Flashcards in Crowded Coasts Deck (135)
Where is Lyme Regis located?
West Dorset, Jurassic Coastline
What SMP is Lyme Regis part of?
Lyme Bay and South Devon SMP
What sediment cell is Lyme Regis?
Sediment Cell 6 from Portland Bill to Land's End
What is the rate of coastal erosion at Lyme Regis?
0.6m per year
Where is Black Ven relative to Lyme Regis?
When did Black Ven undergo a significant landslip event and how much land did it lose?
400m lost from Black Ven in 2008
What rock types are present in Lyme Regis?
Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic
Describe how rock type and geology/topography is a major issue for Lyme Regis.
The less resistant clays sit on top of more resistant limestone on a horizontally dipped bedding plane. During periods of heavy rainfall, lubrication results in slippage along this bedding plane.
How many properties are at risk of coastal retreat in Lyme Regis?
What other event signifies that coastal erosion is a major issue in Lyme Regis?
Subsidence in Langmoor + Lister Garden car parks.
How much sand was imported for beach replenishment in Lyme Regis? Where from?
240,000 tonnes from Normandy
How was the land behind the beach at Lyme Regis stabilised to prevent cliff collapse?
1,000 deep-bored pins + planting schemes for biological stabilisation
What was done to The Cobb in Lyme Regis?
Cobb extended with multiple 18-tonne boulders (imported from Norway) known as Beacon Rocks.
What was been done in central Lyme Regis to protect the coastline?
There is a new masonry jetty and a new promenade/sea wall.
What is the most recent major coastal defence project to have taken place in Lyme Regis? How big is it? How much did it cost? Who helped pay for it?
A 390m sea wall was built for £19.5m using £14.6m from DEFRA and £600k from West Dorset District Council.
What is the total value of property in Lyme Regis?
What did they do in Lyme Regis to reduce sediment starvation at Black Ven?
They realigned the north wall rockery to allow the sediment to move west to east over to Black Ven.
How properties does Lyme Regis have?
532 properties in Lyme Regis
What is the total cost of coastal defences in Lyme Regis?
What is the benefit to cost ratio in Lyme Regis?
6 to 1
Where is Swanage?
South East Dorset
What SMP is Swanage part of?
Poole and Christchurch Two Bays SMP
What is Swanage's sediment cell?
Sediment Cell 5 from Portland Bill to Selsey Bill
What is the benefit to cost ratio expected by DEFRA?
DEFRA expect a benefit to cost ratio of 5 to 1.
How much material is lost to coastal erosion each year and which organisation produced this figure?
Halcrow Group, an engineering firm, estimate 500 cubic metres are being lost from Swanage each year.
What type of rock is Swanage built upon?
Swanage is built on top of Wealden Clay cliffs.
What sub-aerial and mass movement processes make Swanage's coast vulnerable?
- Wealden Clay cliffs
- Gullying (flowing water erodes soil)
- Groundwater seepage (water seeps out the ground to provide lubrication)
- This results in translational slides
Give an incidence of cliff collapse in Swanage.
In 2012 a collapse on the Wealden Clay cliffs resulted in The Pine Hotel losing 15m of land as well as its beer garden.
When was Swanage's sea wall built?
How many groynes does Swanage have? When were they first built?
Swanage has 18 groynes that were first built in the 1930s
How much sand was imported for beach replenishment in Swanage? Where from?
128,000 cubic metres of sand imported from Poole Harbour
How have the cliffs been stabilised in Swanage?
12 metre soil nails have been placed in cliff around area of The Pine Hotel and Grand Hotel
How has the risk of translational slides been reduced in Swanage?
Cliff regrading has taken place to reduce gradient/steepness of topography and therefore reduce risk of slides.
What happened to Swanage's groynes? When and how much?
In 2006, 18 groynes were rebuilt with fresh timber using £2.2m.
What is the total cost of defences in Swanage?
How many properties/hotels does Swanage have that are at risk from coastal erosion?
84 properties and 4 hotels
What is the total value of land/property protected by Swanage's coastal defences?
When was ICZM first established? Where was it established? In what report and sub-section?
ICZM was born in the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and specifically defined in Chapter 21 of the UNDP.
How much rainfall did Swanage experienced in the Winter 2012 that contributed to landslides?
What major urban site is Studland close to?
The conurbation of Poole and Bournemouth
How biodiverse is Studland?
Richest 1,000 hectares of wildflower in the UK, as well as all six reptile species
How can tourists easily get to Studland?
£3.80 ferry from sand banks
What is the rate of coastal erosion on the southern half of the Studland peninsula?
Losing 1m a year
What is the rate of coastal deposition on the northern half of the Studland peninsula?
Gaining 1.5m a year
What is the official policy of the National Trust at Studland?
Managed re-alignment to prevent disruption of coast's dynamic equilibrium
What term describes Studland's role in the local economy.
