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Flashcards in CUE Deck (973):

What is urbanisation

The process by which an increasing proportion of a country's population lives in towns and cities


What has the urban population in the world grown to from 1950 to 2014

746 million to 3.9 billion


What are the most urbanised regions in the world

Northern America
Latin America
The Carribean


What percentage of people lived in urban areas for Northern America in 2014



What percentage of people lived in urban areas in Latin America in 2014



What percentage of people lived in urban areas in the Caribbean in 2014



What percentage of people lived in urban area in Europe in 2014



Which two continents are mostly rural



What percentage people live in urban areas in Afrjcs



What percentage of people live in urban areas in Asia



Where are the fastest growing urban areas found

In Africa and Asia


Which three countries are expected to account for 37% of the projected growth of the worlds urban population between 2014 and 2050



How many urban dwellers is India predicted to add in 2050

404 million


How many urban dwellers is China projected to add in 2050

292 million


How many urban dwellers is Nigeria predicted to add in 2050

212 million


What is the total world population expected to surpass by 2045

6 billion


Where will much of the expected urbanisation occur

Low income countries


Characteristics of the fastest growing urban areas

Medium sized cities.
Cities with less than one million inhabitants.
Many areas projected to be urban in 2040 are not actually built yet.


What percentage of Indias expected urban growth has yet to be built

70% of the cities.


What led to population losses in the American cities of Buffalo and Detroit between 2000 and 2014

Economic contraction


In 2014 why did New Orleans experience population decline

In the wake of the 2005 hurricane Katrina natural disaster


What is a striking feature of the last 30 years of development

The rapid development of megacities.


What is a megacity

City of urban agglomeration (urban area incorporating several large towns or cities) with a population of more than 10 million


How many megacities were there in 1990



How many megacities were there in 2014



How many megacities are predicted in 2025

The UN predicts 37


In 2025 what percentage are megacities predicted to hold of the global population



Where is the development of megacities largely concentrated

In Asian


In 2015 what was the worlds largest city

Tokyo, closely followed by Delhi, Mumbai and Shanghai


How many inhabitants did Tokyo have in 2015

38 million


What is a metacity

A conurbation (continuous built up area) of more than 20 million people.


What plans do the Chinese government have

Plans to merge nine cities in the Pearl River Delta to create an urban area 26 times larger than Greater London


Timeline of global ubanisation

1960: 34% in urban areas
2014: 54% in urban areas
2050: 66% in urban areas (90% of this concentrated in Africa and Asia)


Why can cities be classed as efficient

It is easier to provide basic services such as water and sanitation to people living closer together, likewise access to health, education and other social and cultural services is more readily available.


As towns and cities expand why is there a greater strain on the environment and natural resources

The cost of meeting basic needs increases


What has transformed agricultural practices

Globalisation and the impact of climate change


Why has the proportion of people leaving rural areas increased

They are leaving urban areas to find employment in the cities due to the new agricultural practices being industrialised


How are issues of social cohesion evident

As variations in wealth and ethnicity can sometimes lead to hostility


What does the future survival of cities depend on

Sustainable growth.
Ability to tackle the major issues such as provisions of affordable housing, employment, pollution and waste disposal, transport and social inequality.


According to the UN when did London receive megacity status



What is urban growth

An increase in the number of urban dwellers. Classifications or urban dwellers depend on the census definition of urban areas, which vary from country to country. They usually include one or more of the following criteria: population size, population density, average distance between buildings within a settlement and legal and/ or administrative boundaries.


What are the two main causes of urbanisation

Natural population growth.
Migration from rural to urban areas.


What is urban sprawl

The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside


Briefly what are the negative impacts of urban sprawl

Raquires more infrastructures and roads.
Habitat loss.
More commuting from suburbs to city so more fuel consumption and congestion.
Air pollution.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impact on water quality and quantity.


How is requiring more infrastructures like cables and pipes a negative impact of urban sprawl

It is less economically efficient to service low-density rural areas compared to compact urban development with the same number of households


How is wild life loss a negative impact of urban sprawl

Because the reach of urban sprawl into rural areas ranks as one of the main causes of wildlife loss because it builds on greenfield sites


How is air pollution a negstive of urban sprawl

More people live a car dependant life style Which leads to increased fossil fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gas. The areas may also experience higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect


How is the loss of farmland due to urban sprawl a negative impact

It has led to the loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result.


How does urban sprawl have an impact on water quality and quantity

Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means that rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish the groundwater aquifers. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk


What is decentralisation

The movement of industry and businesses, including retail companies into the suburbs.


What has decentralisation been blamed for

Decline of retail in some city centres and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape


What does homogenisation mean

Where cities become indistinct from one and another


What is an edge city

New self-contained settlements have developed beyond the original city boundary


What have American cities in particular witnessed the growth of during urban sprawl

Large edge-of-city complexes including shopping malls and leisure areas


What are two causes of urban growth

Natural population growth.
Rural-urban migration.


What has urbanisation historically been linked to

Other important economic and social transformations


What have economic and social transformations brought about because of urbanisation

Greater geographic mobility.
Lower fertility.
Longer life expectancy.


How do cities hold an important role in reducing poverty

They hold much of the national economic activity, government institutions, business and transportation and have higher levels of education, better health, easier access to social services and greater opportunities for cultural and political participation.


What is Brazil’s economic and financial capital

São Paulo


In 2015 what percentage of São Paulo accounted of the population and national GDP

10% of population but 25% of GDP


What does GDP stand for

Gross Domestic Product


What percentage of Kenya accounts for the country’s population and GDP

8.4% of population and almost 20% or the country’s GDP


What are the age profiles in urban areas

Relatively young


What is the age range for young adults



What are pull factors in urban areas

Higher paid jobs
Better educational opportunities
Greater social and cultural diversity


Between 2001 and 2011 what happened to the population of large city centres in England in Whales

It more than doubled, with the number of residents aged 22-29 nearly tripling to make up almost half of their population.


Why are the rates of natural increase higher in cities than in surrounding rural areas

The migrants are in their fertile years


What are fertile years

The years during which people have children


Where in London is deemed ‘nappy valley’

Area stretching from Clapham, south of the River Thames, westwards to Fulham, north of the river


Why did ‘nappy valley’ get its name

Due to the high proportion of young families living there


What has encouraged young families to remain in the city

In the past professional couples with young children would have moved to the suburbs when they could afford it but the rising costs and time involved in commuting means more families stay in the city


What is a push factor

Cause people to move away from rural areas


What is a pull factor

Factors that attract people to urban areas


In low income countries which factors are more important

Push factors rather than pull


What are the six brief push factors

Population growth.
Agricultural problems.
High levels of disease and inadequate medical provision.
Agriculture is increasingly being organised globally.
Natural disasters.


How is population growth a push factor

The same area of land has to support increasing numbers of people, causing over-farming, soil erosion and low yields


How is agricultural problems a push factors

Desertification because of low rainfall, systems of inheritance that cause land to be subdivided into small plots, systems of tenure and debt on loans taken out to support agricultural change


How is agriculture increasingly being organised globally a push factor

Land that has previously been used to grow food for local people is now used to produce cash crops for sale to higher income countries. Many traditional rural communities have been driven off their land and into cities


How are natural disasters push factors

Floods, tropical storms and earthquakes mean people flee rural areas and do not return


How is war and civil strife a push factor

They cause people to flee their land


What are 4 pull factors

Earning money from the informal sector.
Better quality social provisions.
A perceived better quality of life.


How is employment a pull factor

Employment in factories and service industries is better paid with than in rural areas. There is an increasingly high demand for unskilled labour in cities


How is the informal sector a pull factor

Earning money for example selling goods on the street, providing transport or prostitution


How is better quality of social provisions

Basic needs such as education and health care to entertainment and tourism


How is perceived better quality of life in the city portrayed

Through images in the media


What are the six consequences of urban growth

Urban sprawl.
Shortage of housing in lower-income countries.
Shortage of affordable housing in high income countries.
Lack of urban services and waste disposal.
Unemployment and underemployment.
Transport issues.


What can problems with housing, traffic, waste disposal, crime and pollution be linked to in cities all over the world irrespective of their economic status

The unique geographical circumstances of the city, such as topography, climate and function


Traditionally how has the process of urban sprawl occurred

In an uncontrolled and unplanned fashion


What are the 6 negative impacts of urban sprawl

Requires more roads and infrastructure.
Wildlife habitat loss.
More commuting from suburbs to the city increasing fuel consumption and congestion.
Air pollution.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impacts water quality and quantity.


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: needs more roads and infrastructures such as cables and wires

It is less economically efficient to service low density rural areas compared to compact urban developments with the same number of households


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: reach of urban sprawl info surrounding rural areas

Wildlife habitat loss


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: more commuting

Increased fuel consumption and traffic consumption


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: air pollution

A more car dependant lifestyle leads to increased use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. The area may also expereince higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect.


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: loss of farmland

This has in turn led to loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result


How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: water quality and quantity

Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means the rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish groundwater supplies. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk.


Along with the movement of people to the suburbs what's another important component in urban sprawl



What is decentralisation

The movement of population and industry from the urban centre to outlying areas. The term may encompass the processes of both suburbanisation and counterurbanisation


What has decentralisation been blamed for in some city centres

The decline of retail and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape


What is an edge city

Self contained settlements developed beyond the original city boundary and developed as a city in its own right


What have American cities in particular witnessed because of urban sprawl

The huge growth of large edge-of-city complexed including shopping malls and leisure areas


What is a consequence of population density being high in urban areas

Shortage of accommodation, leading to the presence of large areas of informal and inadequate housing


Where does informal and often inadequate housing usually form

On the edge of the city or in areas of low land value prone to environmental hazards such as flooding or landslides, they may also be found adjacent to transport networks or in areas suffering high levels of air, water and noise pollution


What do informal settlements usually have limited access to

Basic infrastructure such as water, electricity and waste disposal and a lack of services such as health centres and schools


In 2013 what did the UN Habitat report the numbers of people living in slum conditions were

863 million, up from 760 million in 2000 and 650 million in 1950


What is another word for 'population counts'



How does the fact that slums do not have detailed enumeration affect the estimated population

The actual number of slum dwellers is likely to be in the excess of one billion not 863 million as the UN habitat estimate


How has the number of Mumbai slum dwellers changed from 2005 to 2015

Gone from 6 million to 9 million


What are the informal settlements in Brazil called

Favelas - they line the hills of Rio de Janiero


What are informal settlements in India called



What are informal settlements in West Africa called



Why has the term 'slum housing' been critiqued by people

They see it as a political label


In Mumbai, what are some examples of 'home grown neibourhoods'

Shivaji Nagar and Dharvi


What is a 'Home-Grown neighbourhood'

The argument that 'slums' were developed gradually by people who live there, with the help of local artisans of construction and usually with little or no support from the authorities


What happened to the proportion of people living in slums between 2000 and 2012

It fell


What was the goal of the Millenial Development Goal 7

Ensure environmental sustainability


What helps provide evidence for the fact that the lives of slum dwellers have improved between 2000 and 2012

The relative success of the Millenial Development Goal 7.
The proportion of slum dwellers falling.


Between 2000 and 2014 what did the UN report of slum dwellers

More than 320 million people living in slum dwellers gained access to improved water sources, improved sanitation facilities or durable or less crowded housing. However the total number of people living in slums has continued to increased


What is a target in the post-2015 sustainable development goals

To 'ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums by 2030


In the last, what was the most extreme strategy adopted by authorities to do with slums and did it work

Eradicate slums.
It just moved the problem elsewhere.


After trying to eradicate slums, what was the authorities next approach to help and did it work

Acknowledge the presence of slums and provide help in the form of materials or services. These self help or 'site and service' schemes have proved remarkably successful in some cities but the quantity and/ or quality of housing remains inadequate in most urban areas around the world


What are the most recent initiatives to help slums

Slum upgrading programs. These seek to improve the slums in partnership with local NGOs and development organisations, they focus on securing rights for dwellers, formalising land tw sure rights and providing basic amenities.


What are examples of basic amenities

Electricity, water and waste disposal


What is an urbanisation bred to help slums

Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI)


What is the purpose of the organisation SDI

It gives a voice to those living in informal settlements and links up poor communities across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The idea is that slum dwellers share their knowledge and expertise so that they are not excluded from the economic and political processes happening in the city


In the Uk, what had the rising demand for accommodation in cities led to

A dramatic increase in both house prices and rental costs


In some parts of London what did the average house prices rise by

50% between 2010 and 2015


What is rising house prices fuelled by

In-migration, gentrification and by the purchasing of properties by wealth foreign investors


Why do overseas investors buy properties in London

Because London is a major global hub and they buy to diversify their international portfolio


What can financial restraints in lower income countries result in

A lack of basic services such as water and electricity, maintainence of infrastructure is also limited


What can limited maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, sewers and drainage result in

Traffic congestion.
Polluted watercourses.
Rapid spread of disease.


In India, what has the lack of misntenance of infrastructure led to

Old pipeline infrastructure has not kept pace with urbanisation, resulting in large urban areas devoid of planned water supply and sewage treatment.


