Flashcards in CUE Deck (973):
What is urbanisation
The process by which an increasing proportion of a country's population lives in towns and cities
What has the urban population in the world grown to from 1950 to 2014
746 million to 3.9 billion
What are the most urbanised regions in the world
What percentage of people lived in urban areas for Northern America in 2014
What percentage of people lived in urban areas in Latin America in 2014
What percentage of people lived in urban areas in the Caribbean in 2014
What percentage of people lived in urban area in Europe in 2014
Which two continents are mostly rural
What percentage people live in urban areas in Afrjcs
What percentage of people live in urban areas in Asia
Where are the fastest growing urban areas found
In Africa and Asia
Which three countries are expected to account for 37% of the projected growth of the worlds urban population between 2014 and 2050
How many urban dwellers is India predicted to add in 2050
How many urban dwellers is China projected to add in 2050
How many urban dwellers is Nigeria predicted to add in 2050
What is the total world population expected to surpass by 2045
Where will much of the expected urbanisation occur
Low income countries
Characteristics of the fastest growing urban areas
Medium sized cities.
Cities with less than one million inhabitants.
Many areas projected to be urban in 2040 are not actually built yet.
What percentage of Indias expected urban growth has yet to be built
70% of the cities.
What led to population losses in the American cities of Buffalo and Detroit between 2000 and 2014
In 2014 why did New Orleans experience population decline
In the wake of the 2005 hurricane Katrina natural disaster
What is a striking feature of the last 30 years of development
The rapid development of megacities.
What is a megacity
City of urban agglomeration (urban area incorporating several large towns or cities) with a population of more than 10 million
How many megacities were there in 1990
How many megacities were there in 2014
How many megacities are predicted in 2025
The UN predicts 37
In 2025 what percentage are megacities predicted to hold of the global population
Where is the development of megacities largely concentrated
In 2015 what was the worlds largest city
Tokyo, closely followed by Delhi, Mumbai and Shanghai
How many inhabitants did Tokyo have in 2015
What is a metacity
A conurbation (continuous built up area) of more than 20 million people.
What plans do the Chinese government have
Plans to merge nine cities in the Pearl River Delta to create an urban area 26 times larger than Greater London
Timeline of global ubanisation
1960: 34% in urban areas
2014: 54% in urban areas
2050: 66% in urban areas (90% of this concentrated in Africa and Asia)
Why can cities be classed as efficient
It is easier to provide basic services such as water and sanitation to people living closer together, likewise access to health, education and other social and cultural services is more readily available.
As towns and cities expand why is there a greater strain on the environment and natural resources
The cost of meeting basic needs increases
What has transformed agricultural practices
Globalisation and the impact of climate change
Why has the proportion of people leaving rural areas increased
They are leaving urban areas to find employment in the cities due to the new agricultural practices being industrialised
How are issues of social cohesion evident
As variations in wealth and ethnicity can sometimes lead to hostility
What does the future survival of cities depend on
Ability to tackle the major issues such as provisions of affordable housing, employment, pollution and waste disposal, transport and social inequality.
According to the UN when did London receive megacity status
What is urban growth
An increase in the number of urban dwellers. Classifications or urban dwellers depend on the census definition of urban areas, which vary from country to country. They usually include one or more of the following criteria: population size, population density, average distance between buildings within a settlement and legal and/ or administrative boundaries.
What are the two main causes of urbanisation
Natural population growth.
Migration from rural to urban areas.
What is urban sprawl
The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside
Briefly what are the negative impacts of urban sprawl
Raquires more infrastructures and roads.
More commuting from suburbs to city so more fuel consumption and congestion.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impact on water quality and quantity.
How is requiring more infrastructures like cables and pipes a negative impact of urban sprawl
It is less economically efficient to service low-density rural areas compared to compact urban development with the same number of households
How is wild life loss a negative impact of urban sprawl
Because the reach of urban sprawl into rural areas ranks as one of the main causes of wildlife loss because it builds on greenfield sites
How is air pollution a negstive of urban sprawl
More people live a car dependant life style Which leads to increased fossil fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gas. The areas may also experience higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect
How is the loss of farmland due to urban sprawl a negative impact
It has led to the loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result.
How does urban sprawl have an impact on water quality and quantity
Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means that rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish the groundwater aquifers. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk
What is decentralisation
The movement of industry and businesses, including retail companies into the suburbs.
What has decentralisation been blamed for
Decline of retail in some city centres and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape
What does homogenisation mean
Where cities become indistinct from one and another
What is an edge city
New self-contained settlements have developed beyond the original city boundary
What have American cities in particular witnessed the growth of during urban sprawl
Large edge-of-city complexes including shopping malls and leisure areas
What are two causes of urban growth
Natural population growth.
What has urbanisation historically been linked to
Other important economic and social transformations
What have economic and social transformations brought about because of urbanisation
Greater geographic mobility.
Longer life expectancy.
How do cities hold an important role in reducing poverty
They hold much of the national economic activity, government institutions, business and transportation and have higher levels of education, better health, easier access to social services and greater opportunities for cultural and political participation.
What is Brazil’s economic and financial capital
In 2015 what percentage of São Paulo accounted of the population and national GDP
10% of population but 25% of GDP
What does GDP stand for
Gross Domestic Product
What percentage of Kenya accounts for the country’s population and GDP
8.4% of population and almost 20% or the country’s GDP
What are the age profiles in urban areas
What is the age range for young adults
What are pull factors in urban areas
Higher paid jobs
Better educational opportunities
Greater social and cultural diversity
Between 2001 and 2011 what happened to the population of large city centres in England in Whales
It more than doubled, with the number of residents aged 22-29 nearly tripling to make up almost half of their population.
Why are the rates of natural increase higher in cities than in surrounding rural areas
The migrants are in their fertile years
What are fertile years
The years during which people have children
Where in London is deemed ‘nappy valley’
Area stretching from Clapham, south of the River Thames, westwards to Fulham, north of the river
Why did ‘nappy valley’ get its name
Due to the high proportion of young families living there
What has encouraged young families to remain in the city
In the past professional couples with young children would have moved to the suburbs when they could afford it but the rising costs and time involved in commuting means more families stay in the city
What is a push factor
Cause people to move away from rural areas
What is a pull factor
Factors that attract people to urban areas
In low income countries which factors are more important
Push factors rather than pull
What are the six brief push factors
High levels of disease and inadequate medical provision.
Agriculture is increasingly being organised globally.
How is population growth a push factor
The same area of land has to support increasing numbers of people, causing over-farming, soil erosion and low yields
How is agricultural problems a push factors
Desertification because of low rainfall, systems of inheritance that cause land to be subdivided into small plots, systems of tenure and debt on loans taken out to support agricultural change
How is agriculture increasingly being organised globally a push factor
Land that has previously been used to grow food for local people is now used to produce cash crops for sale to higher income countries. Many traditional rural communities have been driven off their land and into cities
How are natural disasters push factors
Floods, tropical storms and earthquakes mean people flee rural areas and do not return
How is war and civil strife a push factor
They cause people to flee their land
What are 4 pull factors
Earning money from the informal sector.
Better quality social provisions.
A perceived better quality of life.
How is employment a pull factor
Employment in factories and service industries is better paid with than in rural areas. There is an increasingly high demand for unskilled labour in cities
How is the informal sector a pull factor
Earning money for example selling goods on the street, providing transport or prostitution
How is better quality of social provisions
Basic needs such as education and health care to entertainment and tourism
How is perceived better quality of life in the city portrayed
Through images in the media
What are the six consequences of urban growth
Shortage of housing in lower-income countries.
Shortage of affordable housing in high income countries.
Lack of urban services and waste disposal.
Unemployment and underemployment.
What can problems with housing, traffic, waste disposal, crime and pollution be linked to in cities all over the world irrespective of their economic status
The unique geographical circumstances of the city, such as topography, climate and function
Traditionally how has the process of urban sprawl occurred
In an uncontrolled and unplanned fashion
What are the 6 negative impacts of urban sprawl
Requires more roads and infrastructure.
Wildlife habitat loss.
More commuting from suburbs to the city increasing fuel consumption and congestion.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impacts water quality and quantity.
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: needs more roads and infrastructures such as cables and wires
It is less economically efficient to service low density rural areas compared to compact urban developments with the same number of households
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: reach of urban sprawl info surrounding rural areas
Wildlife habitat loss
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: more commuting
Increased fuel consumption and traffic consumption
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: air pollution
A more car dependant lifestyle leads to increased use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. The area may also expereince higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect.
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: loss of farmland
This has in turn led to loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result
How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: water quality and quantity
Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means the rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish groundwater supplies. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk.
Along with the movement of people to the suburbs what's another important component in urban sprawl
What is decentralisation
The movement of population and industry from the urban centre to outlying areas. The term may encompass the processes of both suburbanisation and counterurbanisation
What has decentralisation been blamed for in some city centres
The decline of retail and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape
What is an edge city
Self contained settlements developed beyond the original city boundary and developed as a city in its own right
What have American cities in particular witnessed because of urban sprawl
The huge growth of large edge-of-city complexed including shopping malls and leisure areas
What is a consequence of population density being high in urban areas
Shortage of accommodation, leading to the presence of large areas of informal and inadequate housing
Where does informal and often inadequate housing usually form
On the edge of the city or in areas of low land value prone to environmental hazards such as flooding or landslides, they may also be found adjacent to transport networks or in areas suffering high levels of air, water and noise pollution
What do informal settlements usually have limited access to
Basic infrastructure such as water, electricity and waste disposal and a lack of services such as health centres and schools
In 2013 what did the UN Habitat report the numbers of people living in slum conditions were
863 million, up from 760 million in 2000 and 650 million in 1950
What is another word for 'population counts'
How does the fact that slums do not have detailed enumeration affect the estimated population
The actual number of slum dwellers is likely to be in the excess of one billion not 863 million as the UN habitat estimate
How has the number of Mumbai slum dwellers changed from 2005 to 2015
Gone from 6 million to 9 million
What are the informal settlements in Brazil called
Favelas - they line the hills of Rio de Janiero
What are informal settlements in India called
What are informal settlements in West Africa called
Why has the term 'slum housing' been critiqued by people
They see it as a political label
In Mumbai, what are some examples of 'home grown neibourhoods'
Shivaji Nagar and Dharvi
What is a 'Home-Grown neighbourhood'
The argument that 'slums' were developed gradually by people who live there, with the help of local artisans of construction and usually with little or no support from the authorities
What happened to the proportion of people living in slums between 2000 and 2012
What was the goal of the Millenial Development Goal 7
Ensure environmental sustainability
What helps provide evidence for the fact that the lives of slum dwellers have improved between 2000 and 2012
The relative success of the Millenial Development Goal 7.
The proportion of slum dwellers falling.
Between 2000 and 2014 what did the UN report of slum dwellers
More than 320 million people living in slum dwellers gained access to improved water sources, improved sanitation facilities or durable or less crowded housing. However the total number of people living in slums has continued to increased
What is a target in the post-2015 sustainable development goals
To 'ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums by 2030
In the last, what was the most extreme strategy adopted by authorities to do with slums and did it work
It just moved the problem elsewhere.
After trying to eradicate slums, what was the authorities next approach to help and did it work
Acknowledge the presence of slums and provide help in the form of materials or services. These self help or 'site and service' schemes have proved remarkably successful in some cities but the quantity and/ or quality of housing remains inadequate in most urban areas around the world
What are the most recent initiatives to help slums
Slum upgrading programs. These seek to improve the slums in partnership with local NGOs and development organisations, they focus on securing rights for dwellers, formalising land tw sure rights and providing basic amenities.
What are examples of basic amenities
Electricity, water and waste disposal
What is an urbanisation bred to help slums
Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI)
What is the purpose of the organisation SDI
It gives a voice to those living in informal settlements and links up poor communities across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The idea is that slum dwellers share their knowledge and expertise so that they are not excluded from the economic and political processes happening in the city
In the Uk, what had the rising demand for accommodation in cities led to
A dramatic increase in both house prices and rental costs
In some parts of London what did the average house prices rise by
50% between 2010 and 2015
What is rising house prices fuelled by
In-migration, gentrification and by the purchasing of properties by wealth foreign investors
Why do overseas investors buy properties in London
Because London is a major global hub and they buy to diversify their international portfolio
What can financial restraints in lower income countries result in
A lack of basic services such as water and electricity, maintainence of infrastructure is also limited
What can limited maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, sewers and drainage result in
Rapid spread of disease.
In India, what has the lack of misntenance of infrastructure led to
Old pipeline infrastructure has not kept pace with urbanisation, resulting in large urban areas devoid of planned water supply and sewage treatment.
In 2015 what percentage of piped water reached the slum areas in 42 Indian cities and towns
What restraints are placed on waste disposal
Economic, physical and environmental
Which city authority is only able to deal with 2/3 of the rubbish created by the growing population
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
In Addis Ababa what happens 1/3 of the rubbish that isn’t dealt with by the city authority
It is left to private contractors to collect or is simply left on the streets and in rivers created a huge health hazard
Example of a landfill site where families live in makeshift housing and search for material they can use or sell
Why is there considerable pressure to create sufficient jobs in cities
Such a high proportion of the people who move to cities are young
What are unemployment rates usually
Typically high although official data is hard to find and many migrants find employment in informal work
What is under-employment
A situation in which a person is not doing work that makes full use of their skills and abilities
When may underemployment occur
When migrant moves to a new city
What has the processes of urbanisation and suburbanisation led to
Increased traffic in cities accords the world,m
What does increased traffic lead to
Damaging human health.
Wasting billions of pounds in lost productivity.
What has the spread of houses into the suburbs and beyond created
Surges of morning and evening commuters
What adds to the problem of transport issues because of urbanisation
Traffic flow for shopping, entertainment and other commercial services add to the problem
During the car boom of the 1960s, what did city planners build as a solution
More and wider roads, it didn’t work.
Why didn’t the solution to the car boom in the 1960s work
The more roads created, the more cars they attracted
What did the study into traffic in California in 1997 find
That new, additional traffic will fill up to 90% if any increase in road capacity within 5 years.
Why is transport issues such a big consequence of urbanisation and urban sprawl
Because no matter how much money is spent on traffic infrastructure, congestion and parking problems seem to get worse
What is counter urbanisation
Movement of people from large urban areas into smaller urban areas or into rural areas thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It can mean daily commuting but can also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT
What is deindustrialisation
The loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, which occurred in the UK in the second half of the twentieth century
What is gentrification
The buying and renovating of properties, often in more run-down areas, by wealthier individuals
What is suburbanisation
The movement of people from living in the inner parts of a city to living on the outer edges. It has been facilitated by the development of transport networks and the increase in ownership of private cars. These have allowed people to commute to work.