How many visitors does Studland receive each year?
1.5 million visitors a year
How many people does the National Trust employ full time at Studland?
How many people does the National Trust employ during Summer at Studland?
How does Studland's cafe help the local economy?
- Stocks from local suppliers such as Purbeck Icecream
- Multiplier effect
How many car parks does Studland have?
How many beach huts does Studland have?
How much does the National Trust rent its beach huts for at Studland?
£890 per year
What is the name of Studland's oil field?
Wytch Farm Oil Field
Who operates Studland's oil field?
Perenco (previously operated by BP)
How many people does Wytch Oil Field employ and how many barrels of oil does it produce?
440 people at 15,000 barrels a day
How was the potential conflict between the Wytch Oil Field and environment/tourism reduced?
- Machinery painted brown
- Extraction columns split in two for lower height
- Gas vessels embedded into ground
- Hot oil used over water so no visible steam
- Coniferous forest planted to hide field
- Site will be completely dissembled in 2037
What fire event recently caused major damage in Studland?
In April 2010, a fire destroyed 10 hectares of heathland.
How has the National Trust managed fire risk at Studland?
- Barbecue zones
- Signs with warnings
On a busy weekend, how much litter does Studland accumulate?
What percentage of visitors in Studland travel by car?
How has the problem of congestion been managed by the National Trust at Studland?
- Capacity of car parks increased by 800 spaces in 2010
- NT encourages people to use Sandbanks Ferry
What habitat is destroyed by boat anchors at Studland? Which species does this hurt?
Seagrass meadows are scraped up for anchors. This habitat is vital for Studland's spiny-tailed seahorses (vulnerable on ICUN Red List)
What stage is the National Trust purposefully maintaining the sand dune system at in Studland? Why?
Pagioclimax - this is the stage whereby humans stop the sand dune from succeeding further. The NT do this in Studland to maintain the specific heathland for its rare reptile species.
What evidence suggests that Studland's sand dunes are under pressure?
Lyme grass, the first coloniser species in the system, is returning to some sand dunes. This suggests the system is under pressure and is regressing to earlier stages.
By how much do scientists predict sea levels will rise by 2080?
What event happened in 1953? What damage did it cause?
- 1953 North Sea flood caused by storm surge
- £1.2bn in damage
- 224 deaths
- 24,000 properties damaged
How much has salt marsh territory decreased over the past 25 years?
Salt marshes have receded by 40% over the last 25 years
What construction projects are planned for the Thames Gateway?
- Construction of 160,000 new homes
- New airport planned to be built on salt marsh
- New university campus and shopping mall
How much would an 'outer' barrier to protect the Thames Gateway cost?
What alternative option is there to prevent flooding in the Thames Gateway?
Managed re-alignment (see Abbott's Hall Farm)
In how many places was the sea wall at Abbott's Hall Farm breached? When did this happen?
5 separate places in 2002
What process is occurring in the UK that means sea levels are rising in South East England?
Glacial isostatiac adjustment (glaciostasy) whereby the melting of ice in Scotland is causing a rebound/uplift in the north and a 'sinking' in the south.
When was the Abbott's Hall Farm sea wall first build? And why?
300 years ago to reclaim land
What were the two main consequences of managed re-alignment at Abbott's Hall Farm?
- 200 acres of mudflat and salt marsh created
- Pressure reduced on sea wall at Blackwater Estuary
What action did the government take regarding a Severn Barrage in 2008?
Government launched a Tidal Power Feasibility Study that investigated all the proposals for tidal power on the Severn.
How much would a Cardiff-Weston tidal barrage cost?
How many seabirds rely on the Severn Estuary's mudflats and salt marshes?
65,000 sea birds (10 of national importance)
What percentage of UK trade happens from the Severn Estuary's docks?
What is the size of the Great Barrier Reef?
340,000 square kilometres
How many types of fish rely on the Great Barrier Reef?
How many species of birds rely on the Great Barrier Reef?
How many tourists does the Great Barrier Reef attract each year? How much money does this generate each year?
2 million tourists generating $5bn in Australian dollars
How much money does the Great Barrier Reef produce in fishing each year?
What percent of coral reefs have been irreversibly damaged in the Great Barrier Reef?
What is the main cause of damage at the Great Barrier Reef?
Agriculture chemicals cause increase in algae population, increasing the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the water and therefore killing the coral.
What is the population of Poole?
In 1900, how many workers in Poole were employed in the natural harbour?
How big is Poole's natural harbour?
Largest in Europe
What is the historical reason for Poole being a crowded coast?
It was a mercantile shipping port used in the 1700s and had more ships trading with North America than any other English port.
In 2000, what percentage of people in Poole worked in the natural harbour?
What ferries run from Poole?
- Tourist routes to places such as Brownsea Island
- Cross-channel ferries to Cherbourg in France.