In 2015 what percentage of piped water reached the slum areas in 42 Indian cities and towns



What restraints are placed on waste disposal

Economic, physical and environmental


Which city authority is only able to deal with 2/3 of the rubbish created by the growing population

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


In Addis Ababa what happens 1/3 of the rubbish that isn’t dealt with by the city authority

It is left to private contractors to collect or is simply left on the streets and in rivers created a huge health hazard


Example of a landfill site where families live in makeshift housing and search for material they can use or sell

Koshe Dump


Why is there considerable pressure to create sufficient jobs in cities

Such a high proportion of the people who move to cities are young


What are unemployment rates usually

Typically high although official data is hard to find and many migrants find employment in informal work


What is under-employment

A situation in which a person is not doing work that makes full use of their skills and abilities


When may underemployment occur

When migrant moves to a new city


What has the processes of urbanisation and suburbanisation led to

Increased traffic in cities accords the world,m


What does increased traffic lead to

More congestion.
Damaging human health.
Wasting billions of pounds in lost productivity.


What has the spread of houses into the suburbs and beyond created

Surges of morning and evening commuters


What adds to the problem of transport issues because of urbanisation

Traffic flow for shopping, entertainment and other commercial services add to the problem


During the car boom of the 1960s, what did city planners build as a solution

More and wider roads, it didn’t work.


Why didn’t the solution to the car boom in the 1960s work

The more roads created, the more cars they attracted


What did the study into traffic in California in 1997 find

That new, additional traffic will fill up to 90% if any increase in road capacity within 5 years.


Why is transport issues such a big consequence of urbanisation and urban sprawl

Because no matter how much money is spent on traffic infrastructure, congestion and parking problems seem to get worse


What is counter urbanisation

Movement of people from large urban areas into smaller urban areas or into rural areas thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It can mean daily commuting but can also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT


What is deindustrialisation

The loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, which occurred in the UK in the second half of the twentieth century


What is gentrification

The buying and renovating of properties, often in more run-down areas, by wealthier individuals


What is suburbanisation

The movement of people from living in the inner parts of a city to living on the outer edges. It has been facilitated by the development of transport networks and the increase in ownership of private cars. These have allowed people to commute to work.


What is urban resurgence

Refers to the regeneration, both economic and structural, of an urban area which has suffered a period of decline. This is often initiated by redevelopment schemes but is also due to wider social, economic and demographic processes


What was the trend of movement in the industrial period

More people moving into urban areas as opposed to more recently people moving outwards


During the mid twentieth century what was suburbanisation facilitated by

The growth of public transport systems and the increased use of the private car.
The presence of railway lines and arterial roads also enabled wealthier commuters to live some distance away from their places of work.


What was ribbon development in towns and cities

In the 1930s planning controls and urban growth took place alongside main roads - this was known as ribbon development.


By the 1940s what was created because of the concern due to growth in ribbon development

Creation of green belts - areas of open space and low-density land use around towns where further development was controlled


Since 1950s what has happened to suburban expansion

It has increased and been better planned


During the 1950s and 1960s what construction took place

Large scale construction of council housing took place on the only land available; the suburban fringe


In the 1970s what construction occurred

There was a move towards home ownership, which led to private housing estate being built, also on the urban fringe. These allowed people to have more land for gardens and more public open space


Why has there recently been more development on the edge of towns

Car ownership grew.
More land available for car parking and expansion.


What was built on the edge of cities in the 1970s

New offices, factories and shopping outlets. In a number of cases, the strict control of the green belt was ignored


What has recently been built on the edge of cities

New housing estates.
Local shopping centres.


Why do people move to the suburbs

They desire a quieter, less congested and less polluted environment. The suburbs are perceived as relatively crime free.
they also demonstrate other key benefits of the rural urban fringe such as woodlands and parks, golf courses and playing fields.


What are many housing estates in suburban areas seen as

Highly sought after in the property market


What are some negative impacts specifically to do with suburbanisation

Increased social segregation: wealthy move out and poor remain in city.
Diversion of funding from the inner city to the suburbs to pay for new infrastructure and services.


Example of social segregation to do with suburbanisation

American cities, where segregation has occurred as a result of both wealth and ethnicity


What does counterurbanisation lead to

Not suburban growth, but to growth in rural areas beyond the main city.


What is reduced as a consequence of counter urbanisation

The difference between rural and urban areas


What are the 4 factors causing counter urbanisation

People want to escape air pollution, dirt and crime of urban environment.
Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute.
Many employers have moved from the city.
Improvement of technology has allowed more freedom of location.


What is 'rural idyll'

What people see as a pleasant, quiet and clean environment of the countryside where house prices are cheaper


How has improvement in technology been a factor in counter urbanisation

The spread of broadband and high speed internet access means that someone working from a home computer csn now access the same global system as a person in an office block in the same centre of a city


What has there been a rising demand for in the countryside

Second homes and early retirement


What is the rising demand for second homes and retirement a direct consequence of

Rising levels of affluence


What is one straightforward way for farmers to raise money due to agriculture facing economic difficulties

Sell unwanted land and buildings


How does counter urbanisation affect the layout of rural settlements

Modern housing estates are built on the edge of smaller settlements, and small industrial units on the main road leading into the settlement. Former open areas are built on, old properties and some agricultural buildings are converted and modernised


Why may there be tension between newcomers and locals because of counter-urbanisation (much like with gentrified areas in inner cities)

Despite the influx of new people, local services tend to shut down.
Bus services to many rural communities have disappeared, schools and post offices have closed and churches have closed are parishes are amalgamated to larger units.


What is the main reason for local services shutting down because of counter urbanisation

Newcomers have the wealth and mobility to continue to use the urban services some distance away


What are the four pieces of evidence for counter urbanisation in an area

Increase in the use of a commuter railway station in the area.
Increased house prices.
Construction of more executive housing in the area, often on newly designed building land, following demolition of old properties.
Conversions of former farm buildings to exclusive residences.


What is sometimes referred to as the rural turn around

Processes which contribute to social and demographic change in rural settlements


What four things may be included in a 'rural turnaround'

Outmigration of young village born adults seeking opportunities elsewhere.
Decline of elderly village born population, through deaths.
In migration of young to middle aged married couples or families with young children.
In migration of younger, more affluent people, which results in increased house prices.

- NOTE these changes do not take place uniformly within all rural settlements and these are considerable variations between and within parishes


What is a suburbanised village

The parishes with the most change are key settlements that have a range of basic services and good access to commuter routes


Why has urban resurgence been seen in many cities in recent years

Redevelopment schemes have made city living more attractive


Where is urban resurgence particularly present

Former industrial cities in the UK which suffered from the manufacturing decline in the 1970s and 1980s but have reinvented themselves as cities of culture and commerce.


Examples of former industrial cities in the UK that bounced back after de-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth century

London, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds


How have former industrial cities revived their fortune

Developing strong financial, business and consumer service industries and have attracted more university students, young professionals and immigrant workers


How is urban resurgence evident in a city

In its changing landscapes


Areas of a city may contain industrial architecture of the past such as

Factories and warehouses


Increasingly, what have industrial architectures of the past been converted to

Housing or commercial use and modern infrastructure and services are added


What have many urban rebranding schemes been successful in

Transforming run down areas.
Rebranding them as fashionable districts or 'quarters'.


How does rebranding cities into fashionable districts help the city

It attracts more new comers, often young professionals with s higher disposable income


What is urban resurgence often driven by

Government-led regeneration schemes but there are wider economic, social and demographic processes which hare also important


What has redevelopment by private companies led to

Wholesale transformation of parts of UK cities in recent years and this has served to attract further investment


Why has city living become more attractive

Urban areas are improved by urban resurgence so people chose to live closer to work, entertainment and leisure facilities rather than face the long and costly commute


What has facilitated the resurgence in some places

Globalisation and technology change


Example of a place where its reputation for creative and digital start up businesses have attracted a huge in-migration of people

East London


What can act as a catalyst to changing the fortune of an area

Major sporting events such as the London Olympics bringing much needed investment to former industrial parts of East Lodnon


What kind of effect does resurgence babe

A positive multiplier effect, it initiates further improvements and attracts greater investments into an area


Why is urban resurgence sometimes not good

As more people are attracted back to the city, grates pressure it put on the urban infrastructure and some people may find themselves displaced as house prices rise in line with the demand.
Also concerns that not everyone benefits from resurgence and this has led to increasing inequality between rich and poor.


Examples of American cities which have experienced an urban resurgence in recent decades

New York, Boston and Los Angeles


In what time frame saw a huge population decline in urban areas as families increasingly moved to the suburbs

Second half of the twentieth century


What process does the term 'dead-heart syndrome' describe

Loss of manufacturing and retail businesses and the traditional 'downtown' areas (major retain centre of cities) were in decline, along with neighbouring residential areas, due to outwards movement of families to suburbs in the twentieth century


What time frame saw the beginning of a resurgence



What has helped revive the fortune of many American cities

A sustained period of national economic growth, successful regeneration schemes and more attractive urban design.
More young people are remaining in cities to start a family while many older people whose children have left home are moving back to the city to be close to urban services.


What has the population revival in urban cities increased

Demand for services and has fuelled a prosperous urban economy in many cities


Prior to deindustrialisation in the late twentieth century, what was a key development in the growth of urban areas

The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the manufacturing industry


What did cities become synonymous with in the period of the industrial revolution

Particular types of industry.
Textiles - Manchester.
Iron and Steele - Sheffield.
Shipbuilding - Glasgow.


In the industrial revolution why did so many people migrate to urban areas

Because of the rise of the manufacturing industry, there were thousands of jobs created


By the 1980s what were many of the older industrial cities experiencing

Severe economic problems associated with the decline of manufacturing


What were the 3 main factors attributing to the decline of manufacturing in cities

Competition from abroad, particularly rapidly industrialising cities of the time such as Taiwan, South Korea, India and China.
Reduced demand for traditional products as new materials and tschnologies have developed.


What is mechanisation

Most firms can produce their goods more cheaply by using machines rather than people


During the decline of manufacturing employment, what did the variation of the unemployment figures between cities depend on

The size of the city, ths composition of the urban economy and the actions of the local government


Which cities suffered more extensive loses during the decline of manufacturing employment

Cities in the manufacturing heartlands such as Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield


What was the difference in number of employees between 1980 and 2015 as shown by ONS

1995- 4,201


How was their significant variation of employment within cities during the decline of manufacturing employment

Inner city areas contained many of the old types of workplace most likely to be closed - old plants with the oldest production techniques, lowest productivity etc.
The inner city also lacked suitable land for the expansion of existing manufacturing and as a result new investment tend to be located on the edge of urban areas or more rural locations.


What is the movement of industry away from the inner city known as



What did decentralisation affect in the late twentieth century

Residential and retail land


What was decline in manufacturing employment in the late twentieth century accompanied by

The rise of the service economy in urban areas


What activites does the service economy cover

Tertiary activities such as financial services like banking, retailing, leisure, transport, education and health.
Quaternary activites where knowledge or ideas are the main output, such as advertising, computer programming and software design.


What are the four reasons the service sector has grown

Population growth.
Financial services are needed to support manufacturing industries, which are sill important in many cities.
Societies become more technologically sophisticated, they need a larger range of specialised services to keep them running.
Societies become wealthier, they demand more leisure and retail services.


For many urban areas what has there been a dramatic shift in

Their economic core from manufacturing to service based activities


Where are the major financial centres located

In world cities


Where are corporate headquarters located and why

In clusters in urban areas where they can access national and international markets, a highly skilled labour force and specialist support services


As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 8 economic impacts of de-industrialisation on urban areas

Loss of jobs and disposable income.
Closure of other businesses: 'closing industry'.
Loss of tax income to local authority.
Potential decline in services.
Increase in demand for state benefits.
Loss of income in service sector as a result of falling spending paper of the local population.
Decline in property prices as outmigration occurs.
Leads to the de-multiplier effect in urban areas affected.


As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 social impacts of de-industrialisation

Increase in unemployment.
Higher levels of deprivation.
Out migration of population, usually those who are better qualified and more prosperous.
Higher levels of crime, family breakdown, alcohol and drug abuse and other social problems.
Loss of confidence and morale in local population.


As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 environmental impacts of de-industrialisation

Derelict land and buildings.
Long term pollution of land from 'dirty industries' such as dye works remain a problem because there is no money for land remediation.
Deteriorating infrastructure.
Reduced maintanence of local housing caused by lower personal and local authority incomes.
Positive impacts: reduction in noise, land and water pollution and reduced traffic congestion.


Who created 'the urban challenge'

Drake and Lee


Where provides an important environment for social networking, which is heavily drawn upon in business

City bars.


The growth of the service sector has gone some way to reduce unemployment caused by de-industrialisation however these 4 problems still exist

Many people who lost their jobs through deindustrialisation have continued to suffer from long term unemployment.
Many service jobs are part time or temporary.
Number of service jobs created has not always made up for loss of manufacturing jobs.
Inner city locations avoided by service industries and newer manufacturing companies leading to continued inner city decline.


What is urban policy

The strategies chosen by local or central government to mans have the development of urban areas and reduce urban problems


Since when has regeneration been a key element of urban policy in the UK

The 1980s


What did early regeneration strategies focus on compared to more recent strategies

'Top-down' economic regeneration but subsequent policies have recognised the need to adopt a more holistic approach, hackling economic, social and environmental problems from the 'bottom-up'.