What is urban resurgence
Refers to the regeneration, both economic and structural, of an urban area which has suffered a period of decline. This is often initiated by redevelopment schemes but is also due to wider social, economic and demographic processes
What was the trend of movement in the industrial period
More people moving into urban areas as opposed to more recently people moving outwards
During the mid twentieth century what was suburbanisation facilitated by
The growth of public transport systems and the increased use of the private car.
The presence of railway lines and arterial roads also enabled wealthier commuters to live some distance away from their places of work.
What was ribbon development in towns and cities
In the 1930s planning controls and urban growth took place alongside main roads - this was known as ribbon development.
By the 1940s what was created because of the concern due to growth in ribbon development
Creation of green belts - areas of open space and low-density land use around towns where further development was controlled
Since 1950s what has happened to suburban expansion
It has increased and been better planned
During the 1950s and 1960s what construction took place
Large scale construction of council housing took place on the only land available; the suburban fringe
In the 1970s what construction occurred
There was a move towards home ownership, which led to private housing estate being built, also on the urban fringe. These allowed people to have more land for gardens and more public open space
Why has there recently been more development on the edge of towns
Car ownership grew.
More land available for car parking and expansion.
What was built on the edge of cities in the 1970s
New offices, factories and shopping outlets. In a number of cases, the strict control of the green belt was ignored
What has recently been built on the edge of cities
New housing estates.
Local shopping centres.
Why do people move to the suburbs
They desire a quieter, less congested and less polluted environment. The suburbs are perceived as relatively crime free.
they also demonstrate other key benefits of the rural urban fringe such as woodlands and parks, golf courses and playing fields.
What are many housing estates in suburban areas seen as
Highly sought after in the property market
What are some negative impacts specifically to do with suburbanisation
Increased social segregation: wealthy move out and poor remain in city.
Diversion of funding from the inner city to the suburbs to pay for new infrastructure and services.
Example of social segregation to do with suburbanisation
American cities, where segregation has occurred as a result of both wealth and ethnicity
What does counterurbanisation lead to
Not suburban growth, but to growth in rural areas beyond the main city.
What is reduced as a consequence of counter urbanisation
The difference between rural and urban areas
What are the 4 factors causing counter urbanisation
People want to escape air pollution, dirt and crime of urban environment.
Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute.
Many employers have moved from the city.
Improvement of technology has allowed more freedom of location.
What is 'rural idyll'
What people see as a pleasant, quiet and clean environment of the countryside where house prices are cheaper
How has improvement in technology been a factor in counter urbanisation
The spread of broadband and high speed internet access means that someone working from a home computer csn now access the same global system as a person in an office block in the same centre of a city
What has there been a rising demand for in the countryside
Second homes and early retirement
What is the rising demand for second homes and retirement a direct consequence of
Rising levels of affluence
What is one straightforward way for farmers to raise money due to agriculture facing economic difficulties
Sell unwanted land and buildings
How does counter urbanisation affect the layout of rural settlements
Modern housing estates are built on the edge of smaller settlements, and small industrial units on the main road leading into the settlement. Former open areas are built on, old properties and some agricultural buildings are converted and modernised
Why may there be tension between newcomers and locals because of counter-urbanisation (much like with gentrified areas in inner cities)
Despite the influx of new people, local services tend to shut down.
Bus services to many rural communities have disappeared, schools and post offices have closed and churches have closed are parishes are amalgamated to larger units.
What is the main reason for local services shutting down because of counter urbanisation
Newcomers have the wealth and mobility to continue to use the urban services some distance away
What are the four pieces of evidence for counter urbanisation in an area
Increase in the use of a commuter railway station in the area.
Increased house prices.
Construction of more executive housing in the area, often on newly designed building land, following demolition of old properties.
Conversions of former farm buildings to exclusive residences.
What is sometimes referred to as the rural turn around
Processes which contribute to social and demographic change in rural settlements
What four things may be included in a 'rural turnaround'
Outmigration of young village born adults seeking opportunities elsewhere.
Decline of elderly village born population, through deaths.
In migration of young to middle aged married couples or families with young children.
In migration of younger, more affluent people, which results in increased house prices.
- NOTE these changes do not take place uniformly within all rural settlements and these are considerable variations between and within parishes
What is a suburbanised village
The parishes with the most change are key settlements that have a range of basic services and good access to commuter routes
Why has urban resurgence been seen in many cities in recent years
Redevelopment schemes have made city living more attractive
Where is urban resurgence particularly present
Former industrial cities in the UK which suffered from the manufacturing decline in the 1970s and 1980s but have reinvented themselves as cities of culture and commerce.
Examples of former industrial cities in the UK that bounced back after de-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth century
London, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds
How have former industrial cities revived their fortune
Developing strong financial, business and consumer service industries and have attracted more university students, young professionals and immigrant workers
How is urban resurgence evident in a city
In its changing landscapes
Areas of a city may contain industrial architecture of the past such as
Factories and warehouses
Increasingly, what have industrial architectures of the past been converted to
Housing or commercial use and modern infrastructure and services are added
What have many urban rebranding schemes been successful in
Transforming run down areas.
Rebranding them as fashionable districts or 'quarters'.
How does rebranding cities into fashionable districts help the city
It attracts more new comers, often young professionals with s higher disposable income
What is urban resurgence often driven by
Government-led regeneration schemes but there are wider economic, social and demographic processes which hare also important
What has redevelopment by private companies led to
Wholesale transformation of parts of UK cities in recent years and this has served to attract further investment
Why has city living become more attractive
Urban areas are improved by urban resurgence so people chose to live closer to work, entertainment and leisure facilities rather than face the long and costly commute
What has facilitated the resurgence in some places
Globalisation and technology change
Example of a place where its reputation for creative and digital start up businesses have attracted a huge in-migration of people
What can act as a catalyst to changing the fortune of an area
Major sporting events such as the London Olympics bringing much needed investment to former industrial parts of East Lodnon
What kind of effect does resurgence babe
A positive multiplier effect, it initiates further improvements and attracts greater investments into an area
Why is urban resurgence sometimes not good
As more people are attracted back to the city, grates pressure it put on the urban infrastructure and some people may find themselves displaced as house prices rise in line with the demand.
Also concerns that not everyone benefits from resurgence and this has led to increasing inequality between rich and poor.
Examples of American cities which have experienced an urban resurgence in recent decades
New York, Boston and Los Angeles
In what time frame saw a huge population decline in urban areas as families increasingly moved to the suburbs
Second half of the twentieth century
What process does the term 'dead-heart syndrome' describe
Loss of manufacturing and retail businesses and the traditional 'downtown' areas (major retain centre of cities) were in decline, along with neighbouring residential areas, due to outwards movement of families to suburbs in the twentieth century
What time frame saw the beginning of a resurgence
What has helped revive the fortune of many American cities
A sustained period of national economic growth, successful regeneration schemes and more attractive urban design.
More young people are remaining in cities to start a family while many older people whose children have left home are moving back to the city to be close to urban services.
What has the population revival in urban cities increased
Demand for services and has fuelled a prosperous urban economy in many cities
Prior to deindustrialisation in the late twentieth century, what was a key development in the growth of urban areas
The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the manufacturing industry
What did cities become synonymous with in the period of the industrial revolution
Particular types of industry.
Textiles - Manchester.
Iron and Steele - Sheffield.
Shipbuilding - Glasgow.
In the industrial revolution why did so many people migrate to urban areas
Because of the rise of the manufacturing industry, there were thousands of jobs created
By the 1980s what were many of the older industrial cities experiencing
Severe economic problems associated with the decline of manufacturing
What were the 3 main factors attributing to the decline of manufacturing in cities
Competition from abroad, particularly rapidly industrialising cities of the time such as Taiwan, South Korea, India and China.
Reduced demand for traditional products as new materials and tschnologies have developed.
What is mechanisation
Most firms can produce their goods more cheaply by using machines rather than people
During the decline of manufacturing employment, what did the variation of the unemployment figures between cities depend on
The size of the city, ths composition of the urban economy and the actions of the local government
Which cities suffered more extensive loses during the decline of manufacturing employment
Cities in the manufacturing heartlands such as Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield
What was the difference in number of employees between 1980 and 2015 as shown by ONS
How was their significant variation of employment within cities during the decline of manufacturing employment
Inner city areas contained many of the old types of workplace most likely to be closed - old plants with the oldest production techniques, lowest productivity etc.
The inner city also lacked suitable land for the expansion of existing manufacturing and as a result new investment tend to be located on the edge of urban areas or more rural locations.
What is the movement of industry away from the inner city known as
What did decentralisation affect in the late twentieth century
Residential and retail land
What was decline in manufacturing employment in the late twentieth century accompanied by
The rise of the service economy in urban areas
What activites does the service economy cover
Tertiary activities such as financial services like banking, retailing, leisure, transport, education and health.
Quaternary activites where knowledge or ideas are the main output, such as advertising, computer programming and software design.
What are the four reasons the service sector has grown
Financial services are needed to support manufacturing industries, which are sill important in many cities.
Societies become more technologically sophisticated, they need a larger range of specialised services to keep them running.
Societies become wealthier, they demand more leisure and retail services.
For many urban areas what has there been a dramatic shift in
Their economic core from manufacturing to service based activities
Where are the major financial centres located
In world cities
Where are corporate headquarters located and why
In clusters in urban areas where they can access national and international markets, a highly skilled labour force and specialist support services
As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 8 economic impacts of de-industrialisation on urban areas
Loss of jobs and disposable income.
Closure of other businesses: 'closing industry'.
Loss of tax income to local authority.
Potential decline in services.
Increase in demand for state benefits.
Loss of income in service sector as a result of falling spending paper of the local population.
Decline in property prices as outmigration occurs.
Leads to the de-multiplier effect in urban areas affected.
As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 social impacts of de-industrialisation
Increase in unemployment.
Higher levels of deprivation.
Out migration of population, usually those who are better qualified and more prosperous.
Higher levels of crime, family breakdown, alcohol and drug abuse and other social problems.
Loss of confidence and morale in local population.
As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 environmental impacts of de-industrialisation
Derelict land and buildings.
Long term pollution of land from 'dirty industries' such as dye works remain a problem because there is no money for land remediation.
Reduced maintanence of local housing caused by lower personal and local authority incomes.
Positive impacts: reduction in noise, land and water pollution and reduced traffic congestion.
Who created 'the urban challenge'
Drake and Lee
Where provides an important environment for social networking, which is heavily drawn upon in business
The growth of the service sector has gone some way to reduce unemployment caused by de-industrialisation however these 4 problems still exist
Many people who lost their jobs through deindustrialisation have continued to suffer from long term unemployment.
Many service jobs are part time or temporary.
Number of service jobs created has not always made up for loss of manufacturing jobs.
Inner city locations avoided by service industries and newer manufacturing companies leading to continued inner city decline.
What is urban policy
The strategies chosen by local or central government to mans have the development of urban areas and reduce urban problems
Since when has regeneration been a key element of urban policy in the UK
What did early regeneration strategies focus on compared to more recent strategies
'Top-down' economic regeneration but subsequent policies have recognised the need to adopt a more holistic approach, hackling economic, social and environmental problems from the 'bottom-up'.
The urban policy used between 1979-1991
Emphasis given to property-led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture
Details of the urban policy in 1979-1991
Emphasis on the role of the private sector to regenerate inner city areas.
Coalition boards set up with people from local business community and they were encouraged to spend money buying land, building infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment.
Examples of the urban policy of emphasis given to prosperity led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture in 1979-1991
Urban development corporations.
Urban land grants.
Derelict land grants.
The urban policy used between 1991-1997
Partnership schemes and competition-led policy
Details of the urban policy in 1991-1997
Focus on local leadership and partnership between the private sector, local communities, voluntary sector and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run-down parts of the city, which now include peripheral estates.
Example of urban policy of partnership schemes and competition led policy in 1991-1997
Single regeneration budget.
What does the term ‘bottom up’ mean
When local people are consulted and supported in making decisions to undertake projects or developments that meet on or more of their specific needs
What does ‘top down’ mean
When the decision to undertake projects or developments is more by a central authority such as government with little or no consultation with the local people whom it will affect
What is devolution
The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration
The urban policy used between 1997-2000s
Details of the urban policy used between 1997-2000s
Focus on narrowing the gap in key social and economic indicators between the most deprived neighbourhoods and the rest of the country.
Local authorities set targets to improve levels of health, education and employment opportunities and funding was allocated to assist them in delivering government objectives.
Examples of the urban policy of area based initiatives used in the 1997-2000s
New deal for communities.
Regional Development Agencies (RDAs).
The housing market renewal programme.
What might the urban policy's be in the future
There have been calls for a greater devolution of powers (devolution deals) to English Cities, such as the type granted in Greater Manchester in 2014. Some feel this will lead to more effective place-based urban policies.
What does urban form refer to
The physical characteristics that make up built up areas, including the shape, size, density and organisation of settlements
Details of the regeneration policy: Urban Development Corporations
Set up in the 1980s primarily to regenerate inner city areas.
The boards of UDcs were made up of people from local community and they were encouraged to spend money on land, infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment. Funding came direct from central government.
Details of the regeneration policy: city challenge
1990s, Cities had to compete with each other for government regeneration grants.
The cities with the 'best' schemes were awarded the grant.
Local authority led scheme which formed partnerships between the private sector, local communities and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run down parts of the city.
Details of the regeneration policy: New Deal for Communities
2000s, the NDC partnerships were established to carry out 10-year strategic programmes designed to transform the 39 most deprived neighbourhoods and improve the lives of those living within them.
Local partnerships of residents, businesses, community organisations and local authorities were established but the focus was very much on communities being 'at the heart of the regeneration'
What scales can urban forms be considered at
From regional to urban, neighbourhood and street
What are urban forms continually evolving in response to
Social, economic, environmental, political and technological developments
What did a government report on 'Urban form and infrastructure in the U.K.' (2014) report
That the UKs urban form is characterised by 64 'primary urban areas', including one built up megacity region (London and the Greater South East), six large metropolitan areas (Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield) and 56 towns and cities with more than 125,000 people
What are the largest urban forms
Megacity is and world cities
What has led to the rapid rise of megcities
Globalisation and economic competition between countries and cities
How has mass migration fuelled large scale population growth
When people are faced with poorer economic prospects in rural areas and the perception of a better life in the city they tend to move in mass migration
Historically, what were the greatest global cities
The largest, however recently this is not important it is more the influence
Of the worlds most populous cities which 3 cities are in the top ranking of the worlds most important cities
Tokyo, New York , Beijing
What term is given to cities which have the greatest influence on a global scale
World city/global cité
What is one of the more commonly cities rankings to measure a city
It is carried out by the Globalisation and World Rankings Research Network (GaWC) called the Alpha, Beta and Gamma rankings
What is the Alpha, Beta and Gamma ranking of cities based on
Initially on the connectivity of cities through four advanced producer services: accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law.