What is Bournemouth's population?
Between 1995 and 2008, by what percent did Bournemouth's population grow?
What is the name of the conurbation of Poole and Bournemouth?
South East Dorset Conurbanation
When and why did Bournemouth become a popular resort in the 1800s?
Bournemouth West railway station constructed in 1874 opened up the resort to Londoners.
Population rose from 17,000 to 60,000 by 1900 as a result.
Give an example of Bournemouth shifting toward a tertiary sector economy.
Barclays Bank has an IT centre based in the town.
What is the average temperature in Florida?
75 degree fahrenheit
How many miles of beach does Florida have?
What is the annual value of saltwater fishing in Florida?
What national park is located on the Florida coastline?
Everglades National Park
What endangered species is located in Florida's Evergdlades National Park
The Florida Panther
In the 1970s, by what percent did Florida's population grow?
What percentage of people in Flordia live by the coast?
What is the total value of coastal property in Florida?
How much has the Florida Everglades shrunk?
What secondary source would you use to find geological data on Swanage (e.g. topographical, or geological maps)?
British Geographical Society (www.bgs.ac.uk)
What secondary source would you use to access census data and other government collected statistics?
Office of National Statistics (www.ons.gov.uk)
What secondary source would you use to find crime statistics?
What secondary source would you use to discover the SMP's strategy for managing Swanage?
Poole and Christchurch SMP (www.twobays.net)
What website would you use to find historical documents and information from Swanage?
What website would you use to find historical maps to compare with our current choropleth land use map?
In our stratified questionnaire of Swanage, how many people were sampled?
What was the mean score for the question 'Do you think Swanage has improved over last 50 yrs?'
6.6 (with 0 being got worse and 10 being massively improved)
What was the mean score for the question 'Do you think the coastal defences are effective in defending Swanage?'
6.4 (with 0 being not effective and 10 being perfectly effective)
What was the mean score for the question 'How attractive do you think the coastal defences are?'
6.3 (with 0 being unattractive and 10 being very attractive)
In 1902, what the biggest part of Swanage's economy as evidenced by the 1902 OS map?
Mining - specifically, the mining and exporting of Purbeck Limestone.
This is evidenced by the appearance of tram lines on the 1902 OS map (old-maps.co.uk) and old photographs (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
According to Dorset County Council's Purbeck Labour Market Profile, what percentage of people in Swanage work in 'distribution, accommodation and food'? What does this suggest?
Suggests shift toward tertiary sector
What are the limitations of our choropleth land use mapping?
- Single plane view means multi-story buildings with multi-functions not taken into account.
- Some buildings have mixed functions, so can't be put in single category
In December 2010, how many crimes were reported in Swanage? In July 2015, how many crimes were reported in Swanage? What does this suggest?
75 reported in 2010, and just 55 reported in 2015.
This suggests fall in crime, but might not be reliable as crime varies month to month.
According to Rightmove.co.uk, how much have property prices risen in Swanage between 2007 and 2014?
10% increase in average hosue prices
According to a Met Office investigation and report, why has cliff stabilisation failed in Swanage?
- Cliffs owned by 70 different landowners, so can't co-ordinate defences.
- Parts of cliff (e.g. Sheps Hollow) are SSSI so cannot be hard engineered.
In our sediment measurements eitherside of each of the groynes, what was the result? What can we infer?
- 95% of groynes had greater sediment build-up on southern side of groyne
- Shows groynes are effective at trapping sediment being transported by LSD (as prevailing wind direction south to north)
What was anomolous about our longshore drift surveys (using flotation devices)?
80% of the tests had the device move from north to south.
The prevailing wind direction is usually the opposite.
In our questionnaires, what specific type of scale was used?
Who is Mike Goater?
Chief Engineer at Purbeck District Council and co-author of the 2007 Christchurch and Poole SMP
What secondary source was useful for finding out about presence of any indicator species such as Dartford Warblers in Studland?
This site showed someone who found a Dartford Warbler in August 2014.
Who did we interview from the National Trust at Studland? What did he say the management strategy was?
Stewart Rainbird - managed re-alignment
What website can be used to find out about the vulnerability of a species?
What source can be used to find out about the management strategy at Studland?
What source can be used to find out about the current Marine Conservation Zone status of Studland?
Who did we interview from Wytch Farm Oilfield to find about the oil field at Studland?
Dr Suzie Baverstock, communications officer for Wytch Farm Oil Field
What did our vegetation cover surveys show about dune damage in Studland? What do this suggest?
Vegetation cover consistently until 70m from highwater mark, at which point it drops to just 30% cover. But, returns to high percentage at 80 metres.
This suggests damage has been effectively concentrated in single spots by the National Trust (e.g. by using roped fencing)
What did our litter survey show in Studland?
Very low/non-existent quantities of litter