The urban policy used between 1979-1991

Emphasis given to property-led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture


Details of the urban policy in 1979-1991

Emphasis on the role of the private sector to regenerate inner city areas.
Coalition boards set up with people from local business community and they were encouraged to spend money buying land, building infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment.


Examples of the urban policy of emphasis given to prosperity led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture in 1979-1991

Urban development corporations.
Urban land grants.
Enterprise zones.
Derelict land grants.


The urban policy used between 1991-1997

Partnership schemes and competition-led policy


Details of the urban policy in 1991-1997

Focus on local leadership and partnership between the private sector, local communities, voluntary sector and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run-down parts of the city, which now include peripheral estates.


Example of urban policy of partnership schemes and competition led policy in 1991-1997

City challenge.
City pride.
Single regeneration budget.


What does the term ‘bottom up’ mean

When local people are consulted and supported in making decisions to undertake projects or developments that meet on or more of their specific needs


What does ‘top down’ mean

When the decision to undertake projects or developments is more by a central authority such as government with little or no consultation with the local people whom it will affect


What is devolution

The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration


The urban policy used between 1997-2000s

Area-based initiatives


Details of the urban policy used between 1997-2000s

Focus on narrowing the gap in key social and economic indicators between the most deprived neighbourhoods and the rest of the country.
Local authorities set targets to improve levels of health, education and employment opportunities and funding was allocated to assist them in delivering government objectives.


Examples of the urban policy of area based initiatives used in the 1997-2000s

New deal for communities.
Regional Development Agencies (RDAs).
The housing market renewal programme.


What might the urban policy's be in the future

There have been calls for a greater devolution of powers (devolution deals) to English Cities, such as the type granted in Greater Manchester in 2014. Some feel this will lead to more effective place-based urban policies.


What does urban form refer to

The physical characteristics that make up built up areas, including the shape, size, density and organisation of settlements


Details of the regeneration policy: Urban Development Corporations

Set up in the 1980s primarily to regenerate inner city areas.
The boards of UDcs were made up of people from local community and they were encouraged to spend money on land, infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment. Funding came direct from central government.


Details of the regeneration policy: city challenge

1990s, Cities had to compete with each other for government regeneration grants.
The cities with the 'best' schemes were awarded the grant.
Local authority led scheme which formed partnerships between the private sector, local communities and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run down parts of the city.


Details of the regeneration policy: New Deal for Communities

2000s, the NDC partnerships were established to carry out 10-year strategic programmes designed to transform the 39 most deprived neighbourhoods and improve the lives of those living within them.
Local partnerships of residents, businesses, community organisations and local authorities were established but the focus was very much on communities being 'at the heart of the regeneration'


What scales can urban forms be considered at

From regional to urban, neighbourhood and street


What are urban forms continually evolving in response to

Social, economic, environmental, political and technological developments


What did a government report on 'Urban form and infrastructure in the U.K.' (2014) report

That the UKs urban form is characterised by 64 'primary urban areas', including one built up megacity region (London and the Greater South East), six large metropolitan areas (Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield) and 56 towns and cities with more than 125,000 people


What are the largest urban forms

Megacity is and world cities


What has led to the rapid rise of megcities

Globalisation and economic competition between countries and cities


How has mass migration fuelled large scale population growth

When people are faced with poorer economic prospects in rural areas and the perception of a better life in the city they tend to move in mass migration


Historically, what were the greatest global cities

The largest, however recently this is not important it is more the influence


Of the worlds most populous cities which 3 cities are in the top ranking of the worlds most important cities

Tokyo, New York , Beijing


What term is given to cities which have the greatest influence on a global scale

World city/global cité


What is one of the more commonly cities rankings to measure a city

It is carried out by the Globalisation and World Rankings Research Network (GaWC) called the Alpha, Beta and Gamma rankings


What is the Alpha, Beta and Gamma ranking of cities based on

Initially on the connectivity of cities through four advanced producer services: accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law.
New indicators were added in 2004 but economic factors are still deemed more important than political and cultural indicators.


What are the cities called below the alpha, beta and gamma rankings

Cities with 'sufficiency of services' - not world cities but have sufficient services so as not to be dependant on world cities. They tend to include smaller capital cities and traditional centres of manufacturing regions


What are the 12 characteristics of a world city

Centres of media and communications for global networks.

Headquarters of multinational corporations.

Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities.

Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area.

Dominance of the national region with great international significance.

Existence of financial headquarters, stock exchange and major financial institutions.

Centre of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture and politics.

Considerable decision making power at a global level.

High proportion of residents employed in service information sectors.

Variety of international financial services including insurance, real estate, banking, marketing etc.

High quality educational institutes including renowned universities, international student attendance and research facilities.

Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal,C medical and entertainment facilities, in the country.


What is an Alpha ++ city

More integrated than all other cities and constitute their own high level of integration


Example of Alpha ++ cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

New York


What is an Alpha + city

Other highly integrated cities complement London and New York, largely filing in advanced service needs for the Pacific Asia


Example of Alpha + cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

Hong Kong


What is an Alpha and alpha - cities

Very important world cities that link major economic regions and states into the world economy


Example of Alpha and alpha- cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

São Paulo
And more


What is a beta level city

Important world cities that are instrumental in linking their region state into the world economy


Example of Beta cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

And more


What is a Gamma level city

These can be world cities linking smaller regions or states into the world economy, or important world cities whose major global capacity is not in advanced producer services


Example of Gamma level cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

St Petersburg


What does urban morphology refer to

The spatial structure and organisation of an urban area, traditionally this would have been affected by physical factors such as relief and drainage


Why did early industrial areas develop close to rivers

So they could harness the power of water for energy and transportation


Why was flat land also important for some industrial areas

To transport goods via roads or railways


Why does relief still play an important role today for the organisation of an urban areas

Because flat land is easier to build on and may attract a higher land value. Conversely, flat land close to rivers may pose a flood risk.


In poorer cities where are informal settlements often found

On undeveloped steep land


Example of shanty town built on steep land

Brazil's largest shanty town, Rocinha is built on a steep and rugged hillside overlooking Rio de Janiero. The poorer parts of the shanty town are found higher on the hilltop, with many houses only accessible on foot.


Why is urban form today more strongly influenced by human nature

Because humans have been able to overcome the limitations imposed by physical factors


What is the main factor affecting land use in high-income countries

Land value


Where is land value traditionally higher

In the centre of a city where accessibility is greatest


Where is the Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)

The point with the highest land value and from here, land prices decline in line with the theory of distance-decay


What is the point with the highest land value called

The Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)


Describe the typical land values for s city in a high income country

The Peak Land Value Intersection in the middle.
From this runs motorways and main roads.
As you get further from the PLVI there is a decline in land values.
However, you can get Secondary Land Value Peaks such as where there are shopping outlets on the edge of cities.
Along these is the outer ring roads.


Which businesses usually occupy the PLVI

Only very profitable businesses such as large retailers that can afford the prices of the PLVI. In the Uk the site has been occupied by the likes of Marks and Spencer's.


Who occupies the CBD

Other retailers and commercial enterprises but they cannot all afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations


What is likely to be found towards the edge of the CBD

Smaller retailers and businesses who cannot afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations


Why do land values fall significantly in transect of the CBD to the suburbs

The different land users are less reliant on accessibility and unable to pay the higher prices associated with this, this is known as the bid-rent theory


Traditionally, what does the bid-rent theory show

There has been a move from retailing to industrial and commercial and then residential areas


What is the distance decay theory

As distance from the CBD increase there is less competition for land, so the values fall


Roughly what does the bid-rent theory show

Shops and offices can afford the high land values of the CBD.
Industry cannot afford the highest land values so is found away from the CBD.
Housing can only afford low land values.

Price of land ^
Distance from CBD >


What shows that the 1980s trend towards out of town shopping centres affected land values in some cities

The presence of secondary peaks


Why did secondary land value peaks occur

An increase in traffic meant that the city centre was no longer always the most accessible part of the city and a lack of expansion encouraged some of the large retailers to look elsewhere for potential new sites


For the consumer, what did the growth of edge-of-town developments provide

Free parking and other land uses such as cinemas and restaurants which proved to be highly attractive. Land values subsequently rose in such areas.


What is the CBD

The central areas of a place which contains the major shops, offices and entertainment facilities


What is the inner city

An area of old housing and light manufacturing industry. This area dates back to the industrial revolution when it was compromised mainly of terraced housing providing accommodation for factory workers. Many British cities have seen regeneration in these areas in the last three decades.


What is the residential land use in a city

Consists of housing from a range of periods, which has traditionally increased in both size and price as one moves towards the outskirts. Urban regeneration and gentrification means that some of the more expensive properties can now be found in traditional 'low class residential' areas while council estates are on the edge of cities and are now among some of the most depressed parts of British cities


What is the green area of a city

Such as parks tend to be dotted throughout an urban area. They range from large botanical gardens of national importance down to playgrounds within a housing estate


What is the out of town retail developments in a city

Originally developed by large supermarkets, these spaces soon expanded to include non food retail units and entertainment complexes. They have had a negative impact on some towns and cities. In 1994 the UK govern,went started to actively discourage their development


What is the business or science parks in a city

Tend to be found on the edge of urban areas where there is good access to main roads. Some science parks are located near universities


What is the industry part of a city

Manufacturing industries often require large areas of land and tend to be located towards the edge of cities where cheaper land is available. Deindustrialisation brought about the large scale decline of manufacturing industry in British cities and former factory sites have either been demolished or converted into other land use. The later may scull occupy their hisotrical location in the inner city


What is the informal settlement part of a city

Features of cities in low income countries. Traditionally developed on the edge of cities although they have also been found adjacent to transport routes or in areas of the city unpopular with residents like rubbish dumps. Physical factors such as steep slopes, unstable land and areas prone to natural hazards may also encourage their development.


What can encourage greater financial investment

Government policies such as the establishment of Special Enterprise Zones in Chinese cities


Why do problems occur because of population growth

The growth in population is not matched by a growth in resources and infrastructure


How do megacities in low income countries spread

In haphazard fashion


What has the haphazard fashion of megacities in low income countries led to

The challenge of providing employment, housing and basic services


What are the concerns about megacities

About how city authorities can effectively govern such large cities


On average how much more GDP do megacities produce compared to other cities

2 to 3 times more


What were the 5 characteristics and benefits highlighted in 2014 by a United Nations report on urbanisation

1: they offer opportunities to expand access to services, such as health care and education, for large numbers of people in an economically efficient manner.
2. Less environmentally damaging to provide public transport, housing, electricity, water and sanitation for a densely settled urban population than a dispersed rural population.
3. Urban dwellers have access to larger and more diversified employment markets.
4. Better levels of education and healthcare can improve the lives of the poor and empower women in countries where they do not have equal status.
5. Megacities are centres of innovation where many solutions to global problems are being trialled


Why are political protests more common in urban areas

Large numbers of younger people are brought together


What is a fortress landscape

Landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion


What is a world city

Cities which have great influence on a global scale, because of their financial status and worldwide commercial power.


Which are the three cities which have traditionally sat at the top of the global hierarchy

New York.


Which cities are now joining New York, London and Tokyo at the top of the global hierarchy



What are some characteristics of the 6 cities at the top of the global hierarchy

House the headquarters of many transnational corporations (TNCs).
Centres of world finance.
Provide international consumer services.


What are the 7 main land use zones in a city

Central business district.
Inner city.
Green areas.
Out of town retail developments.
Business of science parks.
Informal settlements.


What have some city centres in the UK experienced in the last 30 years



Why was the decline in city centres due to in the 1980s and 1990s and more recently

1980-1990s: The development of out-of-town retail parks and the decentralisation of business and residential areas, which served to pull people away from the CBD.
High parking costs, congestion and perceptions of the city centres as dirty and unsafe were further disincentives for shoppers.
Recently: due to the phenomenal growth of Internet shopping.


What are a few strategies devised to help reverse the decline of city centres

Provision of a more attractive shopping environment.
The construction of all weather shopping malls.
Improvement in public transport links.
Establishment of business and marketing teams to co-ordinate managment of the CBD and run special events.
The 2000s ha e seen two other notable strategies as well.


What are many cities encouraging the development of to increase The attraction of the city centre

Functions other than retailing


Briefly, what are 7 functions other than retrial encouraged in city centres

Wider range of leisure facilities.
Availability of space.
Promotion of street entertainment.
Developing nightlife.
Developing flagship attractions.
Constructing new offices, appartments, hostels and conference centre.
Encouraged residential areas to return to the city centre.


Example of leisure facilities

Wine bars
Other cultural and meeting places to attract a greater range of people


Examples of adding space into a city centre

Squares or plazas.


What does adding space into a city enable

People watching and other activists


Example of a famous street entertainment

Covent Garden in London


Example of developing nightlife



Why is developing nightlife not always positive

These see negative issues associated with clubbing such as the high level of policing that is necessary


Example of a developed flagship attraction

At-Bristol Science Centre and M Shed museum and gallery in Bristol


How does constructing new apartments, offices, hotels and conference centres help a city

It raises the status of the CBD for business and encourages tourists to remain near the city centre


How can a city encourage residential areas to return to city centres

By providing flats, redeveloping old buildings (gentrification) or building new upmarket apartments


What has the combination of strategies to increase the attraction of the city centre and stricter planning controls placed on out of town developments meant

That large cities in the UK have successfully attracted shoppers and visitors back to the city centre.