New indicators were added in 2004 but economic factors are still deemed more important than political and cultural indicators.
What are the cities called below the alpha, beta and gamma rankings
Cities with 'sufficiency of services' - not world cities but have sufficient services so as not to be dependant on world cities. They tend to include smaller capital cities and traditional centres of manufacturing regions
What are the 12 characteristics of a world city
Centres of media and communications for global networks.
Headquarters of multinational corporations.
Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities.
Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area.
Dominance of the national region with great international significance.
Existence of financial headquarters, stock exchange and major financial institutions.
Centre of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture and politics.
Considerable decision making power at a global level.
High proportion of residents employed in service information sectors.
Variety of international financial services including insurance, real estate, banking, marketing etc.
High quality educational institutes including renowned universities, international student attendance and research facilities.
Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal,C medical and entertainment facilities, in the country.
What is an Alpha ++ city
More integrated than all other cities and constitute their own high level of integration
Example of Alpha ++ cities from 2012 GaWC ranking
What is an Alpha + city
Other highly integrated cities complement London and New York, largely filing in advanced service needs for the Pacific Asia
Example of Alpha + cities from 2012 GaWC ranking
What is an Alpha and alpha - cities
Very important world cities that link major economic regions and states into the world economy
Example of Alpha and alpha- cities from 2012 GaWC ranking
What is a beta level city
Important world cities that are instrumental in linking their region state into the world economy
Example of Beta cities from 2012 GaWC ranking
What is a Gamma level city
These can be world cities linking smaller regions or states into the world economy, or important world cities whose major global capacity is not in advanced producer services
Example of Gamma level cities from 2012 GaWC ranking
What does urban morphology refer to
The spatial structure and organisation of an urban area, traditionally this would have been affected by physical factors such as relief and drainage
Why did early industrial areas develop close to rivers
So they could harness the power of water for energy and transportation
Why was flat land also important for some industrial areas
To transport goods via roads or railways
Why does relief still play an important role today for the organisation of an urban areas
Because flat land is easier to build on and may attract a higher land value. Conversely, flat land close to rivers may pose a flood risk.
In poorer cities where are informal settlements often found
On undeveloped steep land
Example of shanty town built on steep land
Brazil's largest shanty town, Rocinha is built on a steep and rugged hillside overlooking Rio de Janiero. The poorer parts of the shanty town are found higher on the hilltop, with many houses only accessible on foot.
Why is urban form today more strongly influenced by human nature
Because humans have been able to overcome the limitations imposed by physical factors
What is the main factor affecting land use in high-income countries
Where is land value traditionally higher
In the centre of a city where accessibility is greatest
Where is the Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)
The point with the highest land value and from here, land prices decline in line with the theory of distance-decay
What is the point with the highest land value called
The Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)
Describe the typical land values for s city in a high income country
The Peak Land Value Intersection in the middle.
From this runs motorways and main roads.
As you get further from the PLVI there is a decline in land values.
However, you can get Secondary Land Value Peaks such as where there are shopping outlets on the edge of cities.
Along these is the outer ring roads.
Which businesses usually occupy the PLVI
Only very profitable businesses such as large retailers that can afford the prices of the PLVI. In the Uk the site has been occupied by the likes of Marks and Spencer's.
Who occupies the CBD
Other retailers and commercial enterprises but they cannot all afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations
What is likely to be found towards the edge of the CBD
Smaller retailers and businesses who cannot afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations
Why do land values fall significantly in transect of the CBD to the suburbs
The different land users are less reliant on accessibility and unable to pay the higher prices associated with this, this is known as the bid-rent theory
Traditionally, what does the bid-rent theory show
There has been a move from retailing to industrial and commercial and then residential areas
What is the distance decay theory
As distance from the CBD increase there is less competition for land, so the values fall
Roughly what does the bid-rent theory show
Shops and offices can afford the high land values of the CBD.
Industry cannot afford the highest land values so is found away from the CBD.
Housing can only afford low land values.
Price of land ^
Distance from CBD >
What shows that the 1980s trend towards out of town shopping centres affected land values in some cities
The presence of secondary peaks
Why did secondary land value peaks occur
An increase in traffic meant that the city centre was no longer always the most accessible part of the city and a lack of expansion encouraged some of the large retailers to look elsewhere for potential new sites
For the consumer, what did the growth of edge-of-town developments provide
Free parking and other land uses such as cinemas and restaurants which proved to be highly attractive. Land values subsequently rose in such areas.
What is the CBD
The central areas of a place which contains the major shops, offices and entertainment facilities
What is the inner city
An area of old housing and light manufacturing industry. This area dates back to the industrial revolution when it was compromised mainly of terraced housing providing accommodation for factory workers. Many British cities have seen regeneration in these areas in the last three decades.
What is the residential land use in a city
Consists of housing from a range of periods, which has traditionally increased in both size and price as one moves towards the outskirts. Urban regeneration and gentrification means that some of the more expensive properties can now be found in traditional 'low class residential' areas while council estates are on the edge of cities and are now among some of the most depressed parts of British cities
What is the green area of a city
Such as parks tend to be dotted throughout an urban area. They range from large botanical gardens of national importance down to playgrounds within a housing estate
What is the out of town retail developments in a city
Originally developed by large supermarkets, these spaces soon expanded to include non food retail units and entertainment complexes. They have had a negative impact on some towns and cities. In 1994 the UK govern,went started to actively discourage their development
What is the business or science parks in a city
Tend to be found on the edge of urban areas where there is good access to main roads. Some science parks are located near universities
What is the industry part of a city
Manufacturing industries often require large areas of land and tend to be located towards the edge of cities where cheaper land is available. Deindustrialisation brought about the large scale decline of manufacturing industry in British cities and former factory sites have either been demolished or converted into other land use. The later may scull occupy their hisotrical location in the inner city
What is the informal settlement part of a city
Features of cities in low income countries. Traditionally developed on the edge of cities although they have also been found adjacent to transport routes or in areas of the city unpopular with residents like rubbish dumps. Physical factors such as steep slopes, unstable land and areas prone to natural hazards may also encourage their development.
What can encourage greater financial investment
Government policies such as the establishment of Special Enterprise Zones in Chinese cities
Why do problems occur because of population growth
The growth in population is not matched by a growth in resources and infrastructure
How do megacities in low income countries spread
In haphazard fashion
What has the haphazard fashion of megacities in low income countries led to
The challenge of providing employment, housing and basic services
What are the concerns about megacities
About how city authorities can effectively govern such large cities
On average how much more GDP do megacities produce compared to other cities
2 to 3 times more
What were the 5 characteristics and benefits highlighted in 2014 by a United Nations report on urbanisation
1: they offer opportunities to expand access to services, such as health care and education, for large numbers of people in an economically efficient manner.
2. Less environmentally damaging to provide public transport, housing, electricity, water and sanitation for a densely settled urban population than a dispersed rural population.
3. Urban dwellers have access to larger and more diversified employment markets.
4. Better levels of education and healthcare can improve the lives of the poor and empower women in countries where they do not have equal status.
5. Megacities are centres of innovation where many solutions to global problems are being trialled
Why are political protests more common in urban areas
Large numbers of younger people are brought together
What is a fortress landscape
Landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion
What is a world city
Cities which have great influence on a global scale, because of their financial status and worldwide commercial power.
Which are the three cities which have traditionally sat at the top of the global hierarchy
Which cities are now joining New York, London and Tokyo at the top of the global hierarchy
What are some characteristics of the 6 cities at the top of the global hierarchy
House the headquarters of many transnational corporations (TNCs).
Centres of world finance.
Provide international consumer services.
What are the 7 main land use zones in a city
Central business district.
Out of town retail developments.
Business of science parks.
What have some city centres in the UK experienced in the last 30 years
Why was the decline in city centres due to in the 1980s and 1990s and more recently
1980-1990s: The development of out-of-town retail parks and the decentralisation of business and residential areas, which served to pull people away from the CBD.
High parking costs, congestion and perceptions of the city centres as dirty and unsafe were further disincentives for shoppers.
Recently: due to the phenomenal growth of Internet shopping.
What are a few strategies devised to help reverse the decline of city centres
Provision of a more attractive shopping environment.
The construction of all weather shopping malls.
Improvement in public transport links.
Establishment of business and marketing teams to co-ordinate managment of the CBD and run special events.
The 2000s ha e seen two other notable strategies as well.
What are many cities encouraging the development of to increase The attraction of the city centre
Functions other than retailing
Briefly, what are 7 functions other than retrial encouraged in city centres
Wider range of leisure facilities.
Availability of space.
Promotion of street entertainment.
Developing flagship attractions.
Constructing new offices, appartments, hostels and conference centre.
Encouraged residential areas to return to the city centre.
Example of leisure facilities
Other cultural and meeting places to attract a greater range of people
Examples of adding space into a city centre
Squares or plazas.
What does adding space into a city enable
People watching and other activists
Example of a famous street entertainment
Covent Garden in London
Example of developing nightlife
Why is developing nightlife not always positive
These see negative issues associated with clubbing such as the high level of policing that is necessary
Example of a developed flagship attraction
At-Bristol Science Centre and M Shed museum and gallery in Bristol
How does constructing new apartments, offices, hotels and conference centres help a city
It raises the status of the CBD for business and encourages tourists to remain near the city centre
How can a city encourage residential areas to return to city centres
By providing flats, redeveloping old buildings (gentrification) or building new upmarket apartments
What has the combination of strategies to increase the attraction of the city centre and stricter planning controls placed on out of town developments meant
That large cities in the UK have successfully attracted shoppers and visitors back to the city centre.
Where are decision makers still worried about the decline of the CBD
In smaller cities and urban areas
What have many cities across the uk initiated the planning and development of and why
Cultural and heritage quarters as a deliberate model for urban regeneration of declining inner urban areas
When did culturally-led urban development first begin to appear
Early UK examples of culturally or heritage quarters in 1980
Sheffield Cultural Industries Quarter and Manchester Northern Quarter
What is a prerequisite for a cultural quarter
Presence of cultural production (making objects, goods and products) or consumption (people going to shows, visiting venues, galleries)
What do heritage quarters focus on
The history of the area based around small-scale industries
What do the most successful quarters tend to be
Those actually making something or associated with a product, such as the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter
What reputation do many famous quarters tend to build and why is this good
Regional and in some cases national reputation which attracts visitors and tourists from further afield bringing financial benefits to the wider area
What have some critics argued about cultural quarters
That not all towns and cities need them and in some areas they have simply created higher property values
What have experiences of different 'quarters' shown
That some are more successful than others
Why are quarters usually viewed in a positive light
They are a good tool for regeneration, they improve perceptions of place and preserves the history and culture
What is gentrification
The buying and renovating of properties often in more run-down areas by wealthier individuals
Who supports gentrification
Groups such as estate agents and local authorities
In the last few decades what has gentrification helped to do
Regenerate large parts of British inner cities
What is involved in gentrification
Rehabilitation of old houses and streets on a piecemeal basis
Who carries out gentrification
Individuals or groups of individuals rather than large organisations
What are 5 brief reason gentrification can happen
The rent gap.
The 'pioneer' image.
The support of government and local decision makers.
Changing composition of households.
What does the rent gap refer to
The situation when price of property has fallen below its real value, usually due to lack of maintenance or investment, and there is a 'gap' between actual and potential prices.
Why are properties with the rent gap attractive to builders, property developers or individuals
They can afford to renovate the properties and then sell them on to make a property
How does commuting costs cause gentrification
Commuting can be time consuming, expensive and stressful. Moving closed to the city centre can eliminate the need to commute.
What does the 'pioneer' image refer to
The trend of creative individuals such as artists and designers moving into more 'edgy' neighbourhoods.
Why does the 'pioneer' image exist
The groups moving into the edgy neighbourhoods are not interested in the conformity of suburban living but are drawn to the diverse cultural opportunities of the urban centre
Examples of the 'pioneer' image
Hoxton and Shoreditch in London and SoHo in New York City are seems as the location of vibrant art scenes
How does the support of government and local decision makers cause gentrification
Both groups are keen to impoverished the economy and environment of the inner city areas and gentrification is seen as an improving part of this
How does changing composition of households cause gentrification
Many cities have seen the growth of single or two person households without children. These households are more likely to see the benefits of inner city living
What are the 4 costs of gentrification
People on low incomes cannot afford higher property prices or rents.
Higher cad ownership may increase congestion.
Potential loss of business for traditional local shops.
'Gentrifers' may be seen as a threat to the traditional community and friction may occur between 'newcomers' and original residents.
What are 4 benefits to gentrification
Rise in general level or prosperity and increasing number and range of services and businesses.
Increased local tax income for the local authority.
Physical environment of the area improved.
Greater employment opportunities created in areas such as design, buildings and refurbishment.
What are the two conflicting views of commentators on gentrification
Some have emphasised the importance of gentrification in inner city regeneration, others have raised concerns about the displacement of low income families and small businesses.
In London, what has gentrification continued significantly to
The lack of affordable housing and prices have been pushed up even beyond the level of well-paid professional workers
What are becoming more common because of gentrifcation
What does fortress landscape mean
Refers to landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion
In the UK what are 5 strategies used to reduce crime in urban hotspots
Greater use of CCTV.
Railings and fencing around private spaces.
'Mosquito' alarms which emit a high pitched sounds heard only by young people, to discourage loitering around certain buildings.
Effective use of street lighting.
Speed bumps to prevent joyriding.
Examples of urban hotspots
City centres and inner city estates
What are more recent strategies used to rescue crime in urban hotspots
Focused on ths concept of 'designing out crime' through better urban architecture
Examples of UK city 'designing out crime'
Manchester, the redevelopment of housing in parts of Greenheys and Wythenshawes estates have included more Windows to provide more natural surveillance, provision of front gardens with fences or hedges to mark a clear boundary between private and public space and bins in gated compounds rather than open alleyways.
What are features avoided in 'designing out crime'
Recessed doorways for people to hide in.
Projecting window sills or exposed rainwater downpipes, which would make it easier for anyone to climb on to the roof and dark alleys and dead ends associated with muggings and drug deals.
What are some exclusionary tactics some UK cities have adopted from North America
The use of anti-homeless spikes fitted into the ground in shop doorways or outside upmarkets apartments. Heavily criticised.
