity discoloration provides two types of info

degree of discoloration is an indicator of time of death and
indicate a change of position or movement of the body after death

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decomposition or putrefaction

begins at time of death as a result of two processes autolysis and bacterial action

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autolysis

occurs by chemical breakdown of body that results in softening and liquefaction of body tissue

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bacterial action

converts body tissue into liquids and gases. Within 24 hrs, discoloration of skin is noticeable. greenish-red or blue-green color change is within 36 hrs. Bacterial action produces gases that cause body to swell and produce nasty odor

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insects feed on dead bodies

can reduce a body to skeletal remains in less than two months.

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forensic entomologist

specialist in insects. Can determine how long a body has been exposed to the action of insects

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exhumation

must have court order.

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multicide

killing of a number of victims by one or more persons working in concert. Mass murders, spree murders and serial murder are the various types of multicide

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Mass Murder`

homicide of 4 or more victims during a single event at one location

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spree murder

killing of 3 or more persons within a relatively short time frame. so-called DC sniper

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serial killers

murders 2 or more seperate murders when an individual , acting alone or with another, commits multipel homicides over a period of time with time breaks between each murder.

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types of serial murderers
visionary serial killer

propelled to kill by voices he hears or visions or sees. psychotic.

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mission serial killer

feels need on conscious level to eradicate a certain group of people. ex Prostitutes, religious or racial grp

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hedonistic serial killer

lust killer or thrill killer- killer has made a connection between personal violence and sexual gratification. Murder for pleasure, killing for them eroticized experience.

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comfort-oriented serial murderer

who kills for personal gain. Professional assassins and people who kill for personal gain fall under the hedonistic serial killer

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power and control serial killer

sexual gratification from complete domination of his victim. By dominating his victims, he experiences a sexual pleasure. Psychologically rooted in reality: a true sociopath who lives by his own personal rules and guidelines

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organized offenders

above average intelligence. methodical and cunning. Well thought out and carefully planned. Mobile and travel many miles. Fantasy and ritual are important. Select their victims, usually stranters. Considered socially adept. they take souvenirs

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disorganized offenders

inadequate individuals who are experiencing intense sadistic sexual fantasies and suddenly act out these fantasies on victim of opportunity. below average intel. Generally are loners.

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clustered crime scene

where most of activities take place at one location: confrontation, attack, the assault and sexual activity

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Violent Criminal Apprehension Program-VICAP

clearinghouse for infor regarding serial killers. Administered by FBI

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Battered child syndrome

cases of child abuse brought to the attention of police or discovered by them .

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burn injuries make up about ___percent of all child abuse cases.

10 percent

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deliberate immersion burn

depth of burn is uniform. Wound borders are very distinct

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Contact burns

caused by flames or hot solid objects. Cigarette and iron burns are most frequent

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shaken baby syndrome

children 18 months or younger. caused by violent sustained shaking action, infants head is whipped violently forward and backward. Symptoms is seizures or unconsciousness within minutes of injury. result may be respiratory arrest or death

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retinal hemorrhage

bleeding in back of eyeballs, associated with shaken baby syndrome.

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munchausen syndrome

psychological disorder in which patients fabricates symptoms of disease or injury in order to undergo medical test.

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munchausen sydrome by proxy

parent or caretaker suffers from this disorder attempts to bring medial attention to themselves by injuring or inducing illness in their children

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sudden infant death syndrome

diangosis made when no other medical explanation can account for the abrupt death of an apparent healthy infant. rarely occurs in infants older than 7 mths and almost never is an appropriate finding for a child older than 12 mths

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suspicious death concept

more than "foul play is suspected". It is a classification of certain unexplained deaths so that they will be investigated until each the circumstances indicate that death was due to natural, accidental or self-inflicted causes or the criminal agency is determined and the criminal agent is identified