Where are decision makers still worried about the decline of the CBD

In smaller cities and urban areas


What have many cities across the uk initiated the planning and development of and why

Cultural and heritage quarters as a deliberate model for urban regeneration of declining inner urban areas


When did culturally-led urban development first begin to appear



Early UK examples of culturally or heritage quarters in 1980

Sheffield Cultural Industries Quarter and Manchester Northern Quarter


What is a prerequisite for a cultural quarter

Presence of cultural production (making objects, goods and products) or consumption (people going to shows, visiting venues, galleries)


What do heritage quarters focus on

The history of the area based around small-scale industries


What do the most successful quarters tend to be

Those actually making something or associated with a product, such as the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter


What reputation do many famous quarters tend to build and why is this good

Regional and in some cases national reputation which attracts visitors and tourists from further afield bringing financial benefits to the wider area


What have some critics argued about cultural quarters

That not all towns and cities need them and in some areas they have simply created higher property values


What have experiences of different 'quarters' shown

That some are more successful than others


Why are quarters usually viewed in a positive light

They are a good tool for regeneration, they improve perceptions of place and preserves the history and culture


What is gentrification

The buying and renovating of properties often in more run-down areas by wealthier individuals


Who supports gentrification

Groups such as estate agents and local authorities


In the last few decades what has gentrification helped to do

Regenerate large parts of British inner cities


What is involved in gentrification

Rehabilitation of old houses and streets on a piecemeal basis


Who carries out gentrification

Individuals or groups of individuals rather than large organisations


What are 5 brief reason gentrification can happen

The rent gap.
Commuting costs.
The 'pioneer' image.
The support of government and local decision makers.
Changing composition of households.


What does the rent gap refer to

The situation when price of property has fallen below its real value, usually due to lack of maintenance or investment, and there is a 'gap' between actual and potential prices.


Why are properties with the rent gap attractive to builders, property developers or individuals

They can afford to renovate the properties and then sell them on to make a property


How does commuting costs cause gentrification

Commuting can be time consuming, expensive and stressful. Moving closed to the city centre can eliminate the need to commute.


What does the 'pioneer' image refer to

The trend of creative individuals such as artists and designers moving into more 'edgy' neighbourhoods.


Why does the 'pioneer' image exist

The groups moving into the edgy neighbourhoods are not interested in the conformity of suburban living but are drawn to the diverse cultural opportunities of the urban centre


Examples of the 'pioneer' image

Hoxton and Shoreditch in London and SoHo in New York City are seems as the location of vibrant art scenes


How does the support of government and local decision makers cause gentrification

Both groups are keen to impoverished the economy and environment of the inner city areas and gentrification is seen as an improving part of this


How does changing composition of households cause gentrification

Many cities have seen the growth of single or two person households without children. These households are more likely to see the benefits of inner city living


What are the 4 costs of gentrification

People on low incomes cannot afford higher property prices or rents.
Higher cad ownership may increase congestion.
Potential loss of business for traditional local shops.
'Gentrifers' may be seen as a threat to the traditional community and friction may occur between 'newcomers' and original residents.


What are 4 benefits to gentrification

Rise in general level or prosperity and increasing number and range of services and businesses.
Increased local tax income for the local authority.
Physical environment of the area improved.
Greater employment opportunities created in areas such as design, buildings and refurbishment.


What are the two conflicting views of commentators on gentrification

Some have emphasised the importance of gentrification in inner city regeneration, others have raised concerns about the displacement of low income families and small businesses.


In London, what has gentrification continued significantly to

The lack of affordable housing and prices have been pushed up even beyond the level of well-paid professional workers


What are becoming more common because of gentrifcation

Anti-gentrification processes


What does fortress landscape mean

Refers to landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion


In the UK what are 5 strategies used to reduce crime in urban hotspots

Greater use of CCTV.
Railings and fencing around private spaces.
'Mosquito' alarms which emit a high pitched sounds heard only by young people, to discourage loitering around certain buildings.
Effective use of street lighting.
Speed bumps to prevent joyriding.


Examples of urban hotspots

City centres and inner city estates


What are more recent strategies used to rescue crime in urban hotspots

Focused on ths concept of 'designing out crime' through better urban architecture


Examples of UK city 'designing out crime'

Manchester, the redevelopment of housing in parts of Greenheys and Wythenshawes estates have included more Windows to provide more natural surveillance, provision of front gardens with fences or hedges to mark a clear boundary between private and public space and bins in gated compounds rather than open alleyways.


What are features avoided in 'designing out crime'

Recessed doorways for people to hide in.
Projecting window sills or exposed rainwater downpipes, which would make it easier for anyone to climb on to the roof and dark alleys and dead ends associated with muggings and drug deals.


What are some exclusionary tactics some UK cities have adopted from North America

The use of anti-homeless spikes fitted into the ground in shop doorways or outside upmarkets apartments. Heavily criticised.
High pitched mosquitos alarm.
Sloped bus shelter seats.
Special benches to deter skateboards.
These raise few eyebrows.


What are increasingly becoming a feature of some urban landscapes

Gated communities


Where are gated communities common

USA and South Africa


What is increasing in British cities security

Electronic control of access into housing complexes


What notion is present in the idea of fortress landscapes

The idea of 'insider' and 'outsider'


What are edge cities associated with

The urban landscape of North America and have been viewed by some as a feature of postmodern urban living


What are edge cities largely the result of

Urban sprawl


Why has the emergence of edge cities happened on a large scale in the USA

It is a result of higher car ownership, greater willingness to travel long distances for work, shopping and entertainment and limited planning restricting in the suburbs


What is a common example of a sprawling urban settlement

Los Angeles


How is Los Angeles a good example of a sprawling urban settlement

In 2015 the core city of Los Angeles which is 30 kilometres wide had 4 million residents.
However this is surrounded by a metropolitan area of nearly 18 million people which is more than 100 kilometres at its widest point.
Within this area there are more than 20 edge cities.


Where do edge cities develop close to

Major roads or airports and tend to be found in close proximity to shops, offices and other businesses which decentralised from the original city


While edge cities lack a clear structure they have a wide range of amenities including

Schools, shopping malls and entertainment facilities, residents may rarely go back to the original core city


What has edge cities been linked to

Extreme social segregation where the wealthy have moved to the new suburban settlements leaving only the poor and disadvantaged sections of society in the original city boundary


What does the term post modern describe

The changes that took place in Western society and culture in the late twentieth century


What did post modernism mainly concern

Art and architecture and it marked a departure from the conformity and uniformity of modernism


What is post modernism characterised by

The mixing of different artistic styles and architecture


What are 7 features of a postmodern western city

Fortress Landscapes.
More fragmented urban form comprising independent settlements (Edge cities), economies, societies and cultures.
Greater ethnic diversity but heightened economic, social and cultural inequalities and polarisation.
Spectacular flagship developments such as the Guhgenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain.
Eclectic and varied architecture as seen in the London city scape.
Greater emphasis on producer services and knowledge based industries rather than industrial mass production.


What has the notion of the postmodern western city been based on

While elements of postmodernism can be seen in cities all over the world,cit is based on experiences of a small number of (mainly American) cities


What is Los Angeles often referred to as

The archetypal postmodern city but experiences of cities like Los Angeles are clearly not representative of cities elsewhere in the world.


What is economic inequality

The increasingly large wealth gap between rich and poor residents which is a key feature of cities in Asia, Africa and South America


Where is a good example of economic inequality

In Mumbai, the worlds most expensive home towers over one of the largest slums in the area. Antilla is a 27 storey home worth $21 billion. Within a short distance is Byculla, an area I habituated by Mumbais 9 million slum dwellers


What do most slum dwellers in Mumbai survive on

Less than $2 a day


What is cultural diversity

The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society


What is diaspora

A group of people within a similar heritage or homeland who have settled elsewhere in the world


What is social segregation

When groups of people life apart from the larger population due to factors such as wealth, ethnicity, relgion or age


What is urban social exclusion

Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation


What are three reasons the wealthy and the poor seem to concentrate specially

Changing environments.
The ethnic dimension.


How does housing cause social segregation

Developers, buildings and planners tend to build housing on blocks of land with a particular market in mind.
The requirement to include a proportion of affordable housing may affect housing values in some areas but wealthy people can choose where they live, paying premium prices for houses away from poor areas which pleasing environments and services. Poorer groups have less choice.


How does the changing environment affect social segregation

Housing is only a partial explanation for inequality since neighbourhoods change over time.
Houses built for large families in Victorian and Georgian times are now too big for the average family.
Many have been converted into apartments for rental to people on low income.
Conversely, former poor areas are being gentrified.


Which legislation helped transform many council estates and how

The 'right to buy' legislation in the 1980s.
The houses were bought by occupants and gentrified.


How does the ethnic dimension cause social segregation

Ethnic groups originally come to the country as new immigrants.
When they first arrive they may suffer discrimination in the job market and may be unemployed or employed in low paid jobs.
They are only able to afford cheap housing or rent privately.
Therefore, newly arrived migrants concentrate in poor areas of the city, often clustered into multicultural areas.
Such ethnic groupings tend to persist into later generations.


What is the index of multiple deprivation

A Uk government qualitative study measuring deprivation at small-area level across England. It is an overall measure of multiple deprivation experienced by people living in an area


How is the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 calculated

The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are based on 37 separate indicators, organised across seven distinct domains of deprivation which are combined, using appropriate weights, to calculate the IMD


What areas are part of the IMD

Every Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA), or neighbourhood, in England


What are the seven different dimensions of deprivation

Health deprivation and Disability
Education, Skills and Training
Barriers to Housing and Services
Living Environment


What did the 2010 IMD data find

That 98% of the most deprived areas in England were cities


What did the 2015 IMD data find

The concentrations of deprivation were mainly found in large urban conurbations, areas that have historically had large heavy industry, manufacturing and/or mining sectors, coastal towns, and large parts of East London


Examples of the 20 most deprived local authorities in 2015

Largely the same as those found in 2010


Examples of local authorities which were in the most deprived 20 in 2010 but have become relatively less deprived and no longer feature in this list in 2015

London Boroughs of Hackney.
Tower Hamlets.


What is largely responsible for deprived neighbourhoods becoming less deprived



Why may people in deprived areas not be themselves be deprived

The statistics of the IMD are a measure of relative deprivation, not affluence, and so not every person in a highly deprived area will be deprived themselves. Likewise there will be some deprived people living in the least deprived areas.


What does urban social exclusion refer to

The problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation, these people are excluded form full participation in society by their social and physical circumstances


What are some examples of urban social exclusion

People can’t attain a decent job because of poor education or obtain decent housing because of poverty.
Often they suffer from poor health and from high levels of crime in an unattractive physical environment.


In a city what can inequality cause

Lack of social cohesion and in extreme cases it can lead to civil unrest


Where have traditionally been the most deprived urban neighbourhood

Inner city areas


What were the characteristics of deprivation caused by

De-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth when unemployment became a major problem. Population loss followed and the movement of younger, more affluent and skilled residents left behind a population who were older, less skilled and poor


What are the four measures of the quality of life



Examples of the social aspect to working out quality of life

Incidence of crime
Fear of crime
Percentage on free school meals
Percentage on state benefits
Standard of education (e.g percentage staying on post-16)
Standards of health and access to health facilities (e.g percentage in poor health)


Example of political aspect to working out quality of life

Opportunities to participant in community life and influence decision making (e.g percentage voting in an election)


Example of physical aspect to working out quality of life

Quality of housing
Level of pollution (air/noise)
Incidence of litter


Example of economic aspect to working out quality of life

Access to leisure services, open spaces etc
Access to employment (e.g percentage unemployed long term)
Level or income
Percentage of lone-parent families
Percentage of lone pensioners


Is there a clear geographical pattern to urban poverty today



What image of urban poverty is outdated

The image of a troubled inner core surrounded by affluent suburbs is out-dated


Where are some of the highest levels of urban poverty found

In peripheral estates


Why do inner cities no longer have the highest levels of urban poverty

They have been transformed by regeneration schemes


Where are rich and poor areas today found

Across city and suburbs alike


What remains a major challenge for cities in the twentieth century



What can the gap between rich and poor within a city be compared to across a whole country

Greater within a city


Where do inequalities exist

In terms of access to job opportunities, education, housing and basic public services such as water and sanitation


In poor cities, what is primarily channelled to upper and middle class neighbourhoods

Adequate water and sanitation services, while low income neighbourhoods often depend on distant and unsafe water wells and lack any form of waste disposal


What are the knock on impacts of poor people living in overcrowded and informal accommodation which lacks basic infrastructure and services

Poorer health, higher unemployment and a lack of social mobility


What is the poverty cycle

The poor being stuck in a cycle of poverty which is hard to escape from


What is the difference between poverty and inequality

Poverty is an absolute term, referring to a level of deprivation that does not change over time. Whereas inequality is a relative term referring to the differences between people, usually economic, over a geographic distribution


When can inequality be high in society without high levels of poverty

Due to a large difference between the top and the middle of the income spectrum


Examples of inner city decline

Loss of jobs
Lack of skills
Ageing population
Declining industries
Population loss
Lack of capital investment
Lack of capital investment
Poor infrastructure for industrial expansion


Examples of inner city despair

Social unrest
Rising crime rates
Low public participation
Political extremism


Example of inner city deprivation

Poorly built tower blocks
Population loss
Inadequate services
Difficult schools
Traffic congestion
Lack of adequate open space
High concentration of ethnic groups


What is the main drive of urban inequality



What do richer cities tend to have higher rates of compared to smaller cities

Big cities like London have higher rates of inequality while more equal cities are those that are smaller, have lower average wages and are coming out of the end of years of industrial decline


On a national stage what can a redistributive tax system help to do

Reduce inequality but on a local level the effects are less clear


What are 7 strategies to reduce poverty and inequality

Enforcing a living wage or providing an urban subsidy.
Provision of schools.
Support low skilled workers who want to develop their abilities.
Access to affordable housing.
Greater provision of public transport.
Enforce minimum environmental standards.
‘fairness commissions’.