High pitched mosquitos alarm.
Sloped bus shelter seats.
Special benches to deter skateboards.
These raise few eyebrows.
What are increasingly becoming a feature of some urban landscapes
Where are gated communities common
USA and South Africa
What is increasing in British cities security
Electronic control of access into housing complexes
What notion is present in the idea of fortress landscapes
The idea of 'insider' and 'outsider'
What are edge cities associated with
The urban landscape of North America and have been viewed by some as a feature of postmodern urban living
What are edge cities largely the result of
Why has the emergence of edge cities happened on a large scale in the USA
It is a result of higher car ownership, greater willingness to travel long distances for work, shopping and entertainment and limited planning restricting in the suburbs
What is a common example of a sprawling urban settlement
How is Los Angeles a good example of a sprawling urban settlement
In 2015 the core city of Los Angeles which is 30 kilometres wide had 4 million residents.
However this is surrounded by a metropolitan area of nearly 18 million people which is more than 100 kilometres at its widest point.
Within this area there are more than 20 edge cities.
Where do edge cities develop close to
Major roads or airports and tend to be found in close proximity to shops, offices and other businesses which decentralised from the original city
While edge cities lack a clear structure they have a wide range of amenities including
Schools, shopping malls and entertainment facilities, residents may rarely go back to the original core city
What has edge cities been linked to
Extreme social segregation where the wealthy have moved to the new suburban settlements leaving only the poor and disadvantaged sections of society in the original city boundary
What does the term post modern describe
The changes that took place in Western society and culture in the late twentieth century
What did post modernism mainly concern
Art and architecture and it marked a departure from the conformity and uniformity of modernism
What is post modernism characterised by
The mixing of different artistic styles and architecture
What are 7 features of a postmodern western city
More fragmented urban form comprising independent settlements (Edge cities), economies, societies and cultures.
Greater ethnic diversity but heightened economic, social and cultural inequalities and polarisation.
Spectacular flagship developments such as the Guhgenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain.
Eclectic and varied architecture as seen in the London city scape.
Greater emphasis on producer services and knowledge based industries rather than industrial mass production.
What has the notion of the postmodern western city been based on
While elements of postmodernism can be seen in cities all over the world,cit is based on experiences of a small number of (mainly American) cities
What is Los Angeles often referred to as
The archetypal postmodern city but experiences of cities like Los Angeles are clearly not representative of cities elsewhere in the world.
What is economic inequality
The increasingly large wealth gap between rich and poor residents which is a key feature of cities in Asia, Africa and South America
Where is a good example of economic inequality
In Mumbai, the worlds most expensive home towers over one of the largest slums in the area. Antilla is a 27 storey home worth $21 billion. Within a short distance is Byculla, an area I habituated by Mumbais 9 million slum dwellers
What do most slum dwellers in Mumbai survive on
Less than $2 a day
What is cultural diversity
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society
What is diaspora
A group of people within a similar heritage or homeland who have settled elsewhere in the world
What is social segregation
When groups of people life apart from the larger population due to factors such as wealth, ethnicity, relgion or age
What is urban social exclusion
Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation
What are three reasons the wealthy and the poor seem to concentrate specially
The ethnic dimension.
How does housing cause social segregation
Developers, buildings and planners tend to build housing on blocks of land with a particular market in mind.
The requirement to include a proportion of affordable housing may affect housing values in some areas but wealthy people can choose where they live, paying premium prices for houses away from poor areas which pleasing environments and services. Poorer groups have less choice.
How does the changing environment affect social segregation
Housing is only a partial explanation for inequality since neighbourhoods change over time.
Houses built for large families in Victorian and Georgian times are now too big for the average family.
Many have been converted into apartments for rental to people on low income.
Conversely, former poor areas are being gentrified.
Which legislation helped transform many council estates and how
The 'right to buy' legislation in the 1980s.
The houses were bought by occupants and gentrified.
How does the ethnic dimension cause social segregation
Ethnic groups originally come to the country as new immigrants.
When they first arrive they may suffer discrimination in the job market and may be unemployed or employed in low paid jobs.
They are only able to afford cheap housing or rent privately.
Therefore, newly arrived migrants concentrate in poor areas of the city, often clustered into multicultural areas.
Such ethnic groupings tend to persist into later generations.
What is the index of multiple deprivation
A Uk government qualitative study measuring deprivation at small-area level across England. It is an overall measure of multiple deprivation experienced by people living in an area
How is the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 calculated
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are based on 37 separate indicators, organised across seven distinct domains of deprivation which are combined, using appropriate weights, to calculate the IMD
What areas are part of the IMD
Every Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA), or neighbourhood, in England
What are the seven different dimensions of deprivation
Health deprivation and Disability
Education, Skills and Training
Barriers to Housing and Services
What did the 2010 IMD data find
That 98% of the most deprived areas in England were cities
What did the 2015 IMD data find
The concentrations of deprivation were mainly found in large urban conurbations, areas that have historically had large heavy industry, manufacturing and/or mining sectors, coastal towns, and large parts of East London
Examples of the 20 most deprived local authorities in 2015
Largely the same as those found in 2010
Examples of local authorities which were in the most deprived 20 in 2010 but have become relatively less deprived and no longer feature in this list in 2015
London Boroughs of Hackney.
What is largely responsible for deprived neighbourhoods becoming less deprived
Why may people in deprived areas not be themselves be deprived
The statistics of the IMD are a measure of relative deprivation, not affluence, and so not every person in a highly deprived area will be deprived themselves. Likewise there will be some deprived people living in the least deprived areas.
What does urban social exclusion refer to
The problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation, these people are excluded form full participation in society by their social and physical circumstances
What are some examples of urban social exclusion
People can’t attain a decent job because of poor education or obtain decent housing because of poverty.
Often they suffer from poor health and from high levels of crime in an unattractive physical environment.
In a city what can inequality cause
Lack of social cohesion and in extreme cases it can lead to civil unrest
Where have traditionally been the most deprived urban neighbourhood
Inner city areas
What were the characteristics of deprivation caused by
De-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth when unemployment became a major problem. Population loss followed and the movement of younger, more affluent and skilled residents left behind a population who were older, less skilled and poor
What are the four measures of the quality of life
Examples of the social aspect to working out quality of life
Incidence of crime
Fear of crime
Percentage on free school meals
Percentage on state benefits
Standard of education (e.g percentage staying on post-16)
Standards of health and access to health facilities (e.g percentage in poor health)
Example of political aspect to working out quality of life
Opportunities to participant in community life and influence decision making (e.g percentage voting in an election)
Example of physical aspect to working out quality of life
Quality of housing
Level of pollution (air/noise)
Incidence of litter
Example of economic aspect to working out quality of life
Access to leisure services, open spaces etc
Access to employment (e.g percentage unemployed long term)
Level or income
Percentage of lone-parent families
Percentage of lone pensioners
Is there a clear geographical pattern to urban poverty today
What image of urban poverty is outdated
The image of a troubled inner core surrounded by affluent suburbs is out-dated
Where are some of the highest levels of urban poverty found
In peripheral estates
Why do inner cities no longer have the highest levels of urban poverty
They have been transformed by regeneration schemes
Where are rich and poor areas today found
Across city and suburbs alike
What remains a major challenge for cities in the twentieth century
What can the gap between rich and poor within a city be compared to across a whole country
Greater within a city
Where do inequalities exist
In terms of access to job opportunities, education, housing and basic public services such as water and sanitation
In poor cities, what is primarily channelled to upper and middle class neighbourhoods
Adequate water and sanitation services, while low income neighbourhoods often depend on distant and unsafe water wells and lack any form of waste disposal
What are the knock on impacts of poor people living in overcrowded and informal accommodation which lacks basic infrastructure and services
Poorer health, higher unemployment and a lack of social mobility
What is the poverty cycle
The poor being stuck in a cycle of poverty which is hard to escape from
What is the difference between poverty and inequality
Poverty is an absolute term, referring to a level of deprivation that does not change over time. Whereas inequality is a relative term referring to the differences between people, usually economic, over a geographic distribution
When can inequality be high in society without high levels of poverty
Due to a large difference between the top and the middle of the income spectrum
Examples of inner city decline
Loss of jobs
Lack of skills
Lack of capital investment
Lack of capital investment
Poor infrastructure for industrial expansion
Examples of inner city despair
Rising crime rates
Low public participation
Example of inner city deprivation
Poorly built tower blocks
Lack of adequate open space
High concentration of ethnic groups
What is the main drive of urban inequality
What do richer cities tend to have higher rates of compared to smaller cities
Big cities like London have higher rates of inequality while more equal cities are those that are smaller, have lower average wages and are coming out of the end of years of industrial decline
On a national stage what can a redistributive tax system help to do
Reduce inequality but on a local level the effects are less clear
What are 7 strategies to reduce poverty and inequality
Enforcing a living wage or providing an urban subsidy.
Provision of schools.
Support low skilled workers who want to develop their abilities.
Access to affordable housing.
Greater provision of public transport.
Enforce minimum environmental standards.
Examples of enforcing a living wage to help battle poverty and inequality
The London Living Wage has achieved success with over 10,000 families lifted out of working poverty since 2005
How does provision of schools help battle poverty and inequality
Education may be taken for granted in many high income countries but schooling beyond primary school level helps lift millions of people out of poverty in lower income countries
How does supporting low skilled workers help battle poverty and inequality
Cities need to ensure labour markets are inclusive, giving all residents the skills and opportunities needed to enter the workforce
How does access to affordable housing help battle poverty and inequality
The presence of slum housing in poorer cities should not hide the fact that access to affordable housing is a major problem in wealthy cities too.
Examples of access to affordable housing causing inequality and poverty
In London, the lack of affordable housing has been blamed for breaking up families, reducing employment prospects and mobility and slowing the economy
How does greater provision of public transport help battle inequality and poverty
Affordable public transport schemes improve mobility for the city poor, enabling them access to employment, education and services that could improve their lives
Example of greater provision of public transport reducing poverty and inequality
The Rio de Janiero sky-high transport system, which connects six hilltops and covers 3.5km was installed in 2011 to service 13 favelas and provide access to the main part of the city. Scheme was designed to give mobility to a once-stranded population and 12,000 people ride it daily.
How does enforcing a minimum environmental standard battle poverty and inequality
Poor health is strongly linked to poor environmental conditions. This can be improved through effective legislation
Examples of British cities who have established ‘Fairness Commissions’
Liverpool and Sheffield
What do ‘fairness commissions’ look at
How local areas can address inequality
What can culture relate to
Nationality, race, age and traditions
What is a key influence of cultural diversity
Which places does cultural diversity tend to flourish
Urban areas, especially large cities
What has led to the creation of multicultural urban societies
Cities like London, New York and Amsterdam
What is London considered to be
One of the most diverse cities in the world
How many languages are spoken by people in London
More than 300
How many non-indigenous communities are within London
50 with populations of 10,000 or more
What has increased movement around the world
In some global cities what do diasporas make up of the population
A larger proportion of the population than the indigenous residents
Example of a place where diasporas make up a higher proportion than indigenous residents
The United Arab Emirate state of Dubai, the majority of the city’s population is made up of expatriates. Two thirds of the population if make up of Asian descent with people coming from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Arabic is recognised as the official language but many languages are readily spoken like English, Urdu, Hindi and Chinese etc.
What percentage of the people in Los Angeles are multilingual
Examples of places in Los Angeles which reflect its cultural diversity
Cultural enclaves such as Chinatown, Koreatown and Thai Town
What are 5 reasons immigrants are likely to choose to live in urban areas
Cities tend to offer a greater range of employment.
Cities are the first point of entry into the country for many immigrants.
Cities tend to house earlier immigrant groups with the same ethnicity.
Established cultural diversity in cities means there are specialist ethnic shops and religion centres located there.
Urban populations tend to be more tolerant of immigrants.
What did the port city of Liverpool attract
Many Irish migrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Where are there large concentrations of the Indian ethnic minorities
In cities such as Leicester and Greater Manchester, Where labour intensive industries such as clothing were traditionally located
What is a more recent influx of migrants
Eastern European has led to changes in the demographic makeup of many British cities
What is the population like in Southampton
More than 10% of the population are now Polish and specialist Polish supermarkets and restaurants have opened to cater for them
What are the commonly cited advantages of cultural diversity
Relates to the greater exposure people get to different foods, music, language and religion
Examples of events in England that have become part of the British calendar
The Notting Hill Carnival in London and Mela in Newcastle
What do festivals in the Uk serve to illustrate
An acceptance of and interest in different cultures
What can cultural diversity put pressure in
Already stretched urban services
Where language differences exist what may local authorities need to provide
English Lessons or Bilingual literature
Because of cultural diversity, what may hospitals need to do
Cater for specific illnesses
Because of cultural diversity, what may schools need to do
Alter their curricula and holiday patterns to cater for different ethnic groups
Why is it the responsibility of local authorities to ensure that all children have the same opportunities
Because variations in educational attainment have been noted
What percentage of Cardiff is White, Asian, Black or Chinese
What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Birmingham
What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Southampton
What are the different percentages of ethnicities in London Borough of Brent
Why have many countries adopted a multicultural policy
To protect and celebrate cultural diversity
What do some argue about countries adopting a multicultural policy
That at an urban level, this can encourage culturally and spatially distinct communities leading ‘parallel lives’ which is known as segregation
Example of segregation in an urban area
In Dubai, British migrant workers tend to live in expat (sometimes gated) communities and integrate little with local society
What has London witnessed an influx of in recent years
Wealthy immigrants and these have tended to cluster together
Why does the pricing of houses in Mayfair and Knightsbridge far exceed the reach of even wealthy British people
They are home to a multitude of millionaire from the Middle East and the former Soviet Union
What did the 2011 census show as the distribution of white British and Pakistani people in London
The distribution of white British populations shows a concentric pattern around the edge of London while those of Pakistani descent are concentrated in three main areas of the city (North East) (south) and (West)
In which cities have different ethnic communities been isolated from wider society
In some European and North American cities
How have some ethnic community become isolated from wider society
They have maintained their own language and beliefs and limited their interactions with others
What can local schools being dominated by a particular group lead to
Suspicion and hostility as younger people do not get to know each other
In American cities what has the term ghetto been used to describe
An area of a city where the population is almost exclusively make up of an ethnic or cultural minority
Where are ‘ghettos’ usually located
In the poorer parts of the city, where wealthier residents have left and where unemployment rates are high
What does the place sit on Brick Land and Spitalfields highlight
The large concentration of people of Bangladeshi decent in East London
What are the two reasons for segregation in cities
What are the four self-segregation
Migrants seek the support and security of living near friends and relatives within an ethnic minority community.
Provision of specialist faculties such as places of worship and food shops.
Protection against racial abuse and attacks from the majority population.
Maintenance of cultural, language and traditions.
What are the external factors for segregation in cities
Traditionally, migrants have been a source of cheap labour focusing them into areas of cheap housing.
Ethnic minorities had been discriminated against in access to local authority housing. They have also been less successful in securing mortgage loans.
Hostility from the majority population.
Movement of the majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved.
What is often referred to as ‘white flight’
The movement of he majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved
What do geographical patterns of ethnic segregation tend to be
The result of self-segregation, but there are also external factors which have encouraged ethnic minorities to live in particular areas
What did analysis of the 2012 census data reveal
That many large cities in the Uk like Birmingham and Manchester recorded a decrease in segregation for most ethnic groups between 2001 and 2011
Examples of decreased segregation in the Uk
Indian and Chinese groups across England and Wales.
In London even the most diverse wards of Brent and Newham have experience a decrease in segregation.
Why has a policy of interculturalism been introduced
To tackle the negative issues associated with ethnic segregation
What does interculturalism do
Emphasises Interactions and the exchange of ideas between different cultural groups.
Areas of mutual interest are found and community engagement is conducted in ‘intercultural spaces’ such as libraries, schools, sports clubs and community centres
In the Uk what is there legislations on
Opportunities to combat discrimination.
What can encouragement of greater political involvement of different cultural groups also encourage
Greater integration and provide a voice for those who may feel under-represented
What do urban areas create their own
Climate and weather or ‘microclimate’
What is a ‘climatic dome’
Within the dome the weather is different from that of surrounding rural areas in terms of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, visibility, air quality and wind speed
For a large city, how big can the climatic dome extend
Upwards to 250-300m and it’s influence may continue for tens of kilometres downwind
WhT is albedo
The reflectivity of a surface. It is the ratio between the amount of incoming isolation and the amount of energy reflected back into the atmosphere.
Why do light surfaces have a greater albedo
Light surfaces reflect more than dark surfaces
What is a microclimate
The small scale variations in temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation that occur in a particular environment such as an urban area
What is particulate air pollution
A form of air pollution caused by the release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere. Emissions of particles can occur naturally but they are largely caused by the combustion of fossil fuels
What is photochemical pollution
A form of air pollution that occurs mainly in cities and can be dangerous to health. Exhaust fumes become trapped by temperature inversions and, in the presence of sunlight, low-level ozone forms. It is associated with high pressure weather systems
What is a temperature inversion
An atmospheric condition in which temperature, usually, increases with height. As the inversions are extremely stable conditions and do not allow convection, they trap pollution in the lower layer of the atmosphere
What is the urban heat island
The zone around and above an urban area, which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas
What are the two levels in an urban dome
Urban canopy where processes act in the space between buildings (sometimes referred to as ‘canyons’)
Above this is the urban boundary layer, the dome extends downwind and at heigh as a plume into the surrounding rural areas.
What is the temperature increase of urban areas compared to nearby areas
Annual mean - 0.5-0.8*C increase
Winter minimum - 1.0-1.5*C increase
What is the increase of precipitation in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas
Quantity: 5-10% increase
Days with less than 5mm: 10% increase
What is the decrease of relative humidity in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas
Annual mean: 6% decrease
Winter: 2% decrease
Summer: 8% decrease
What is the increase of visibility in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas
Fog in winter: 100% increase
Fog in summer: 30% increase
What is the change in wind speed in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas
Annual mean: 20-30% decrease
Calms: 5-20% increase
Extreme gusts: 10-20% decrease
What is the radiation in urban areas as opposed to surrounding rural areas
Ultraviolet in winter: 30% lower
Ultraviolet in summer: 5% lower
Total on horizontal surface: 15-20%
What is the increase of pollution in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas
Dust particles: 1,000% increase
Briefly describe the urban climatic dome
Prevailing wind causes the dome shape.
Rural-urban-fringe through to high rise characteristics of the central business district and back to the rural urban fringe.
Rural boundary layer.
What can the annual mean temperature of a city with one million or more people be
1 to 3*C warmer than it’s surroundings and on a clear, calm night, this temperature difference can be as much as 12*C
What is the fluctuation of temperatures in urban areas dependant one
Season, weather conditions, sun intensity and ground cover
When are surface urban heat islands typically largest
In the summer
What do smaller urban areas produce
Heat islands, but the effect tends to decrease as city size decreases
What does the US Environmental Protection Agency show of the urban heat island effect
It can be seen that typically the urban temperatures are at their highest in the mid-afternoon over the CBD.
Secondary peaks of high temperatures appear over other built up areas such as the suburban residential areas.
Temperature range from rural to city centre is often greatest at night due to the high heat storage capacity of building materials compared to vegetation.
There is very little variation in surface temperatures over areas of water.
Why is there very little variation in surface temperature over areas of water
Because water maintains a fairly constant temperature over a 24 hour period due to its high heat capacity
What is a landsat satellite image
Land surface temperature map
In a Landsat satellite image why are the mostly densely vegetated areas the coolest areas
Because vegetation cools the surface through evaporation of water
In an aerial photo, what do the colours represent
Trees and other vegetation are green.
Roads and development appear grey.
Bare ground is tan or brown.
In a land surface temperature map what do the colours mean
Cooler temperatures are yellow and hotter temperatures are red.
Where development is denser what is the land surface temperature
What are the 4 reasons that cities tend to be warmer than rural areas
Surfaces in the city tend to be much less reflective than those in rural areas.
Air pollution from industries and vehicles increase cloud cover and create a pollution dome.
In urban areas, water falling to to the surface is disposed of as quickly as possible.
Heat comes from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel.
Examples of building materials that have a low albedo
Concrete, bricks and tarmac
What do building materials like concrete, bricks and tarmac absorb large quantities of
Heat during the day
How do the surfaces in the city tend to increase temperature in the cities
Surfaces in the city have a lower albedo and absorb large quantities of heat during the day. Much of the heat is stored and slowly released at night. Some urban surfaces like large windows have a high reflective capacity, and multi-storey buildings tend to concentrate the heating effect in the surrounding streets by reflecting energy downwards.
In winter what happens to the albedo in rural areas
As rural areas keep snow for a much longer period of time they therefore have a greater albedo ranging from 0.86-0.95
What does a ‘pollution dome’ allow
It allows in short wave radiation but absorbs large amounts of the outgoing radiation as well as reflecting it back to the surface
How does water falling on the surface being disposed of quickly affect temperature in cities
It changes the urban moisture and heat budget - it reduces evapotranspiration meaning that more energy is absolve to heat the atmosphere
How does heat coming from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel affect temperature in citizen
Although they regulate the temperatures indoors, air conditioning units release hot air into the atmosphere. Even people generate heat and cities contain large populations in a small space
Examples of urban surface albedos
White paint: 0.50-0.90
Highly reflective roof: 0.60-0.70
Tar and gravel: 0.03-0.18
What do Evan environment albedos tend to be compared to rural areas
Examples of rural surface albedos
Deciduous forest (0.17)
Coniferous forest (0.14)
How has rising temperatures in the summer months caused concern about the UHI in London
The conditions can become uncomfortable in buildings and on city transport. During extreme heat island events, the case of heat stroke, asthma, organ damage and even death increase. Vulnerable groups like babies and the elderly are most likely to be effected.
How have the hot and still anticyclonic weather conditions caused concern about the UHI in London
They are responsible for intense urban heat island events and also produce higher air pollution levels. This is because the chemical reactions that produce ozone and smog are accelerated by high temperatures while the lower wind speeds keep the heat and pollution trapped in the city.
How has excessive heat caused concern about the UHI in London
It puts an increased strain on the supply of energy for cooling and air conditioning
How has the fact that In warmer periods the added heat from the urban heat island can lead to increased water consumption caused concern about the UHI in London
This places extra strain on the water supply infrastructure and can lead to water-use restrictions. Evapotranspiration rates will also be higher with the result that plants and trees will potentially extract water from the soil at greater rates than normal.
How does the earlier flowing times of plants and trees in cities caused concern about the UHI in London
There is a prolonged growing season which may cause discomfort for city residents who face a longer allergy season
How does the prologued survival and higher reproduction rates of some animals and insects cause concern about the UHI in London
They can be problematic and there is a greater potential for algae blooms in water courses as a result of rising temperatures
How has the increased rates or temperature related chemical weathering caused concern about the UHI in London
There is an increased risk of deterioration of historical monuments and buildings
What is climate change expected to increase the intensity of
The urban heat island effect in most urban areas
What can urban temperatures be mapped using
Example of urban heat island in London
Temperatures in central London rise to aiding 3*C higher which Richmond Park is 1*C cooler than it’s surroundings.
There is a positive correlation between high surface temperatures and high density urban areas, the relatively cool areas to the southwest coincide with the large open and green spaces of Richmond Park
How can you investigate the presence of an urban heat island
By taking a temperature readings for a transfer from a transect from the rural-urban fringe through the urban centre and out to the other side of the settlement
How can an alternative view of London’s UHI be gained
From the analysis of surface temperatures as measured by infrared cameras located on satellites
What are 5 strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect
Urban planning and design have focused the strategies:
Sky view factors.
How would cool surfaces help combat the urban heat island effect
Cool roofs built from materials with high solar reflectance or albedo absorb and store less solar energy during the day and thus are not major emitters of heat into the urban atmosphere at night. Cool pavements are being trialled around the world.
How do green roofs combat the urban heat island effect
They consist of a growing medium planted over a waterproof membrane, they can reduce rooftop temperatures by 20-40*C on a sunny day. They can also reduce rainwater run-off, act as insulators and increase urban biodiversity by providing habitat space for birds and animals.
How does urban greening help combat the urban heat island effect
Planting trees and vegetation provides shade (surface peak temperature reductions of 5-20*C may be possible) and can have a natural cooling effect as seen by lower temperature in urban parks around the world. Urban trees act as a carbon store and can reduce urban flooding by intercepting rainfall and filter pollutants from the air.
Example of a green roof
The curving green roof structure of the School of Art, Design and Media At Nanyang Technological University in Singapore
What is a sky view
Sky view describes the relative openness between buildings in an urban area.
How does the sky view contribute to the urban heat island effect
A restricted sky view, as found for narrow streets and tall buildings, will reduce the escape of heat from street and building surfaces. This contributes to the accumulation of heat within ‘street canyons’ and lead to the increase of air temperatures.
How does changing the sky view factor combat the urban heat island
If streets are angled perpendicular to the prevailing wind, during intense urban heat island events this will reduce the chance of ventilation and removal of heat and pollutants that accumulate between buildings
How does cool cars help combat the urban heat island
A lighter coloured car shell reflects more sunlight than a traditionally dark car shell. This cools the inside of the car and reduces the need for air conditioning. Cars contribute to the higher temperatures and pollution levels experience and so the use of cool cars would benefit the cities and drivers significantly
What did a recent study find about the effect of temperature on car colour
After parking in the sun for an hour, a silver Honda Civic (0.57 albedo) has a cabin air temperature about 5-6*C lower than an otherwise identical black car (0.05).
Why is rainfall higher over urban areas than rural areas
Because higher urban temperatures encourage the development of lower pressure over cities in relation to the surrounding area.
Which rainfall tends to be heavier and more frequent
What are 5 reasons convection rainfall is more heavy and frequent, along with thunder and lightning
The urban heat island generates convection.
Presence of high-rise buildings and a mixture of building heights induce air turbulence.
Surface winds are drawn from the surrounding rural area.
City pollution can increase cloud formation and rainfall.
Cities may produce large amounts of water vapour.
How does the urban heat island generate convection
As ground surfaces are heated, rapid evapotranspiration takes place and can result in cumulus cloud and conventional weather patterns
What does the presence of high rise buildings and a mixture of buildings heights induce
Air turbulence and promotes increased vertical motion
How are surface winds drawn in from surrounding areas
Due to low pressure caused by rising air
How does surface winds being drawn from the surrounding rural area cause convection rainfall
The air converges as it is forced to rise over the higher urban canopy, a similar process occurs as the prevailing winds move over the city. Friction from the urban boundary creates an orographic process but the moving air may split apart due to the barriers created by high rise buildings. As the air comes back together downwind of the high buildings, they are thought to converge and rise upwards forming rain clouds.
Example of an orographic process
A mountain barrier
How does the city population increasing cloud formation and rainfall cause rainfall
Pollutants act as hygroscopic (water attracting) nuclei and assist in raindrop formation. Also some suggestion that city pollution enhances the chance of lightening as the cloud droplets take on different electrical charges
Why do cities produce large amounts of water vapour
From industrial sources and power stations
What have studies shown about rainfall in urban areas
That rainfall downwind of major urban areas can be as much as 20% greater than it is in upwind areas.
Why is rainfall in downwind areas more than in upwind areas
The hearing of the surface and the overlying air creates instability in the atmosphere that encourages air to rise. As it rises, it cools, and water vapour condensed into rain that falls downwind of the city
In cities why did the occurrence of fog increase
It happened along with industrialisation
What do records of London weather show about fog
That in the early 1700s there would have been about 20 days of fog every year but by the end of the 1800s this had risen to over 50 days.
What was discovered in the 1950s about fog
That the average number of particles in city air in the more developed world was much greater than in rural areas. The particles acted as condensation nuclei and encouraged fog formation at night, usually under high-pressure weather conditions
In the Uk which act was established in the 1950s to combat the increase of fog
The Clean Air Acts
What did the Clean Air Acts of the 1950s result in
A dramatic reduction in smoke production and particulate emissions, and a decrease in the number of foggy days
What are cities that are undergoing more recent industrialisation events experiencing
Where do thunderstorms develop
In hot humid air
What are thunderstorms characterised by
Violent and heavy precipitation associated with thunder and lightning.
In urban areas when are the chances of thunderstorms increased
During late afternoon and early evening in the summer months
In what conditions do thunderstorms form
By conventional uplift under conditions of extreme instability
How are thunderstorms created
Updraught of air through the central area of the towering cloud causes rapid cooling and condensation. THis leads to the formation of water droplets, hail, ice and super-cooled water, which coalesces during collisions in the air. During condensation, latent heat is released that further fuels the convectional uplift. As raindrops are split in the updraught, positive electrical charges build up in the cloud. When the charge is high eneough to overcome resistance in the cloud, or in the atmosphere, a discharge occurs to areas of negative charge in the cloud or to the earth. This produces lightning. The extreme temperatures generated cause a rapid expansion of the air which develops a shock wave. This is heard as thunder.