Examples of enforcing a living wage to help battle poverty and inequality

The London Living Wage has achieved success with over 10,000 families lifted out of working poverty since 2005


How does provision of schools help battle poverty and inequality

Education may be taken for granted in many high income countries but schooling beyond primary school level helps lift millions of people out of poverty in lower income countries


How does supporting low skilled workers help battle poverty and inequality

Cities need to ensure labour markets are inclusive, giving all residents the skills and opportunities needed to enter the workforce


How does access to affordable housing help battle poverty and inequality

The presence of slum housing in poorer cities should not hide the fact that access to affordable housing is a major problem in wealthy cities too.


Examples of access to affordable housing causing inequality and poverty

In London, the lack of affordable housing has been blamed for breaking up families, reducing employment prospects and mobility and slowing the economy


How does greater provision of public transport help battle inequality and poverty

Affordable public transport schemes improve mobility for the city poor, enabling them access to employment, education and services that could improve their lives


Example of greater provision of public transport reducing poverty and inequality

The Rio de Janiero sky-high transport system, which connects six hilltops and covers 3.5km was installed in 2011 to service 13 favelas and provide access to the main part of the city. Scheme was designed to give mobility to a once-stranded population and 12,000 people ride it daily.


How does enforcing a minimum environmental standard battle poverty and inequality

Poor health is strongly linked to poor environmental conditions. This can be improved through effective legislation


Examples of British cities who have established ‘Fairness Commissions’

Liverpool and Sheffield


What do ‘fairness commissions’ look at

How local areas can address inequality


What can culture relate to

Nationality, race, age and traditions


What is a key influence of cultural diversity



Which places does cultural diversity tend to flourish

Urban areas, especially large cities


What has led to the creation of multicultural urban societies

Cities like London, New York and Amsterdam


What is London considered to be

One of the most diverse cities in the world


How many languages are spoken by people in London

More than 300


How many non-indigenous communities are within London

50 with populations of 10,000 or more


What has increased movement around the world



In some global cities what do diasporas make up of the population

A larger proportion of the population than the indigenous residents


Example of a place where diasporas make up a higher proportion than indigenous residents

The United Arab Emirate state of Dubai, the majority of the city’s population is made up of expatriates. Two thirds of the population if make up of Asian descent with people coming from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Arabic is recognised as the official language but many languages are readily spoken like English, Urdu, Hindi and Chinese etc.


What percentage of the people in Los Angeles are multilingual



Examples of places in Los Angeles which reflect its cultural diversity

Cultural enclaves such as Chinatown, Koreatown and Thai Town


What are 5 reasons immigrants are likely to choose to live in urban areas

Cities tend to offer a greater range of employment.
Cities are the first point of entry into the country for many immigrants.
Cities tend to house earlier immigrant groups with the same ethnicity.
Established cultural diversity in cities means there are specialist ethnic shops and religion centres located there.
Urban populations tend to be more tolerant of immigrants.


What did the port city of Liverpool attract

Many Irish migrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries


Where are there large concentrations of the Indian ethnic minorities

In cities such as Leicester and Greater Manchester, Where labour intensive industries such as clothing were traditionally located


What is a more recent influx of migrants

Eastern European has led to changes in the demographic makeup of many British cities


What is the population like in Southampton

More than 10% of the population are now Polish and specialist Polish supermarkets and restaurants have opened to cater for them


What are the commonly cited advantages of cultural diversity

Relates to the greater exposure people get to different foods, music, language and religion


Examples of events in England that have become part of the British calendar

The Notting Hill Carnival in London and Mela in Newcastle


What do festivals in the Uk serve to illustrate

An acceptance of and interest in different cultures


What can cultural diversity put pressure in

Already stretched urban services


Where language differences exist what may local authorities need to provide

English Lessons or Bilingual literature


Because of cultural diversity, what may hospitals need to do

Cater for specific illnesses


Because of cultural diversity, what may schools need to do

Alter their curricula and holiday patterns to cater for different ethnic groups


Why is it the responsibility of local authorities to ensure that all children have the same opportunities

Because variations in educational attainment have been noted


What percentage of Cardiff is White, Asian, Black or Chinese

White: 84.24%
Black: 1.67%
Asian: 5.56%
Chinese: 0.95%


What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Birmingham

White: 63.26%
Black: 6.57%
Asian: 19.62%
Chinese: 1.11%


What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Southampton

White: 81.75%
Black: 2.15%
Asian: 6.38%
Chinese: 0.59%


What are the different percentages of ethnicities in London Borough of Brent

White: 38.08%
Asian: 24.42%
Black: 16.09%
Chinese: 1.76%


Why have many countries adopted a multicultural policy

To protect and celebrate cultural diversity


What do some argue about countries adopting a multicultural policy

That at an urban level, this can encourage culturally and spatially distinct communities leading ‘parallel lives’ which is known as segregation


Example of segregation in an urban area

In Dubai, British migrant workers tend to live in expat (sometimes gated) communities and integrate little with local society


What has London witnessed an influx of in recent years

Wealthy immigrants and these have tended to cluster together


Why does the pricing of houses in Mayfair and Knightsbridge far exceed the reach of even wealthy British people

They are home to a multitude of millionaire from the Middle East and the former Soviet Union


What did the 2011 census show as the distribution of white British and Pakistani people in London

The distribution of white British populations shows a concentric pattern around the edge of London while those of Pakistani descent are concentrated in three main areas of the city (North East) (south) and (West)


In which cities have different ethnic communities been isolated from wider society

In some European and North American cities


How have some ethnic community become isolated from wider society

They have maintained their own language and beliefs and limited their interactions with others


What can local schools being dominated by a particular group lead to

Suspicion and hostility as younger people do not get to know each other


In American cities what has the term ghetto been used to describe

An area of a city where the population is almost exclusively make up of an ethnic or cultural minority


Where are ‘ghettos’ usually located

In the poorer parts of the city, where wealthier residents have left and where unemployment rates are high


What does the place sit on Brick Land and Spitalfields highlight

The large concentration of people of Bangladeshi decent in East London


What are the two reasons for segregation in cities

External factors


What are the four self-segregation

Migrants seek the support and security of living near friends and relatives within an ethnic minority community.
Provision of specialist faculties such as places of worship and food shops.
Protection against racial abuse and attacks from the majority population.
Maintenance of cultural, language and traditions.


What are the external factors for segregation in cities

Traditionally, migrants have been a source of cheap labour focusing them into areas of cheap housing.
Ethnic minorities had been discriminated against in access to local authority housing. They have also been less successful in securing mortgage loans.
Hostility from the majority population.
Movement of the majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved.


What is often referred to as ‘white flight’

The movement of he majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved


What do geographical patterns of ethnic segregation tend to be

The result of self-segregation, but there are also external factors which have encouraged ethnic minorities to live in particular areas


What did analysis of the 2012 census data reveal

That many large cities in the Uk like Birmingham and Manchester recorded a decrease in segregation for most ethnic groups between 2001 and 2011


Examples of decreased segregation in the Uk

Indian and Chinese groups across England and Wales.
In London even the most diverse wards of Brent and Newham have experience a decrease in segregation.


Why has a policy of interculturalism been introduced

To tackle the negative issues associated with ethnic segregation


What does interculturalism do

Emphasises Interactions and the exchange of ideas between different cultural groups.
Areas of mutual interest are found and community engagement is conducted in ‘intercultural spaces’ such as libraries, schools, sports clubs and community centres


In the Uk what is there legislations on

Employment rights
Opportunities to combat discrimination.


What can encouragement of greater political involvement of different cultural groups also encourage

Greater integration and provide a voice for those who may feel under-represented


What do urban areas create their own

Climate and weather or ‘microclimate’


What is a ‘climatic dome’

Within the dome the weather is different from that of surrounding rural areas in terms of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, visibility, air quality and wind speed


For a large city, how big can the climatic dome extend

Upwards to 250-300m and it’s influence may continue for tens of kilometres downwind


WhT is albedo

The reflectivity of a surface. It is the ratio between the amount of incoming isolation and the amount of energy reflected back into the atmosphere.


Why do light surfaces have a greater albedo

Light surfaces reflect more than dark surfaces


What is a microclimate

The small scale variations in temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation that occur in a particular environment such as an urban area


What is particulate air pollution

A form of air pollution caused by the release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere. Emissions of particles can occur naturally but they are largely caused by the combustion of fossil fuels


What is photochemical pollution

A form of air pollution that occurs mainly in cities and can be dangerous to health. Exhaust fumes become trapped by temperature inversions and, in the presence of sunlight, low-level ozone forms. It is associated with high pressure weather systems


What is a temperature inversion

An atmospheric condition in which temperature, usually, increases with height. As the inversions are extremely stable conditions and do not allow convection, they trap pollution in the lower layer of the atmosphere


What is the urban heat island

The zone around and above an urban area, which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas


What are the two levels in an urban dome

Urban canopy where processes act in the space between buildings (sometimes referred to as ‘canyons’)

Above this is the urban boundary layer, the dome extends downwind and at heigh as a plume into the surrounding rural areas.


What is the temperature increase of urban areas compared to nearby areas

Annual mean - 0.5-0.8*C increase
Winter minimum - 1.0-1.5*C increase


What is the increase of precipitation in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Quantity: 5-10% increase
Days with less than 5mm: 10% increase


What is the decrease of relative humidity in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Annual mean: 6% decrease
Winter: 2% decrease
Summer: 8% decrease


What is the increase of visibility in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Fog in winter: 100% increase
Fog in summer: 30% increase


What is the change in wind speed in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Annual mean: 20-30% decrease
Calms: 5-20% increase
Extreme gusts: 10-20% decrease


What is the radiation in urban areas as opposed to surrounding rural areas

Ultraviolet in winter: 30% lower
Ultraviolet in summer: 5% lower
Total on horizontal surface: 15-20%


What is the increase of pollution in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Dust particles: 1,000% increase


Briefly describe the urban climatic dome

Prevailing wind causes the dome shape.
Rural-urban-fringe through to high rise characteristics of the central business district and back to the rural urban fringe.
Rural boundary layer.


What can the annual mean temperature of a city with one million or more people be

1 to 3*C warmer than it’s surroundings and on a clear, calm night, this temperature difference can be as much as 12*C


What is the fluctuation of temperatures in urban areas dependant one

Season, weather conditions, sun intensity and ground cover


When are surface urban heat islands typically largest

In the summer


What do smaller urban areas produce

Heat islands, but the effect tends to decrease as city size decreases


What does the US Environmental Protection Agency show of the urban heat island effect

It can be seen that typically the urban temperatures are at their highest in the mid-afternoon over the CBD.
Secondary peaks of high temperatures appear over other built up areas such as the suburban residential areas.
Temperature range from rural to city centre is often greatest at night due to the high heat storage capacity of building materials compared to vegetation.
There is very little variation in surface temperatures over areas of water.


Why is there very little variation in surface temperature over areas of water

Because water maintains a fairly constant temperature over a 24 hour period due to its high heat capacity


What is a landsat satellite image

Land surface temperature map


In a Landsat satellite image why are the mostly densely vegetated areas the coolest areas

Because vegetation cools the surface through evaporation of water


In an aerial photo, what do the colours represent

Trees and other vegetation are green.
Roads and development appear grey.
Bare ground is tan or brown.


In a land surface temperature map what do the colours mean

Cooler temperatures are yellow and hotter temperatures are red.


Where development is denser what is the land surface temperature

Near 30*C


What are the 4 reasons that cities tend to be warmer than rural areas

Surfaces in the city tend to be much less reflective than those in rural areas.
Air pollution from industries and vehicles increase cloud cover and create a pollution dome.
In urban areas, water falling to to the surface is disposed of as quickly as possible.
Heat comes from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel.


Examples of building materials that have a low albedo

Concrete, bricks and tarmac


What do building materials like concrete, bricks and tarmac absorb large quantities of

Heat during the day


How do the surfaces in the city tend to increase temperature in the cities

Surfaces in the city have a lower albedo and absorb large quantities of heat during the day. Much of the heat is stored and slowly released at night. Some urban surfaces like large windows have a high reflective capacity, and multi-storey buildings tend to concentrate the heating effect in the surrounding streets by reflecting energy downwards.