What is channelling
Wind redirected down long straight canyon like streets where there is less friction. These are sometimes referred to as urban canyons
What is the Venturi effect
The squeezing of wind into an increasingly narrow gap resulting in a pressure decrease and velocity increase
What do urban structures and layouts have an effect on
Wind speed, direction and frequency
What can cause changes in wind speed and direction
Buildings can exert a powerful frictional drag on the air moving around them
What are the three main types of effect wind can have
Average wind speeds are lower in cities than in the surrounding areas and they are lower in city centres than in suburbs.
Wind can be powerful that it makes the buildings sway and knocks pedestrians of their feet.
Conventional processes can draw in strong localised winds from cooler surrounding areas.
Why are average wind speeds lower in cities than surrounding areas
The surface area of cities in uneven because of varying heights of the buildings. The buildings exert a powerful frictional drag on air moving over and around them. This creates turbulence, giving rapid and abrupt changes in both wind direction and speed.
How can wind be powerful enough that it makes buildings sway and knocks pedestrians over
High rise buildings may slow air movement but they also channel air into the canyons between them making the wind in such places powerful
When do connections processes draw in string localised winds from cooler surrounding areas
On calm and clear nights when the urban heat island effect is at its greatest
Briefly how does a single building modify an airflow passing over it
Air is displaced upwards and around the sides of the building and is also pushed downwards in the lee of the structure
Explain how the windward side of a building causes the wind to be displaced
The air pushes against the wall here with relatively high pressure.
The air flows around the sides of the building and becomes separated from the walls and roof and sets up suction in these areas.
On the windward side the overpressure; which increases with height, causes a descending flow.
This forms a vortex when it reaches the ground and sweeps around the windward corners.
When is the vortex which is caused by wind passing a building increased
If there is a small building to windward
In the lee side of a building, what happens
There is a zone of lower pressure, causing vortices behind it.
When may the Venturi effect take place
It two separate buildings allow airflow between them
How is the Venturi effect avoided
Some buildings have gaps in them or are built on stilts or podiums
What is essential to remove pollution
A reasonable flow of air at street level
What can reduce ground level wind nuisance
Building design such as pitches over doorways avoid pedestrian being down-blasted by wind
What does the disturbance to the airflow because of building depend on
The height of the buildings and the spacing between them, if building are widely spaced, each building will act as an isolated block, but if they are closer, the wake of each building interferes with the airflow around the next structure and this produces a complex pattern of airflow
When building are designed what is important
That pollution emitters (chimneys) are high enough to ensure that pollutants are released into the undisturbed flow above the building and not into the lee eddy or the downward flowing air near the walls
What are four titles of pollutants
Describe carbon monoxide
A colourless, tastless, odourless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion
Causes of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere
The road transport is responsible for almost 90% of all carbon monoxide emissions in the Uk. Concentrations tend to be highest close to busy roads
Impacts of carbon monoxide
It affects the transport of oxygen around the body by the blood. Breathing in low levels can result in headaches, nausea and fatigue
Describe nitrogen dioxide
It reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to create ozone, and contributes to the formation
Causes of nitrogen dioxide
Road transport is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of total emissions of nitrogen oxides
Impacts of nitrogen dioxide
It can inflame the lining of the lung and impacts are more pronounced in people with asthma.
Oxides of nitrogen can also cause accelerated weathering of buildings and acid rain.
Describe particles or particulate matter
Tiny bits of solids or liquids suspended in the air
Causes of particulate matter
They originate mainly from power stations and vehicle exhausts. Other particulate matter includes small bits of metal and rubber from engine wear, dust, ash, sea salt, pollens and soil particles
Impacts of particulate matter
Particles smaller than about 10 micrometers are referred to as PM10 and can settle in the airway and deep in the lungs, causing health problems
Describe sulphur dioxide
A colourless has with a strong odour produced when a material or fuel containing sulphur is burned
Cause of sulphur dioxide
In the UK the major contributors are coal and oil burning by industry such as power stations and refineries rises
Impacts of sulphur dioxide
Short term exposure may cause coughing, tightening of the chest and narrowing of the airways. Sulphur dioxide can also produce haze, acid rain, damage to lichens and plants and corrosion of buildings
What is air quality in urban areas compared to rural areadb
It is often poorer
What is particulate air pollution caused by
The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere
Can emissions of particles be natural
What are produced from vehicles and industrial processes
A combination of dust, soot and gases which have negative impact on human health
How does air pollution vary
With the time of the year and with air pressure
How much can concentrations of pollutants increase in winter and why
5 or 6 cold because temperature inversions trap them over the city
What does the mixture of fog and smoke particulates produce
When was smog common in European cities and why
Through the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries because of the high incidence of coal burning.
Why was many of the smogs in Britain known as ‘pea-suppers’
They were so thick
Example of smog in the UK
In London 1952, smog in London was responsible for more than 4,000 deaths
Why is photochemical smog an increasing concern
Photochemical oxidants (ozone and perixycetyl nitrate - PAN) are associated with damage to plants and a range of discomforts to people including headaches, eye irritation, coughs and chest pains.
What causes production of ozone (the low level ozone not the high level ozone in the atmosphere)
The action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in vehicle exhaust gases causes a chemical reaction which results in the production of ozone
What does the high level ozone do
Protects the earth from damaging ultraviolet radiation
When is photochemical smog a particular hazard
During anticyclonic conditions
Why is photochemical smog particularly hazardous during anticyclonic conditions
Because once the air has descended it is relatively static owing to the absence of wind. Such weather systems tend to be stable and can persist for weeks during the summer months.
Who has reducing air pollution in cities become increasingly important for
National and local governments
What are the 3 pollutions reduction policies
Clean Air Acts
Vehicle Control and Public Transport
Zoning of industry
After what did the British government decide legislation was needed to prevent so much smoke entering the atmosphere
The catastrophic London smog of 1952
What did the Clean Air Act of 1956 introduce
Smoke free zones into urban areas and this policy slowly began to clean up the air
Examples of the 1956 Clean Air Acts being reinforced by later legislations
In the 1990s tough regulations were imposed on levels of airborne pollution, particularly on PM10s.
Local councils in the Uk are now required to monitor pollution in their area and to establish Air Quality Management Areas where levels are likely to be exceeded.
While in London the air quality standards have in improve, what were the 2015 NOx emissions
Higher than the UK and European Law recommend
Why have measures to clean up construction sites in London been introduced
Because they are responsible for around 12% Of London’s NOx emissions (nitrogen oxides)
What have been introduced in London to reduce NOx emissions
Measures to clean up construction sites and the use of dust suppressants at industrial sites have been increased
What can be effective on reducing pollution
Greater provision of public transport and general restrictions on polluting vehicles
What are 8 strategies to reduce the number of cars in urban areas
Park and ride.
Greater use of waterways for transport (possible park and glide).
Greater provisons for cyclists.
Road schemes such as urban bypasses.
Creation of bus or car-pooling lanes.
Mass transit systems.
Banning cars from driving on certain days and alternating between cars with license plates that end in even or uneven numbers.
Example of a mass transit system
The Metrolink in Manchester
Example of provision for cyclists
The ‘Snake’ bridge in Copenhagen
Example of the Congestion charge
Central London in 2003
In London what will be introduced from September 2020
Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ).
Transport for London’s bus fleet will also be upgraded so that all double decker buses operating in central London will be hybrid and all single deck buses will be zero emission.
What is the ULEZ that was introduce in London
This is where the exhaust emissions standards are set and a daily non-compliance charge introduced to encouraged cleaner vehicles to drive in central London.
What is the hope of having an Ultra-Low Emission Zone
That almost all the vehicles running in central London during working houses could be zero or low emissions
How has zoning of industry helped reduce pollution
Industry has been located downwind in cities if at all possible and planning legislation has forced companies to build higher factory chimneys to emit pollutants above the inversion layer
Why do built up areas need to be drained
To remove surface water run-off
Traditionally how has urban drainage been achieved
By using underground pipe systems to convey the water away as quickly as possible
Why did the traditional way of urban drainage not effective
They were not designed to take into account the amenity aspects of drainage systems, such as water resources management, community facilities, landscaping potential and provision of varied wildlife habitats.
Why has water quality issues become increasingly important
Pollutants from urban areas are being washed into rivers or into the ground and once polluted, groundwater is extremely difficult to clean up.
What is a modern approach to urban drainage
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
Why are SUDS used
They deliver a more holistic approach to managing surface water and wherever possible mimic natural drainage
How do natural landscapes precipitation differ to urban landscapes
Forests, wetlands and grasslands trap precipitation and then allow it to infiltrate slowly into the ground.
Impermeable urban surfaces like roads, car parks and rooftops prevent precipitation from infiltrating.
Where does most precipitation in urban landscapes go
It remains above the surface where it runs off rapidly in unnaturally large amounts
How are urban areas designed to shed water quickly
Slipping roofs, smooth rounded guttering and cambered roads all contribute to the rapid movement of water away from the surface.
How does precipitation drain away in an urban environment
Water runs off the impermeable surfaces.
It is then gathered in smooth storm sewer systems which act like a high density drainage system.
It gathers speed and erosional power as it travels underground.
It leaves the storm drains and empties into streams, filling them rapidly.
What are the effects of urban surfaces on the water cycle
Large volumes of poor quality runoff.
Imported water + precipitation.
Why are groundwater and soil water levels reduced in urban areas
Because much of the precipitation is unable to infiltrate the impermeable urban surfaces
What are base level flows reduced in urban areas
Groundwater and soil water levels are reduced because of reduced infiltration and since this is the water that feeds streams during dry periods the base level flows are reduced
What is the resultant storm hydrograph for an urban river
Shows a river with a flashy discharge but low base flow
What is the result of a flashy hydrograph
The result is that urban areas are more likely to have flooded rivers after heavy rainfall
What combination has meant that many people are now at risk from flooding in urban areas
Combination of population and urban growth along with the predicted increase in the occurrence of severe weather as a result of climate change has meant more people are at risk
What has the Red Cross said about natural disasters
About half the natural disasters they dealt with in 2014 were caused by floods
What has the Asian Development Bank (ADB) said
The Asians population vulnerability to inland flooding is expected to reach 350 million by 2025
Explain the changes in a storm hydrograph for a stream following urban development compared to pre-urban development
The pre urban development storm hydrograph:
Gentle rising limb, longer lag time, lower peak discharge, gentle falling limb.
Post urban development storm hydrograph:
Discharge increases soon after the start of the storm, steep rising limb, short lag time, higher peak discharge, steep falling limb.
Note: the base flow of the urban river is lower than base flow of pre-urban river
What are the issues associated with urban river catchment management
River flow: increased flow leads to flooding and erosion of the river bank during wet periods, decreased flow during dry weather harms fish and other aquatic life.
Issues: higher water temperatures can disturb ecosystems, very high flows can overload the foul water system resulting in raw sewage on the surface.
While flooding is important in managing catchment in urban areas, what else needs to be considered by planners
Pollutants can harm fish and wildlife populations, kill naive vegetation, foul drinking water supplies and make recreation areas unsafe and unpleasant. Sediment from erosion can fill spaces between rocks on the street bottom, thus reducing living space or habitat for the biological communities
Two engineering strategies to help with flooding
Fail-Safe (cement and controlled, channelisation)
What are sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
A relatively new approach to managing rainfall by using natural processes in the landscape to reduce flooding, control flooding and provide amenity for the community
Examples of how a SUD works
Roofwater is collected in water butts for use in gardens or flows to grass channels called Swales.
Then travels on to grass basin where it is stored before release into local ditches.
Rain falling on roads or paths soaks through a permeable block paving where it is filtered and stored in the stone below, or it flows into grass channels, which have a stone filter dean underneath, before it joins the rest of the SUD system.
What is the bioswale rain garden
A sloped retention area designed to capture and convey water while allowing it to infiltrate the ground slowly over a 24- to 48 hour period. Some of the water is soaked up by the vegetation, thereby reducing flooding by natural means
Usually what will be in the detention ponds and Swales when the rainfall is light
Only a little water
If it rains heavily what happens to the Swales and basin
They full for a short period protecting the areas downstream, water is collected, cleaned and stored in the local landscape, providing an attractive place for play and wildlife
Example of a SUD in the UK
Moor Park Centre In Bispham, North Blackpool. It is a case study for susdrain
What is the community for sustainable drainage
Example of SUD in USA
Phoenix, Arizona has a desert climate with typical infrequent but heavy rainstorms
What can inadequate waste disposal be linked to
Air and water pollution, both of which have negative impacts on human health
What are some negatives of waste disposal
Pollution, which is detrimental for human health.
It is becoming increasingly expensive to deal with wastes
Space for landfill is running out and incineration is costly.
It is 5% of total greenhouse gas emissions.
How much does waste account for of total global greenhouse emissions
How much does methane from landfills represent of total global methane emissions
What rates are increasing
While recycling rates are increasing it is clear that more needs to be done to tackle the growing waste crisis, what do some argue the first step in waste management is
To stop calling it ‘waste’
Globally how much does waste increase each year
What accounts for the amount of waste increase each year
Population growth accounts for much of it but economic development also plays a role since greater personal wealth increases consumption of goods and archives and this leads to more waste
When is the amount of municipal solid waste particularly high
In urban areas where there is a large concentration of people
Why is the amount of MSW set to increase significantly over the next decade
It is a result of urbanisation and rising living standards
In 2002 how many urban residents were there
In 2002 how much MSW did each person generate
In 2012 how much did the population increase
To about 3 billion
In 2012 how much did each person generate of waste
Why is solid waste seen as an ‘urban issue’
Because urban residents produce about twice as much waste as their rural counterparts
Globally what do rural dwellers tend to be
Poorer, purchase fewer store-brought items (which results in less packaging), and have higher levels of reuse and recycling
Does waste generation varies significantly between cities
In 2010 what were rates of waste production
Much higher in cities in HICs
Why in 2010 were rates of waste production much higher in cities in HICs
Waste generation tends to be greater where disposable incomes and living standards are higher
Which cities are set to be the biggest increase in waste generation over the next decade
Cities in low and middle income countries as a result of rapid urbanisation and continued industrialisation
Which city is the amount of municipal solid waste growing fastest in
China, it overtook the US as the worlds largest waste generator in 2004
What is an interesting finding to come out of studies on urban waste managment
That both richer and poorer cities in a region often outperform middle-income ones
What do the average residents of Kuala Lumpur (middle income) use of water and produce of waste
497 litres of water.
816 kilograms of waste.
What do the average residents of Singapore (rich income) use of water and produce of waste
309 litres of water.
307 kilograms of waste.
What does the average resident of Delhi (poor) use of water and produce of waste
209 litres of water.
147 kilograms of waste.
What is atmospheric pollution caused by
The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere
In 2014 what did the WHO find about urban air pollution
It was 2.5 times higher than the recommended levels in about half of the urban populations being monitored, which puts urban dwellers at risk
How many Londoners died prematurely in 2010 because of air pollutants
In London what air pollutants were people exposed to that caused them to die prematurely
Fine PM2.5 particles
While human activity produces air pollutants what determines what will happen to them once they are released
The weather. During wet or windy conditions pollution concentrations remain low, either blown or washed away. During periods of hot, still weather, pollution is able to build up harmful amounts, leading to what is known as pollution episodes
What are pollution episodes
During periods of hot, still weather pollution is able to build up
Somewhere in the midst of economic growth what appeared to overtake sustainability
When is consumption controlled
When a city becomes comparatively wealthy
What is the ‘tipping point’ to controlling consumption in Asia
A per capita GDP of around US $20,000
What is urban waste made up of
Millions of separate waste items
What are the 6 sources of waste
Construction and demolition.
Which kinds of waste are easiest to manage
Large waste items such as organically (food and horticultural waste) and papers
Which wastes are pose disproportionately large problems for disposal
Wastes such as multi-laminates, hazardous (for example syringes) and e-waste
Why is difficult to dispose of waste a particular concern for low income countries
They may not have the facilities to properly dispose of them safely
Annually how much hazardous waste is deposited in Cairo
What does the composition of waste vary according to
A number of records such as level of economic development, cultural norms, geographical location, energy sources and climage
As a country urbanises and population becomes wealthier what happens
Consumption of inorganic materials like plastics, paper and aluminium increases , while the relative organic proportion decrease
What percentage of organic matter is in the urban waste stream for low and middle income countries
Ranging from 40 to 85%
What is the costs of collecting and treating waste
In lower income countries what is solid waste management
It is usually a city’s single largest budgetary item
In low income countries how much to urban authorities spect of their budget on solid waste management
Environmentally waste is a large source of what
Methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
It also contributes to water, ground and air pollution.
What is a waste generator of residential waste
Types of residential waste
Household hazardous wastes like paints and aerosols.
E-wastes like computers.
Special wastes like batteries and oils and tyres.
What is a waste generator of industrial waste
Light and heavy manufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plants
Types of industrial waste
Housekeeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials,hazardous wastes, ashes, special waste
What is a waste generator of commercial waste
Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings
Types of commercial waste
Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste
What is a waste generator of institutional waste
Schools, hospitals (non medical wastage), prisons, government buildings, airports
Examples of institutional waste
Same as commercial: Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste
What is a waste generator of construction and demolition
New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings
Examples of construction of demotion waste
Wood, Steel, concrete, dirt, bricks, tiles
In someone’s what percentage of the total waste steam is construction and demolition waste
What is a waste generator of urban services
Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plants
Examples of waste created by urban services
Street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas, sludge
What can untreated or uncollected waste lead to
Health problems such as respiratory ailments, diarrhoea, cholera and dengue fever
What was the 2012 World Bank report on waste
It found that 30-60% of urban solid waste in lower income countries is uncollected
In Cairo what percentage of daily waste is collected or disposed of in an appropriate way
Where does the other 60% of Cairo’s waste go if not disposed of correctly
It is simply dumped in the desert
What are cities running out of
What does waste management generally follow
An accepted hierarchy
What is the key target of waste management
To reduce the amount of waste produced in the first place
How can reducing the amount of waste produced be done
Through a combination of waste related legislation, education and financial incentives
What can waste disposal occur through
Incineration or landfill
What is the waste hierarchy
Most preferred option:
Recover (digestion, composting)
Incineration (with energy recovery)
: least preferred option
What is a controlled dump
One in which there has been site selection, controlled access and possibly compaction of waste. The bottom ash, non combustibles and by passed waste from incineration all go to landfill
Which waste management strategies are waste disposal
Which waste management strategies are waste diversion
What are he most common methods of waste disposal in high income countries
Landfiling and thermal treatment
How do most low and lower middle income countries dispose of their waste
Waste in open dumps, some of this disposal may be unregulated
What does unregulated mean
It is not controlled or supervised by regulation of law
What can solid waste that is not properly collected and disposed of be
A breeding ground for insects, vermin and scavenging animals and can thus pass on air and water borne disease
What did a survey conducted by by UN-Habitat in 2009 find
That in areas where waste is not collected frequently, the incidence of diarrhoea is twice as high and acute respiratory infections six times higher than in areas where collection is frequent
What do environmental threats from waste management include
Contamination of groundwater and surface water by leachate, as well as air pollution from burning of waste that is not properly collected and disposed of
What is resource recovery
The selective extractions of disposed materials for a specific next use, such as recycling, composting or energy generation
When is recycling carried out
When materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products
In recent years what has the global market for recyclables been doing
What is the world market for post consumer scrap metal estimated at
400 million tonnes annually and around 175 million tonnes annually for paper and cardboard (UN-Habitat 2009)
What is the world market for post consumer scrap global value
At least $30 billion per year
Where does recycling occur in low and middle income countries
Through an active, although usually informal, sector
What estimate percentage of the urban population survive by salvaging recyclables from waste
What can save significant energy
Manufacturing new products using recited materials
How much less energy does producing aluminium from recycled materials take than producing it form virgin materials
What is urban mining
The name given to the process of recovering compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste which would otherwise be left to decompose in landfills
By collecting and salvaging valuable components to be reused and recycled what is there a greater chance of
Reducing landfill waste
What are the key advantages of recycling and recovery
Reduced quantities of disposed waste and the return of materials to the economy
What are the negative environmental issues of recycling and recovery
Energy may be required for the operation of material recovery from waste and this leads to greenhouse gas emissions.
Informal recycling by waste lickers will have little greenhouse gas emissions, except for processing the materials for sale or reuse which can be relatively high if improperly burned (for example metal recovery from e-waste)
What are the different methods of waste management and disposal
Recycling and recovery.
What is the global waste trade
The international trade of waste between countries for further treatment, disposal, or recycling
What happens to toxic or hazardous waste is the global waste trade
It is often exported from high to low income counties as seen in the example of e-waste
Why are hazardous wastes not properly treated or disposed of
Because the waste is exported to low income countries but they do not often have safe recycling processes or facilities and hazardous wastes are not properly disposed of or treated
What can un-properly treated hazardous waste lead to
Contamination of the surrounding environment
What laws have been introduced to prevent movement of toxic waste
International laws such as the Basel Convention
What has international laws such as the Basel Convention been introduced for
To prevent transboundary movement of hazardous waste but evidence suggests it still happens
How much can incineration of waste reduce the volume of disposed waste
By up to 90%
How can general waste produce electricity and heat
If it’s safely burned at high temperatures and under carefully controlled conditions
Why is incineration without energy recovery not a preferred option of waste management
Due to its cost and pollution
When is the open burning of waste common
In poorer countries
Why is the open burning of waste particularly discouraged
Due to severe air pollution associated with low temperature combustion
What has a rapidly growing surplus of electronic waste around the world result from
Quickly evolving technological advances
What is the estimation for how much e-waste is produced each year
50 million tonnes
What did the UN Step report in 2013
That e-waste is the worlds fastest growing waste stream
Where does much of the e-waste come form
The USA and Europe
Examples of countries e-waste is shipped to
Poorer countries in Asia and Africa
What toxic substances are usually found in electronic goods
Why do people who work in informal waste sites for e-waste in poorer countries often suffer bouts of poor health
Once in a land fill the toxic materials in electronic goods seep into the environment, contaminating land, water and the air
What is burial
The placement of waste in man made or natural excavations, such as pits or landfills
What are landfill sites
A common final disposal site for waste in urban areas
What may a landfill site be in low income countries
Simply a hole in the ground where open dumplings occur
Describe landfill sites in high income countries
Much stricter regulations and the types of materials that can be sent to landfill are often defined by law.
What are landfill sites like in the UK
Most landfill sites now control and collect the gas that is released by the decomposing waste, often using it to generate electricity through turbines
What is the greenhouse gas methane produce by in a landfill
Rotting organic matter
In a landfill site what else besides methane can cause harm
Bleach and ammonia can produce toxic gases that negatively impact the quality of air in the vicinity.
Dust and other forms of non-chemical contaminants can also make their way into the atmosphere.
Landfills can affect ground water and river quality because toxic chemicals can leach out and contaminate the water.
Advantages to landfill
Facilities are properly suited with necessary controls.
Different types of waste accepted and ordered.
Advantages of incineration
Can reduce the volume of waste needing disposal by 90%.
Can inactivate disease agents.
Can reduce toxicity of waste.
Can be used to produce energy.
Incinerator bottom ash can be recycled as a secondary aggregate.
Disadvantages of landfill
Often opposed by neighbouring residents.
Potential leaching of chemicals threatens groundwater supply.
Decaying matter produces methane, a strong greenhouse gas which is also explosive.
Landfill takes up a lot of space.
High transportation costs.
Disadvantages of incineration
Not all waste is combustible.
Poses challenges of air pollution and incinerator bottom ash disposal.
Unpopular with local residents.
What has been banned by international conventions about waste disposal
The actual submergence if waste in oceans
According to the United Nations, what have some companies been doing with radioactive waste and hazardous materials
Dumping them into the coastal waters of Somalia, taking advantage of the fact that the country lacks strong governance
Where do enviornmental problems tend to be worse and what is the impact
Worse in poorer cities experiencing rapid growth and impacts most severely on the more vulnerable groups with that urban society
What is the main problems concerns of urban areas
Pollution of the air, water and waste disposal and urbanisation leading to a loss of land and therefore habitats. Noise pollution also.
By 2030 what is the estimated expansion of Urban land area
Expanded by as much as 3.3 million square kilometres
What is the CBO
The cities and Biodiversity Outlook project
What did the CBO project say the expansion of urban areas will cause
‘A considerable loss of habitat in key biodiversity hotspots’ in cities such as flood plains, estuaries and coastlines
In Shenzen China how much of the population complained more about noise pollution than air or water pollution
What is noise pollution linked to
Traffic and industry
What are the three biggest environmental treats facing cities in the twenty-first century
What are 4 some simpler measures fo improve air quality
Ensuring that houses are energy efficient.
Urban development is well served by public transport routes.
Street design is safe and appealing for pedestrians and cyclists.
Waste is well managed.
What is a well known environmental company
What has AECOM calculated about londons trees
That londons 8.3 million trees provide £95 million worth of air filtration every year in terms of health costs avoided
What can all the strategies to manage air pollution serve to do
Act as a catalyst for local economic development and the promotion of healthy urban lifestyles
What does the Daily Air Quality Index (DAQI) air to do
Detail the level of air pollution in the UK and provide recommended actions and health advice
For European cities, how often is the Urban Air Quality Index updated
Every hour and allows comparison of air quality over a 24-hour period
What does UK-AIR do
Provides automated tweets about current and forecast air quality including episodes of poor air quality
What is over 90% of air pollution in low and middle income cournriss due to
The high number of older vehicles, poor vehicle maintenance and low fuel quality
Recently what schemes have been introduce in low to middle income countries to manage air pollution C
UN partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles air to improve air quality, there have been greater investment in improving road quality and commitments have been made to promote non-motorised journeys
What is water pollution
The contamination of water sources including rivers, lakes, oceans, aquifers and groundwater
When does water pollution occur
When pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Examples of indirect water pollution
Contaminants that enter the water from soils or groundwater or from the atmosphere via rain
What do the high concentration of impermeable surfaces in urban areas increase
Run-off from roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils, heavy metals, rubber and other vehicle pollutants into water ways and streams.
Reduction in water percolation into the ground which also affect the quantity and quality of ground water.
Increase stormwater runoff in urban areas which can overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment systems when high flows exceed treatment capacities.
What do reports suggest about urban stormwater
It can be just as polluted as untreated domestic wastewater
What are 6 causes of water pollution in urban areas
Surface run off from streets carry contaminates from motor vehicles.
Rubbish dumps, toxic waste, chemical and fuel storage which can all leak pollutants.
Intentional dumping of hazardous substances.
Air pollution can lead to acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition.
Why is untreated/poorly treated sewage a problem
It is Los in dissolved oxygen and high in pollutants such as nitrates, phosphorus and bacteria
What can treated sewage still be high in
How is acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition a cause of water pollution
It can alter the water chemistry of an area
How many people lack access to clean water
Over 1.2 billion
What percentage of waterborne infections account for all infectious diseases
What does increased water pollution create
Breeding ground for malaria-carrying mosquitos as well as damaging ecosystems, leading to species extinction
How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: heavy metals
Heavy metals From industrial processes can slow development, resulting in birth defects and may be carcinogenic
How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: industrial waste
It often contains toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or poisoning
How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: microbial pollution
Comes from sewage and often results in infectious diseases that infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water.
Examples of the diseases caused by microbial pollution
Cholera and typhoid fever which are a major cause of infant mortality in low income counties
How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: organic matter and nutrients
They can cause an increase in aerobic algae and deplete oxygen from the water. This can lead to the suffocation of fish and other aquatic organisms
How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: suspended particles
In freshwater, reduces the quality of drinking water for humans and the aquatic environment for marine life. They can also reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water, disrupting the growth of photosynthetic plants and micro-organisms.
Why does improving water quality requires strategies
To prevent, trust and remediate water pollution
Ideally, how would one manage water pollution
By preventing pollutants from entering water courses in the first place
In reality, what is the way to manage water pollution
Treating potential pollutants before they are discharged.
What is the final and often most expensive strategy of managing water pollution
Polluted watercourses being restored through remediation
In high income countries, what does water quality improvements focus on
Construction of water treatment facilities and wastewater plants.
Regulations aimed at 'point source' polluters such as industries which discharge water pollution into receiving water or sewer systems that flow into treatment plants.
What is the most difficult water-quality challenge
Dealing with 'non-point source' pollution which is the result of precipitation run-off from a wide range of sources including fertilisers and pesticides from agriculture, and chemicals and toxins from urban settlements. These pollutants are difficult to regulate
In Low income countries what has resulted in lower water quality standards
Lack of money and inadequate technology.
Effecfive legislation is often absent and enforcement of pollution controls are limited.