In winter what happens to the albedo in rural areas

As rural areas keep snow for a much longer period of time they therefore have a greater albedo ranging from 0.86-0.95


What does a ‘pollution dome’ allow

It allows in short wave radiation but absorbs large amounts of the outgoing radiation as well as reflecting it back to the surface


How does water falling on the surface being disposed of quickly affect temperature in cities

It changes the urban moisture and heat budget - it reduces evapotranspiration meaning that more energy is absolve to heat the atmosphere


How does heat coming from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel affect temperature in citizen

Although they regulate the temperatures indoors, air conditioning units release hot air into the atmosphere. Even people generate heat and cities contain large populations in a small space


Examples of urban surface albedos

Concrete: 0.10-0.35
White paint: 0.50-0.90
Highly reflective roof: 0.60-0.70
Tar and gravel: 0.03-0.18


What do Evan environment albedos tend to be compared to rural areas

Much lower


Examples of rural surface albedos

Deciduous forest (0.17)
Coniferous forest (0.14)
Sand (0.37)


How has rising temperatures in the summer months caused concern about the UHI in London

The conditions can become uncomfortable in buildings and on city transport. During extreme heat island events, the case of heat stroke, asthma, organ damage and even death increase. Vulnerable groups like babies and the elderly are most likely to be effected.


How have the hot and still anticyclonic weather conditions caused concern about the UHI in London

They are responsible for intense urban heat island events and also produce higher air pollution levels. This is because the chemical reactions that produce ozone and smog are accelerated by high temperatures while the lower wind speeds keep the heat and pollution trapped in the city.


How has excessive heat caused concern about the UHI in London

It puts an increased strain on the supply of energy for cooling and air conditioning


How has the fact that In warmer periods the added heat from the urban heat island can lead to increased water consumption caused concern about the UHI in London

This places extra strain on the water supply infrastructure and can lead to water-use restrictions. Evapotranspiration rates will also be higher with the result that plants and trees will potentially extract water from the soil at greater rates than normal.


How does the earlier flowing times of plants and trees in cities caused concern about the UHI in London

There is a prolonged growing season which may cause discomfort for city residents who face a longer allergy season


How does the prologued survival and higher reproduction rates of some animals and insects cause concern about the UHI in London

They can be problematic and there is a greater potential for algae blooms in water courses as a result of rising temperatures


How has the increased rates or temperature related chemical weathering caused concern about the UHI in London

There is an increased risk of deterioration of historical monuments and buildings


What is climate change expected to increase the intensity of

The urban heat island effect in most urban areas


What can urban temperatures be mapped using

Isotherm maps


Example of urban heat island in London

Temperatures in central London rise to aiding 3*C higher which Richmond Park is 1*C cooler than it’s surroundings.
There is a positive correlation between high surface temperatures and high density urban areas, the relatively cool areas to the southwest coincide with the large open and green spaces of Richmond Park


How can you investigate the presence of an urban heat island

By taking a temperature readings for a transfer from a transect from the rural-urban fringe through the urban centre and out to the other side of the settlement


How can an alternative view of London’s UHI be gained

From the analysis of surface temperatures as measured by infrared cameras located on satellites


What are 5 strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect

Urban planning and design have focused the strategies:
Cool surfaces.
Green roofs.
Urban Greening.
Sky view factors.
Cool cars.


How would cool surfaces help combat the urban heat island effect

Cool roofs built from materials with high solar reflectance or albedo absorb and store less solar energy during the day and thus are not major emitters of heat into the urban atmosphere at night. Cool pavements are being trialled around the world.


How do green roofs combat the urban heat island effect

They consist of a growing medium planted over a waterproof membrane, they can reduce rooftop temperatures by 20-40*C on a sunny day. They can also reduce rainwater run-off, act as insulators and increase urban biodiversity by providing habitat space for birds and animals.


How does urban greening help combat the urban heat island effect

Planting trees and vegetation provides shade (surface peak temperature reductions of 5-20*C may be possible) and can have a natural cooling effect as seen by lower temperature in urban parks around the world. Urban trees act as a carbon store and can reduce urban flooding by intercepting rainfall and filter pollutants from the air.


Example of a green roof

The curving green roof structure of the School of Art, Design and Media At Nanyang Technological University in Singapore


What is a sky view

Sky view describes the relative openness between buildings in an urban area.


How does the sky view contribute to the urban heat island effect

A restricted sky view, as found for narrow streets and tall buildings, will reduce the escape of heat from street and building surfaces. This contributes to the accumulation of heat within ‘street canyons’ and lead to the increase of air temperatures.


How does changing the sky view factor combat the urban heat island

If streets are angled perpendicular to the prevailing wind, during intense urban heat island events this will reduce the chance of ventilation and removal of heat and pollutants that accumulate between buildings


How does cool cars help combat the urban heat island

A lighter coloured car shell reflects more sunlight than a traditionally dark car shell. This cools the inside of the car and reduces the need for air conditioning. Cars contribute to the higher temperatures and pollution levels experience and so the use of cool cars would benefit the cities and drivers significantly


What did a recent study find about the effect of temperature on car colour

After parking in the sun for an hour, a silver Honda Civic (0.57 albedo) has a cabin air temperature about 5-6*C lower than an otherwise identical black car (0.05).


Why is rainfall higher over urban areas than rural areas

Because higher urban temperatures encourage the development of lower pressure over cities in relation to the surrounding area.


Which rainfall tends to be heavier and more frequent

Convection rainfall


What are 5 reasons convection rainfall is more heavy and frequent, along with thunder and lightning

The urban heat island generates convection.
Presence of high-rise buildings and a mixture of building heights induce air turbulence.
Surface winds are drawn from the surrounding rural area.
City pollution can increase cloud formation and rainfall.
Cities may produce large amounts of water vapour.


How does the urban heat island generate convection

As ground surfaces are heated, rapid evapotranspiration takes place and can result in cumulus cloud and conventional weather patterns


What does the presence of high rise buildings and a mixture of buildings heights induce

Air turbulence and promotes increased vertical motion


How are surface winds drawn in from surrounding areas

Due to low pressure caused by rising air


How does surface winds being drawn from the surrounding rural area cause convection rainfall

The air converges as it is forced to rise over the higher urban canopy, a similar process occurs as the prevailing winds move over the city. Friction from the urban boundary creates an orographic process but the moving air may split apart due to the barriers created by high rise buildings. As the air comes back together downwind of the high buildings, they are thought to converge and rise upwards forming rain clouds.


Example of an orographic process

A mountain barrier


How does the city population increasing cloud formation and rainfall cause rainfall

Pollutants act as hygroscopic (water attracting) nuclei and assist in raindrop formation. Also some suggestion that city pollution enhances the chance of lightening as the cloud droplets take on different electrical charges


Why do cities produce large amounts of water vapour

From industrial sources and power stations


What have studies shown about rainfall in urban areas

That rainfall downwind of major urban areas can be as much as 20% greater than it is in upwind areas.


Why is rainfall in downwind areas more than in upwind areas

The hearing of the surface and the overlying air creates instability in the atmosphere that encourages air to rise. As it rises, it cools, and water vapour condensed into rain that falls downwind of the city


In cities why did the occurrence of fog increase

It happened along with industrialisation


What do records of London weather show about fog

That in the early 1700s there would have been about 20 days of fog every year but by the end of the 1800s this had risen to over 50 days.


What was discovered in the 1950s about fog

That the average number of particles in city air in the more developed world was much greater than in rural areas. The particles acted as condensation nuclei and encouraged fog formation at night, usually under high-pressure weather conditions


In the Uk which act was established in the 1950s to combat the increase of fog

The Clean Air Acts


What did the Clean Air Acts of the 1950s result in

A dramatic reduction in smoke production and particulate emissions, and a decrease in the number of foggy days


What are cities that are undergoing more recent industrialisation events experiencing

More fog


Where do thunderstorms develop

In hot humid air


What are thunderstorms characterised by

Violent and heavy precipitation associated with thunder and lightning.


In urban areas when are the chances of thunderstorms increased

During late afternoon and early evening in the summer months


In what conditions do thunderstorms form

By conventional uplift under conditions of extreme instability


How are thunderstorms created

Updraught of air through the central area of the towering cloud causes rapid cooling and condensation. THis leads to the formation of water droplets, hail, ice and super-cooled water, which coalesces during collisions in the air. During condensation, latent heat is released that further fuels the convectional uplift. As raindrops are split in the updraught, positive electrical charges build up in the cloud. When the charge is high eneough to overcome resistance in the cloud, or in the atmosphere, a discharge occurs to areas of negative charge in the cloud or to the earth. This produces lightning. The extreme temperatures generated cause a rapid expansion of the air which develops a shock wave. This is heard as thunder.


What is channelling

Wind redirected down long straight canyon like streets where there is less friction. These are sometimes referred to as urban canyons


What is the Venturi effect

The squeezing of wind into an increasingly narrow gap resulting in a pressure decrease and velocity increase


What do urban structures and layouts have an effect on

Wind speed, direction and frequency


What can cause changes in wind speed and direction

Buildings can exert a powerful frictional drag on the air moving around them


What are the three main types of effect wind can have

Average wind speeds are lower in cities than in the surrounding areas and they are lower in city centres than in suburbs.
Wind can be powerful that it makes the buildings sway and knocks pedestrians of their feet.
Conventional processes can draw in strong localised winds from cooler surrounding areas.


Why are average wind speeds lower in cities than surrounding areas

The surface area of cities in uneven because of varying heights of the buildings. The buildings exert a powerful frictional drag on air moving over and around them. This creates turbulence, giving rapid and abrupt changes in both wind direction and speed.


How can wind be powerful enough that it makes buildings sway and knocks pedestrians over

High rise buildings may slow air movement but they also channel air into the canyons between them making the wind in such places powerful


When do connections processes draw in string localised winds from cooler surrounding areas

On calm and clear nights when the urban heat island effect is at its greatest


Briefly how does a single building modify an airflow passing over it

Air is displaced upwards and around the sides of the building and is also pushed downwards in the lee of the structure


Explain how the windward side of a building causes the wind to be displaced

The air pushes against the wall here with relatively high pressure.
The air flows around the sides of the building and becomes separated from the walls and roof and sets up suction in these areas.
On the windward side the overpressure; which increases with height, causes a descending flow.
This forms a vortex when it reaches the ground and sweeps around the windward corners.


When is the vortex which is caused by wind passing a building increased

If there is a small building to windward


In the lee side of a building, what happens

There is a zone of lower pressure, causing vortices behind it.


When may the Venturi effect take place

It two separate buildings allow airflow between them


How is the Venturi effect avoided

Some buildings have gaps in them or are built on stilts or podiums


What is essential to remove pollution

A reasonable flow of air at street level


What can reduce ground level wind nuisance

Building design such as pitches over doorways avoid pedestrian being down-blasted by wind


What does the disturbance to the airflow because of building depend on

The height of the buildings and the spacing between them, if building are widely spaced, each building will act as an isolated block, but if they are closer, the wake of each building interferes with the airflow around the next structure and this produces a complex pattern of airflow


When building are designed what is important

That pollution emitters (chimneys) are high enough to ensure that pollutants are released into the undisturbed flow above the building and not into the lee eddy or the downward flowing air near the walls


What are four titles of pollutants

Carbon monoxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Particulars matter
Sulphur dioxide


Describe carbon monoxide

A colourless, tastless, odourless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion


Causes of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere

The road transport is responsible for almost 90% of all carbon monoxide emissions in the Uk. Concentrations tend to be highest close to busy roads


Impacts of carbon monoxide

It affects the transport of oxygen around the body by the blood. Breathing in low levels can result in headaches, nausea and fatigue


Describe nitrogen dioxide

It reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to create ozone, and contributes to the formation


Causes of nitrogen dioxide

Road transport is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of total emissions of nitrogen oxides


Impacts of nitrogen dioxide

It can inflame the lining of the lung and impacts are more pronounced in people with asthma.
Oxides of nitrogen can also cause accelerated weathering of buildings and acid rain.


Describe particles or particulate matter

Tiny bits of solids or liquids suspended in the air


Causes of particulate matter

They originate mainly from power stations and vehicle exhausts. Other particulate matter includes small bits of metal and rubber from engine wear, dust, ash, sea salt, pollens and soil particles


Impacts of particulate matter

Particles smaller than about 10 micrometers are referred to as PM10 and can settle in the airway and deep in the lungs, causing health problems


Describe sulphur dioxide

A colourless has with a strong odour produced when a material or fuel containing sulphur is burned


Cause of sulphur dioxide

In the UK the major contributors are coal and oil burning by industry such as power stations and refineries rises


Impacts of sulphur dioxide

Short term exposure may cause coughing, tightening of the chest and narrowing of the airways. Sulphur dioxide can also produce haze, acid rain, damage to lichens and plants and corrosion of buildings


What is air quality in urban areas compared to rural areadb

It is often poorer


What is particulate air pollution caused by

The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere


Can emissions of particles be natural



What are produced from vehicles and industrial processes

A combination of dust, soot and gases which have negative impact on human health


How does air pollution vary

With the time of the year and with air pressure


How much can concentrations of pollutants increase in winter and why

5 or 6 cold because temperature inversions trap them over the city


What does the mixture of fog and smoke particulates produce



When was smog common in European cities and why

Through the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries because of the high incidence of coal burning.