What are the five key water pollution strategies
Low impact development (LID)
Legislation, regulation and enforcement
Education snd awareness
Improvements in sewage and wastewater processing
What is low impact development
A stormwater managment approach that can help to reduce stormwater run-off
What is LID primarily done
The use of vegetation and permeable surfaced to allow infiltration of water into the ground. Permeable streets and pavements, green roofs, rain gardens and more urban parks allow water infiltrate into soils rather than flow directly into sewers
What has filtering stormwater stormwater through vegetation and soil been shown to reduce
Organic pollution, oils and heavy metals by more than 90%
How do legislation, regulations and enforcement become a key water pollution strategy
There are many different anti-pollution laws and agreements in operation worldwide. But these laws need to be enforced.
How is legislation and enforcement a key water pollution strategy
Some cities have adopted incentive-based approaches charging polluters per unit. Charges start low but are increased if pollution counties, creating an incentive to rescue discharges and purchase wastewater treatment technologies.
How are regulations a key water pollution strategy
Factories are allowed to discharge only limited amounts of carefully controlled pollutants. By slowly reducing the levels of permitted discharges, year by year, pollution levels are reduced
How does education and awareness help manage water pollution
the more prone Who about the causes and effects of pollution the more likely they will avoid adding to it
In 2014 what did Wessex Water use
Mobile billboards in hotspot areas urging people to bin wet wipes rather than flush them down the toilet as they are a common cause of sewer blockages since they do not decompose like toilet paper
Example of appropriate technology being a key water pollution strategy
Janicki omniprofessor - a small scale innovation aimed st providing clean water in low income countries. It first boils raw sewage sludge during which the vapour is seperated from the solid. Solids then put into fire producing steam and driving an engine producing electricity for the systems processor and for the community. Water is put through a cleaning systems to produce drinking water.
What is dereliction
Refers to the state of having been abandoned and become dilapidated
What are derelict buildings often associated with urban areas
Former industrial sites or run-down housing estates
In the UK how did buildings become derelict
De-industrialisation led to many people leaving the inner city and industrial buildings were abandoned.
Alongside this, services such as public houses and ships may have become vacant as areas become subject to urban decline.
What is the impact of dereliction on the surrounding area
Crime and vandalism rates tend to be higher.
House prices fall.
Out-migration of residents take place.
What often discourages authorities and individuals from renovating or rebuilding
The high cost invoked in urban renewal
What can significantly increase the investment needed to compact dereliction
The presence of listed buildings, which are subject to considerable planning regulations
How does derelict land pose a risk to human health
Contamination from industrial processes lives on in an environment long after the industry that produced or used them is fine
What is a brownfield site
A term used in urban planning to describe land previously used for industrial purposes or some commercial uses
What is a greenfield site
An area of undeveloped land
What is land remediation
The removal of pollution or contaminants from the ground, which enables areas of derelict form industrial land to be bought back into commercial use
What is one of the most common strategies for tacking urban dereliction
Through regeneration schemes such as Urban Development Corporations, City Challange And New Deal for Communities which have had fading levels of success
What does the government try to build new developments on
Brownfield sites rather than greenfield sites
Between 1997 and 2009 what did the proportion of dwellings (including conversions) built on brownfield sites increase to
From 56 to 80%
What did the proportion of previous- developed land changing to residential use between 1997 and 2009 increase to
47 to 69%
What proportion of dwelling in London are built in brownfield sites
What are the 6 advantages to using brownfield sites
Improved physical environment.
Revives older urban communities.
Existing infrastructure can reduce costs and encourage faster occupancy.
Preserves historical landmarks and heritage architecture.
Reduced urban sprawl.
Preserves greenfield sites.
What are the disadvantages of using brownfield sites
Greater costs of clearing contaminated land.
Most brownfield sites are in the inner city, which have higher levels of traffic congestion and noise.
What are 4 land remediation techniques
What has been at the heart of Detroit’s recent strategy to tackle its derelict land areas
What are three ways to deal with derelict urban sites
How can community action help derelict urban land
They can encourage small community based activities such as urban farming.
This can lead to conversion of hectares of land into community gardens and micro farms that can yield produce which can be sold to other community organisations like soup kitchens.
What can derelict buildings be converted to
Community centres, cafes and greenhouses
What do cities pose a threat to
Both the local and global environment
How much do cities consume of the worlds resourcss
What do cities generate
The majority of the worlds waste and pollution.
Along with the consequences of waste disposal, pollution and dereliction in cities what else is being felt globally
The effects of urban growth
What do cities rely on
Energy and resources from all over the world
Where is the pollution and waste that cities generate dispersed
What can the environmental impact of cities be measuring using
The ecological footprint calculation
What is the ecological footprint calculation
The total area of productive land and water required to produce the resources a population consumed and absorb the waste produced
In 2007 what was the average persons ecological footprint globally
2.7 global ha. However the variation in both between and within counties is huge
Who tends to have a higher ecological footprint
Cities have a higher footprint than rural areas and wealthy cities have a higher footprint than poorer ones
What did the ‘City Limits’ survey in London, 2003 find
That London’s ecological footprint covered an area twice the size of the Uk, and that if the entire population of the world made such demands, we would need at least three planets to sustain this level of activity
What did more a recent search by the Global Footprint find
That SAN Francisco’s footprint was about 6% higher than the average Americans (2011) while the average footprint of residents of the ‘green city’ of Curitiba was more than 40% higher than the Brazilian average (2010)
What is a high ecological footprint in cities attributed to
The greater affluence of city residents correlating with increased consumption and waste production
What does the concept of the ecological footprint illustrate
The disproportionate impact cities have on the environment
What needs to happen to help reduce the ecological footprint of a city
Greater global sustainability is to be achieved
What is one of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal
To make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and the city as an entity is viewed as a key factor in building a more sustainable world
Where was the idea of sustainability first brought to wider public awareness
In the 1987 Brundtland Report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
What did the Brundtland Report state
‘Sustainable Development was meeting the needs of he present without compromising he ability of future generations to meet their own needs’
What are the dimensions (pillars) of sustainability
Social development . Economic development. Environmental managment. Urban governance.
What is a sustainable city
One which provides employment, a high standard of living, a clean, healthy environment and fair governance for all its residents.
What has increasingly been incorporated into sustainable urban design
People-centred planning and the notion of liveability is important here
What is liveability
Characteristics of a city which improve the quality of life for the people there. But this means different things to different people, for some it is tied to natural amenities such as parks and green space; for others to cultural offerings, career opportunities, economic and political stability or some degree of safety within which to raise a family.
In the context of the global liveability rankings, what does liveability mean
It related to which cities provide the best or worst living conditions for their residents
What are the inputs into an unsustainable/ linear system of a megacity
Non-a renewable energy.
What are the outputs to an unsuitable/ linear system of s mega city
Waste (organic, inorganic) (landfill, dumped in rivers/seas)
Air pollution (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, ozone), noise
Goods, services, wealth, sprawl
What are the components of an sustainable/ circular system of an ecosystem
Inputs, recycling of inorganic waste (paper, plastics etc), recycling of organic waste (water, compost), outputs
Examples of inputs in a sustainable/circular system of an eco city
Local foods and goods.
Conservation and use of renewable energy.
What are the outputs of a sustainable/ circular system in an eco city
Examples of green cities
Copenhagen in Denmark
Curitiba in Brazil
Freiburg in Germany
What are the two types of systems in cities
Unsustainable/ linear system in a megacity
Sustained/ circular system in an ecocity
What is urban resilience
A twenty first century word that means The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems within a city to survive, adapt and grow, no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience
What does thinking of a city as a system enable
A comparison between the characteristics of a typical megacity and that of a green city
Why is the linear system of a megacity unsustainable
Uncontrolled use of inputs and outputs leads to resources becoming exhausted and extremely high pollution and waste levels
How is a circular system in a city sustainable
Some of the outputs are recycled, which reduces the demand for new input resources and pollution and waste levels
What can sustainability be measured in
A number of different ways and different organisations will use different criteria to rank cities in terms of their sustainability
What are terms like 'green city' and 'Eco city' used to describe
Cities with a good environmental record, but the range of indicators used for measuring urban sustainability needs to be far greater and incorporate the social, economic and political elements
7 Examples of the social development pillar for achieving sustainability
Adequate provision of schools and health services.
A ability of foods supplies.
Green housing and buildings.
Clean water and sanitation.
Green public transport.
Green energy access.
Recreational areas and community support.
3 examples of the economic development pillar for achieving sustainability
Decent employment opportunities.
Production and distribution of renewable energy.
Investment in green technology and innovation.
5 examples of the environmental managment pillar for achieving sustainability
Waste and recycling managment.
Air quality conservation.
Adaption to and mitigation of climate change.
Forest and soil managment.
4 examples of the urban governance pillar of sustainability
Adoption of green urban planning and design strategies.
Strategies to reduce inequality.
Strengthening of civil and political rights.
Support of local, national, regional and global links.
What are the 11 key features of a sustainable city
Resources and services accessible to all.
Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars.
Public transport is safe and reliable.
Walking and cycling is safe.
Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable.
Where possible, renewable resources are used.
Water is seen as a resource and recycled when possible.
New homes are energy efficient.
Access to affordable housing.
Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all.
Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues like crime and security.
What does chronic stresses include
Day-to-day challenges such as high unemployment, inefficient public transport systems, endemic violence and chronic food and water shortages.
What are acute shocks
Sudden events that may threaten a city including earthquakes, floods, disease outbreaks and terrorist attacks
What must a sustainable city be able to cope with
The physical, social and economic challenges that are a growing part of the tenth first century
What is the main obstacle for cities to become more sustainable
In the context of rapidly growing urban populations and limited budgets, what do authorities tend to choose
Short-term cheaper solutions over long-term planning
In cities with a large number of people lacking access to water and electricity, what do authorities tend to focus on
Providing basic infrastructure over invest in environmental projects and sustainable development
What are challenges to developing sustainable cities
Short term needs.
Lack of enforcement of planning regulations.
What are the main social urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013
By 2025, urban population will live in mainly small and medium sized cities.
Number of urban people living in slums continues to grow.
Inefficient use of public services (water, electricity).
What are the main economic urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013
Inequality and financial fragility.
What are the main environmental urban trends in developing/developing countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013
What percentage of the urban population in 2025 will live in small and medium cities
42% and 24%
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities
They need to Improve access to housing, water and sanitation; improve public infrastructure; foster institutional capacity
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities
They can invest in possible public infrastructure (including transportation); construction of compact buildings in middle-income cities; strengthen the links between cities and rural areas
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow
They need to reduce the number of urban poor and disease risk, improve social cohesion, reduce youth unemployment
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow
They can invest in universal access to affordable water and sanitation, public transport. Creation of jobs to reduce growth of slums, employment of the ‘youth’ dividend in low-income countries
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)
They need to improve waste and recycling management, support consumption of local produce, change overconsumption patterns of high income households
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)
They can provide subsidies to households and small firms to reduce non-saving water systems and waste, incentive to local communities to improve recycling systems
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population
They need to create productive employment for older persons
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population
They can invest in universal pensions, extend the working age, support family networks
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility
They need to create policy space for inclusive development, reduce underemployment, promote economic diversification
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility
They can invest in green industry, adapt to climate change, structure economic change (industrial and service ‘leapfrogging’ for least developed countries) and strengthen regional corporation
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity
They need to improve access to food and increase productivity
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity
They can invest in urban agriculture, local crops, storage facilities
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access
They need to provide access to clean energy and reduce use of ‘dirty’ energy in poor households, they need to discourage high energy consumption in high income households
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access
They can invest in capacity development, energy-saving devices, production and use of renewable sources of energy; subsidies and incentives for efficient energy use and water use for middle and high income households
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change
They need to reduce the impact of livelihood, reduce carbon emissions, generate financial resources for adaptation
What are the opportunity to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change
They can investment in health and education infrastructure and facilities; adapt and mitigate technology and early warning systems; green public transportation; strengthen regional cooperation for green technology transfer
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities
There is Social cohesion
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities
They can invest in compact urban development and decentralisation
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow
Thy need to reduce urban unemployment due to economic crises (of youth in particular); provide adequate housing in poor neighbourhoods
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow
They need to strengthen and widen social safety nets, upgrade investment in social protection for an effective response to crises and their aftermath
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)
They need to change overproduction and overconsumption styles, improve waste and recycling management
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)
They can invest in retrofitting in buildings of water and energy saving devices, upgrading public furniture
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population
They have fiscal pressure to reduce health costs and need to improve productivity
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population
They can invest in retraining older people and extend the working age
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inequality and financial fragility
They need to reduce unemployment, boost economic growth, strengthen international cooperation
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population
They can invest in green infrastructure, policy coherence and coordination
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the food insecurity
They need to Reduce food waste
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of food insecurity
They can invest in storage infrastructure, reducing food subsidies, policy coordination
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access
They need to reduce overproduction and overconsumption to sustainable levels
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access
They can invest and use incentives to produce and use renewable energy sources; decentralisation of energy production
What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change
They need to upgrade disaster risk prevention systems and reduce carbon emissions to sustainable levels
What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change
They can invest in mitigation, industrial green transformation, retrofitting of buildings and policy coordination
Why is there no ‘one scheme fits all’ approach towards achieving sustainability
Because the challenges faced by individual cities are diverse and depend on their population size, economic status, technological capacities and development priorities
What are 9 key strategies to achieve sustainability
Investment in infrastructure like roads, water, sewers and electricity and services such as schools and health care.
Green investment in low income countries.
Investment in the production and use of renewable energy sources as well as the renovation of infrastructure, retrofitting of buildings and improved electricity and water efficiency.
Investment in the reduction of waste production and waste collection.
Provision of more ‘green’ areas.
Investment in sustainable and affordable housing.
Adoption of a local currency.
Active participation of different city stakeholders.
Disaster risk reduction.
What has it been argued that greater investment in rural areas is important to do
Reduce the rural-urban migration that has put increasing pressure in cities in the last few decades
How does green investment in low income countries help sustainability
They can help poorer cities ‘leapfrog’ from high-carbon energy use to a zero-carbon development path which could provide employment for the ‘youth bulge’ within these cities
What was the name and content of the report by the British environmental charity Groundwork in 2012
‘grey places need green spaces’ in which they outlined the benefits of green spaces in cities.
This includes greater public health, better personal well-being and economic prospects and reduced violence and aggression
Examples of stakeholders
Local businesses in urban planning.
Examples of disaster risk reduction
Schemes such as tidal barrages and early warning systems can help mitigate the impacts of floods, storm surges and other hazards to which some cities are vulnerable
What do local currencies tend to do
Serve the need of local people because they keep money within the local economy
Example of a local currency
The Bristol Pound
What has Research by the New Economics Foundation round
That for every local currency pound spent in a local business, £1.73 is generated through the multiplier effect. In contrast for every pound spent in a chain store, only 35p is re-spent in the local economy
What can local currency encourage a sense of