Why was many of the smogs in Britain known as ‘pea-suppers’

They were so thick


Example of smog in the UK

In London 1952, smog in London was responsible for more than 4,000 deaths


Why is photochemical smog an increasing concern

Photochemical oxidants (ozone and perixycetyl nitrate - PAN) are associated with damage to plants and a range of discomforts to people including headaches, eye irritation, coughs and chest pains.


What causes production of ozone (the low level ozone not the high level ozone in the atmosphere)

The action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in vehicle exhaust gases causes a chemical reaction which results in the production of ozone


What does the high level ozone do

Protects the earth from damaging ultraviolet radiation


When is photochemical smog a particular hazard

During anticyclonic conditions


Why is photochemical smog particularly hazardous during anticyclonic conditions

Because once the air has descended it is relatively static owing to the absence of wind. Such weather systems tend to be stable and can persist for weeks during the summer months.


Who has reducing air pollution in cities become increasingly important for

National and local governments


What are the 3 pollutions reduction policies

Clean Air Acts
Vehicle Control and Public Transport
Zoning of industry


After what did the British government decide legislation was needed to prevent so much smoke entering the atmosphere

The catastrophic London smog of 1952


What did the Clean Air Act of 1956 introduce

Smoke free zones into urban areas and this policy slowly began to clean up the air


Examples of the 1956 Clean Air Acts being reinforced by later legislations

In the 1990s tough regulations were imposed on levels of airborne pollution, particularly on PM10s.
Local councils in the Uk are now required to monitor pollution in their area and to establish Air Quality Management Areas where levels are likely to be exceeded.


While in London the air quality standards have in improve, what were the 2015 NOx emissions

Higher than the UK and European Law recommend


Why have measures to clean up construction sites in London been introduced

Because they are responsible for around 12% Of London’s NOx emissions (nitrogen oxides)


What have been introduced in London to reduce NOx emissions

Measures to clean up construction sites and the use of dust suppressants at industrial sites have been increased


What can be effective on reducing pollution

Greater provision of public transport and general restrictions on polluting vehicles


What are 8 strategies to reduce the number of cars in urban areas

Park and ride.
Greater use of waterways for transport (possible park and glide).
Greater provisons for cyclists.
Road schemes such as urban bypasses.
Creation of bus or car-pooling lanes.
Congestion charges.
Mass transit systems.
Banning cars from driving on certain days and alternating between cars with license plates that end in even or uneven numbers.


Example of a mass transit system

The Metrolink in Manchester


Example of provision for cyclists

The ‘Snake’ bridge in Copenhagen


Example of the Congestion charge

Central London in 2003


In London what will be introduced from September 2020

Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ).
Transport for London’s bus fleet will also be upgraded so that all double decker buses operating in central London will be hybrid and all single deck buses will be zero emission.


What is the ULEZ that was introduce in London

This is where the exhaust emissions standards are set and a daily non-compliance charge introduced to encouraged cleaner vehicles to drive in central London.


What is the hope of having an Ultra-Low Emission Zone

That almost all the vehicles running in central London during working houses could be zero or low emissions


How has zoning of industry helped reduce pollution

Industry has been located downwind in cities if at all possible and planning legislation has forced companies to build higher factory chimneys to emit pollutants above the inversion layer


Why do built up areas need to be drained

To remove surface water run-off


Traditionally how has urban drainage been achieved

By using underground pipe systems to convey the water away as quickly as possible


Why did the traditional way of urban drainage not effective

They were not designed to take into account the amenity aspects of drainage systems, such as water resources management, community facilities, landscaping potential and provision of varied wildlife habitats.


Why has water quality issues become increasingly important

Pollutants from urban areas are being washed into rivers or into the ground and once polluted, groundwater is extremely difficult to clean up.


What is a modern approach to urban drainage

Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)


Why are SUDS used

They deliver a more holistic approach to managing surface water and wherever possible mimic natural drainage


How do natural landscapes precipitation differ to urban landscapes

Forests, wetlands and grasslands trap precipitation and then allow it to infiltrate slowly into the ground.
Impermeable urban surfaces like roads, car parks and rooftops prevent precipitation from infiltrating.


Where does most precipitation in urban landscapes go

It remains above the surface where it runs off rapidly in unnaturally large amounts


How are urban areas designed to shed water quickly

Slipping roofs, smooth rounded guttering and cambered roads all contribute to the rapid movement of water away from the surface.


How does precipitation drain away in an urban environment

Water runs off the impermeable surfaces.
It is then gathered in smooth storm sewer systems which act like a high density drainage system.
It gathers speed and erosional power as it travels underground.
It leaves the storm drains and empties into streams, filling them rapidly.


What are the effects of urban surfaces on the water cycle

Reduced evapotranspiration.
Large volumes of poor quality runoff.
Reduced infiltration.
Wastewater discharge.
Imported water + precipitation.


Why are groundwater and soil water levels reduced in urban areas

Because much of the precipitation is unable to infiltrate the impermeable urban surfaces


What are base level flows reduced in urban areas

Groundwater and soil water levels are reduced because of reduced infiltration and since this is the water that feeds streams during dry periods the base level flows are reduced


What is the resultant storm hydrograph for an urban river

Shows a river with a flashy discharge but low base flow


What is the result of a flashy hydrograph

The result is that urban areas are more likely to have flooded rivers after heavy rainfall


What combination has meant that many people are now at risk from flooding in urban areas

Combination of population and urban growth along with the predicted increase in the occurrence of severe weather as a result of climate change has meant more people are at risk


What has the Red Cross said about natural disasters

About half the natural disasters they dealt with in 2014 were caused by floods


What has the Asian Development Bank (ADB) said

The Asians population vulnerability to inland flooding is expected to reach 350 million by 2025


Explain the changes in a storm hydrograph for a stream following urban development compared to pre-urban development

The pre urban development storm hydrograph:
Gentle rising limb, longer lag time, lower peak discharge, gentle falling limb.

Post urban development storm hydrograph:
Discharge increases soon after the start of the storm, steep rising limb, short lag time, higher peak discharge, steep falling limb.

Note: the base flow of the urban river is lower than base flow of pre-urban river


What are the issues associated with urban river catchment management

River flow: increased flow leads to flooding and erosion of the river bank during wet periods, decreased flow during dry weather harms fish and other aquatic life.
Issues: higher water temperatures can disturb ecosystems, very high flows can overload the foul water system resulting in raw sewage on the surface.


While flooding is important in managing catchment in urban areas, what else needs to be considered by planners

Pollutants can harm fish and wildlife populations, kill naive vegetation, foul drinking water supplies and make recreation areas unsafe and unpleasant. Sediment from erosion can fill spaces between rocks on the street bottom, thus reducing living space or habitat for the biological communities


Two engineering strategies to help with flooding

Fail-Safe (cement and controlled, channelisation)


What are sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)

A relatively new approach to managing rainfall by using natural processes in the landscape to reduce flooding, control flooding and provide amenity for the community


Examples of how a SUD works

Roofwater is collected in water butts for use in gardens or flows to grass channels called Swales.
Then travels on to grass basin where it is stored before release into local ditches.
Rain falling on roads or paths soaks through a permeable block paving where it is filtered and stored in the stone below, or it flows into grass channels, which have a stone filter dean underneath, before it joins the rest of the SUD system.


What is the bioswale rain garden

A sloped retention area designed to capture and convey water while allowing it to infiltrate the ground slowly over a 24- to 48 hour period. Some of the water is soaked up by the vegetation, thereby reducing flooding by natural means


Usually what will be in the detention ponds and Swales when the rainfall is light

Only a little water


If it rains heavily what happens to the Swales and basin

They full for a short period protecting the areas downstream, water is collected, cleaned and stored in the local landscape, providing an attractive place for play and wildlife


Example of a SUD in the UK

Moor Park Centre In Bispham, North Blackpool. It is a case study for susdrain


What is the community for sustainable drainage



Example of SUD in USA

Phoenix, Arizona has a desert climate with typical infrequent but heavy rainstorms


What can inadequate waste disposal be linked to

Air and water pollution, both of which have negative impacts on human health


What are some negatives of waste disposal

Pollution, which is detrimental for human health.
It is becoming increasingly expensive to deal with wastes
Space for landfill is running out and incineration is costly.
It is 5% of total greenhouse gas emissions.


How much does waste account for of total global greenhouse emissions



How much does methane from landfills represent of total global methane emissions



What rates are increasing



While recycling rates are increasing it is clear that more needs to be done to tackle the growing waste crisis, what do some argue the first step in waste management is

To stop calling it ‘waste’


Globally how much does waste increase each year



What accounts for the amount of waste increase each year

Population growth accounts for much of it but economic development also plays a role since greater personal wealth increases consumption of goods and archives and this leads to more waste


When is the amount of municipal solid waste particularly high

In urban areas where there is a large concentration of people


Why is the amount of MSW set to increase significantly over the next decade

It is a result of urbanisation and rising living standards


In 2002 how many urban residents were there

2.9 billion


In 2002 how much MSW did each person generate

0.64 kg


In 2012 how much did the population increase

To about 3 billion


In 2012 how much did each person generate of waste



Why is solid waste seen as an ‘urban issue’

Because urban residents produce about twice as much waste as their rural counterparts


Globally what do rural dwellers tend to be

Poorer, purchase fewer store-brought items (which results in less packaging), and have higher levels of reuse and recycling


Does waste generation varies significantly between cities



In 2010 what were rates of waste production

Much higher in cities in HICs


Why in 2010 were rates of waste production much higher in cities in HICs

Waste generation tends to be greater where disposable incomes and living standards are higher


Which cities are set to be the biggest increase in waste generation over the next decade

Cities in low and middle income countries as a result of rapid urbanisation and continued industrialisation


Which city is the amount of municipal solid waste growing fastest in

China, it overtook the US as the worlds largest waste generator in 2004


What is an interesting finding to come out of studies on urban waste managment

That both richer and poorer cities in a region often outperform middle-income ones


What do the average residents of Kuala Lumpur (middle income) use of water and produce of waste

497 litres of water.
816 kilograms of waste.


What do the average residents of Singapore (rich income) use of water and produce of waste

309 litres of water.
307 kilograms of waste.


What does the average resident of Delhi (poor) use of water and produce of waste

209 litres of water.
147 kilograms of waste.


What is atmospheric pollution caused by

The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere


In 2014 what did the WHO find about urban air pollution

It was 2.5 times higher than the recommended levels in about half of the urban populations being monitored, which puts urban dwellers at risk


How many Londoners died prematurely in 2010 because of air pollutants



In London what air pollutants were people exposed to that caused them to die prematurely

Nitrogen dioxide
Fine PM2.5 particles


While human activity produces air pollutants what determines what will happen to them once they are released

The weather. During wet or windy conditions pollution concentrations remain low, either blown or washed away. During periods of hot, still weather, pollution is able to build up harmful amounts, leading to what is known as pollution episodes


What are pollution episodes

During periods of hot, still weather pollution is able to build up


Somewhere in the midst of economic growth what appeared to overtake sustainability



When is consumption controlled

When a city becomes comparatively wealthy


What is the ‘tipping point’ to controlling consumption in Asia

A per capita GDP of around US $20,000


What is urban waste made up of

Millions of separate waste items


What are the 6 sources of waste

Construction and demolition.
Urban services.


Which kinds of waste are easiest to manage

Large waste items such as organically (food and horticultural waste) and papers


Which wastes are pose disproportionately large problems for disposal

Wastes such as multi-laminates, hazardous (for example syringes) and e-waste


Why is difficult to dispose of waste a particular concern for low income countries

They may not have the facilities to properly dispose of them safely


Annually how much hazardous waste is deposited in Cairo

50,000 tonnes


What does the composition of waste vary according to

A number of records such as level of economic development, cultural norms, geographical location, energy sources and climage


As a country urbanises and population becomes wealthier what happens

Consumption of inorganic materials like plastics, paper and aluminium increases , while the relative organic proportion decrease


What percentage of organic matter is in the urban waste stream for low and middle income countries

Ranging from 40 to 85%


What is the costs of collecting and treating waste



In lower income countries what is solid waste management

It is usually a city’s single largest budgetary item


In low income countries how much to urban authorities spect of their budget on solid waste management



Environmentally waste is a large source of what

Methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
It also contributes to water, ground and air pollution.


What is a waste generator of residential waste



Types of residential waste

Food waste.
Take waste.
Household hazardous wastes like paints and aerosols.
E-wastes like computers.
Special wastes like batteries and oils and tyres.


What is a waste generator of industrial waste

Light and heavy manufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plants


Types of industrial waste

Housekeeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials,hazardous wastes, ashes, special waste


What is a waste generator of commercial waste

Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings


Types of commercial waste

Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste


What is a waste generator of institutional waste

Schools, hospitals (non medical wastage), prisons, government buildings, airports


Examples of institutional waste

Same as commercial: Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste


What is a waste generator of construction and demolition

New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings


Examples of construction of demotion waste

Wood, Steel, concrete, dirt, bricks, tiles


In someone’s what percentage of the total waste steam is construction and demolition waste



What is a waste generator of urban services

Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plants


Examples of waste created by urban services

Street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas, sludge


What can untreated or uncollected waste lead to

Health problems such as respiratory ailments, diarrhoea, cholera and dengue fever


What was the 2012 World Bank report on waste

It found that 30-60% of urban solid waste in lower income countries is uncollected


In Cairo what percentage of daily waste is collected or disposed of in an appropriate way



Where does the other 60% of Cairo’s waste go if not disposed of correctly

It is simply dumped in the desert


What are cities running out of

Landfill space


What does waste management generally follow

An accepted hierarchy


What is the key target of waste management

To reduce the amount of waste produced in the first place


How can reducing the amount of waste produced be done

Through a combination of waste related legislation, education and financial incentives


What can waste disposal occur through

Incineration or landfill


What is the waste hierarchy

Most preferred option:
Recover (digestion, composting)
Incineration (with energy recovery)
Controlled dump
: least preferred option


What is a controlled dump

One in which there has been site selection, controlled access and possibly compaction of waste. The bottom ash, non combustibles and by passed waste from incineration all go to landfill


Which waste management strategies are waste disposal

Controlled dump


Which waste management strategies are waste diversion



What are he most common methods of waste disposal in high income countries

Landfiling and thermal treatment


How do most low and lower middle income countries dispose of their waste

Waste in open dumps, some of this disposal may be unregulated


What does unregulated mean

It is not controlled or supervised by regulation of law


What can solid waste that is not properly collected and disposed of be

A breeding ground for insects, vermin and scavenging animals and can thus pass on air and water borne disease


What did a survey conducted by by UN-Habitat in 2009 find

That in areas where waste is not collected frequently, the incidence of diarrhoea is twice as high and acute respiratory infections six times higher than in areas where collection is frequent


What do environmental threats from waste management include

Contamination of groundwater and surface water by leachate, as well as air pollution from burning of waste that is not properly collected and disposed of


What is resource recovery

The selective extractions of disposed materials for a specific next use, such as recycling, composting or energy generation


When is recycling carried out

When materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products


In recent years what has the global market for recyclables been doing

Increasingly significantly


What is the world market for post consumer scrap metal estimated at

400 million tonnes annually and around 175 million tonnes annually for paper and cardboard (UN-Habitat 2009)


What is the world market for post consumer scrap global value

At least $30 billion per year


Where does recycling occur in low and middle income countries

Through an active, although usually informal, sector


What estimate percentage of the urban population survive by salvaging recyclables from waste



What can save significant energy

Manufacturing new products using recited materials


How much less energy does producing aluminium from recycled materials take than producing it form virgin materials

95% less


What is urban mining

The name given to the process of recovering compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste which would otherwise be left to decompose in landfills


By collecting and salvaging valuable components to be reused and recycled what is there a greater chance of

Reducing landfill waste


What are the key advantages of recycling and recovery

Reduced quantities of disposed waste and the return of materials to the economy


What are the negative environmental issues of recycling and recovery

Energy may be required for the operation of material recovery from waste and this leads to greenhouse gas emissions.
Informal recycling by waste lickers will have little greenhouse gas emissions, except for processing the materials for sale or reuse which can be relatively high if improperly burned (for example metal recovery from e-waste)


What are the different methods of waste management and disposal

Recycling and recovery.
Reduction (incineration).
Burial (landfill).


What is the global waste trade

The international trade of waste between countries for further treatment, disposal, or recycling


What happens to toxic or hazardous waste is the global waste trade

It is often exported from high to low income counties as seen in the example of e-waste


Why are hazardous wastes not properly treated or disposed of

Because the waste is exported to low income countries but they do not often have safe recycling processes or facilities and hazardous wastes are not properly disposed of or treated


What can un-properly treated hazardous waste lead to

Contamination of the surrounding environment


What laws have been introduced to prevent movement of toxic waste

International laws such as the Basel Convention


What has international laws such as the Basel Convention been introduced for

To prevent transboundary movement of hazardous waste but evidence suggests it still happens


How much can incineration of waste reduce the volume of disposed waste

By up to 90%


How can general waste produce electricity and heat

If it’s safely burned at high temperatures and under carefully controlled conditions


Why is incineration without energy recovery not a preferred option of waste management

Due to its cost and pollution


When is the open burning of waste common

In poorer countries


Why is the open burning of waste particularly discouraged

Due to severe air pollution associated with low temperature combustion


What has a rapidly growing surplus of electronic waste around the world result from

Quickly evolving technological advances


What is the estimation for how much e-waste is produced each year

50 million tonnes


What did the UN Step report in 2013

That e-waste is the worlds fastest growing waste stream


Where does much of the e-waste come form

The USA and Europe


Examples of countries e-waste is shipped to

Poorer countries in Asia and Africa


What toxic substances are usually found in electronic goods

Flame retardants


Why do people who work in informal waste sites for e-waste in poorer countries often suffer bouts of poor health

Once in a land fill the toxic materials in electronic goods seep into the environment, contaminating land, water and the air


What is burial

The placement of waste in man made or natural excavations, such as pits or landfills


What are landfill sites

A common final disposal site for waste in urban areas


What may a landfill site be in low income countries

Simply a hole in the ground where open dumplings occur


Describe landfill sites in high income countries

Much stricter regulations and the types of materials that can be sent to landfill are often defined by law.


What are landfill sites like in the UK

Most landfill sites now control and collect the gas that is released by the decomposing waste, often using it to generate electricity through turbines


What is the greenhouse gas methane produce by in a landfill

Rotting organic matter


In a landfill site what else besides methane can cause harm

Bleach and ammonia can produce toxic gases that negatively impact the quality of air in the vicinity.
Dust and other forms of non-chemical contaminants can also make their way into the atmosphere.
Landfills can affect ground water and river quality because toxic chemicals can leach out and contaminate the water.


Advantages to landfill

Facilities are properly suited with necessary controls.
Different types of waste accepted and ordered.


Advantages of incineration

Can reduce the volume of waste needing disposal by 90%.
Can inactivate disease agents.
Can reduce toxicity of waste.
Can be used to produce energy.
Incinerator bottom ash can be recycled as a secondary aggregate.


Disadvantages of landfill

Often opposed by neighbouring residents.
Potential leaching of chemicals threatens groundwater supply.
Decaying matter produces methane, a strong greenhouse gas which is also explosive.
Landfill takes up a lot of space.
High transportation costs.


Disadvantages of incineration

Not all waste is combustible.
Poses challenges of air pollution and incinerator bottom ash disposal.
Capacity limitations.
Unpopular with local residents.


What has been banned by international conventions about waste disposal

The actual submergence if waste in oceans


According to the United Nations, what have some companies been doing with radioactive waste and hazardous materials

Dumping them into the coastal waters of Somalia, taking advantage of the fact that the country lacks strong governance


Where do enviornmental problems tend to be worse and what is the impact

Worse in poorer cities experiencing rapid growth and impacts most severely on the more vulnerable groups with that urban society


What is the main problems concerns of urban areas

Pollution of the air, water and waste disposal and urbanisation leading to a loss of land and therefore habitats. Noise pollution also.


By 2030 what is the estimated expansion of Urban land area

Expanded by as much as 3.3 million square kilometres


What is the CBO

The cities and Biodiversity Outlook project


What did the CBO project say the expansion of urban areas will cause

‘A considerable loss of habitat in key biodiversity hotspots’ in cities such as flood plains, estuaries and coastlines


In Shenzen China how much of the population complained more about noise pollution than air or water pollution



What is noise pollution linked to

Traffic and industry


What are the three biggest environmental treats facing cities in the twenty-first century

Atmospheric pollution
Water pollution


What are 4 some simpler measures fo improve air quality

Ensuring that houses are energy efficient.
Urban development is well served by public transport routes.
Street design is safe and appealing for pedestrians and cyclists.
Waste is well managed.


What is a well known environmental company



What has AECOM calculated about londons trees

That londons 8.3 million trees provide £95 million worth of air filtration every year in terms of health costs avoided


What can all the strategies to manage air pollution serve to do

Act as a catalyst for local economic development and the promotion of healthy urban lifestyles


What does the Daily Air Quality Index (DAQI) air to do

Detail the level of air pollution in the UK and provide recommended actions and health advice


For European cities, how often is the Urban Air Quality Index updated

Every hour and allows comparison of air quality over a 24-hour period


What does UK-AIR do

Provides automated tweets about current and forecast air quality including episodes of poor air quality


What is over 90% of air pollution in low and middle income cournriss due to

The high number of older vehicles, poor vehicle maintenance and low fuel quality


Recently what schemes have been introduce in low to middle income countries to manage air pollution C

UN partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles air to improve air quality, there have been greater investment in improving road quality and commitments have been made to promote non-motorised journeys


What is water pollution

The contamination of water sources including rivers, lakes, oceans, aquifers and groundwater


When does water pollution occur

When pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.


Examples of indirect water pollution

Contaminants that enter the water from soils or groundwater or from the atmosphere via rain


What do the high concentration of impermeable surfaces in urban areas increase

Run-off from roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils, heavy metals, rubber and other vehicle pollutants into water ways and streams.
Reduction in water percolation into the ground which also affect the quantity and quality of ground water.
Increase stormwater runoff in urban areas which can overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment systems when high flows exceed treatment capacities.


What do reports suggest about urban stormwater

It can be just as polluted as untreated domestic wastewater


What are 6 causes of water pollution in urban areas

Surface run off from streets carry contaminates from motor vehicles.
Industrial waste.
Poorly/untreated sewage.
Rubbish dumps, toxic waste, chemical and fuel storage which can all leak pollutants.
Intentional dumping of hazardous substances.
Air pollution can lead to acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition.


Why is untreated/poorly treated sewage a problem

It is Los in dissolved oxygen and high in pollutants such as nitrates, phosphorus and bacteria


What can treated sewage still be high in



How is acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition a cause of water pollution

It can alter the water chemistry of an area


How many people lack access to clean water

Over 1.2 billion


What percentage of waterborne infections account for all infectious diseases



What does increased water pollution create

Breeding ground for malaria-carrying mosquitos as well as damaging ecosystems, leading to species extinction


How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: heavy metals

Heavy metals From industrial processes can slow development, resulting in birth defects and may be carcinogenic


How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: industrial waste

It often contains toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or poisoning


How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: microbial pollution

Comes from sewage and often results in infectious diseases that infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water.


Examples of the diseases caused by microbial pollution

Cholera and typhoid fever which are a major cause of infant mortality in low income counties


How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: organic matter and nutrients

They can cause an increase in aerobic algae and deplete oxygen from the water. This can lead to the suffocation of fish and other aquatic organisms


How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: suspended particles

In freshwater, reduces the quality of drinking water for humans and the aquatic environment for marine life. They can also reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water, disrupting the growth of photosynthetic plants and micro-organisms.


Why does improving water quality requires strategies

To prevent, trust and remediate water pollution


Ideally, how would one manage water pollution

By preventing pollutants from entering water courses in the first place


In reality, what is the way to manage water pollution

Treating potential pollutants before they are discharged.


What is the final and often most expensive strategy of managing water pollution

Polluted watercourses being restored through remediation


In high income countries, what does water quality improvements focus on

Construction of water treatment facilities and wastewater plants.
Regulations aimed at 'point source' polluters such as industries which discharge water pollution into receiving water or sewer systems that flow into treatment plants.


What is the most difficult water-quality challenge

Dealing with 'non-point source' pollution which is the result of precipitation run-off from a wide range of sources including fertilisers and pesticides from agriculture, and chemicals and toxins from urban settlements. These pollutants are difficult to regulate


In Low income countries what has resulted in lower water quality standards

Lack of money and inadequate technology.
Effecfive legislation is often absent and enforcement of pollution controls are limited.


What are the five key water pollution strategies

Low impact development (LID)
Legislation, regulation and enforcement
Education snd awareness
Improvements in sewage and wastewater processing
Appropriate technology


What is low impact development

A stormwater managment approach that can help to reduce stormwater run-off


What is LID primarily done

The use of vegetation and permeable surfaced to allow infiltration of water into the ground. Permeable streets and pavements, green roofs, rain gardens and more urban parks allow water infiltrate into soils rather than flow directly into sewers


What has filtering stormwater stormwater through vegetation and soil been shown to reduce

Organic pollution, oils and heavy metals by more than 90%


How do legislation, regulations and enforcement become a key water pollution strategy

There are many different anti-pollution laws and agreements in operation worldwide. But these laws need to be enforced.


How is legislation and enforcement a key water pollution strategy

Some cities have adopted incentive-based approaches charging polluters per unit. Charges start low but are increased if pollution counties, creating an incentive to rescue discharges and purchase wastewater treatment technologies.


How are regulations a key water pollution strategy

Factories are allowed to discharge only limited amounts of carefully controlled pollutants. By slowly reducing the levels of permitted discharges, year by year, pollution levels are reduced


How does education and awareness help manage water pollution

the more prone Who about the causes and effects of pollution the more likely they will avoid adding to it


In 2014 what did Wessex Water use

Mobile billboards in hotspot areas urging people to bin wet wipes rather than flush them down the toilet as they are a common cause of sewer blockages since they do not decompose like toilet paper


Example of appropriate technology being a key water pollution strategy

Janicki omniprofessor - a small scale innovation aimed st providing clean water in low income countries. It first boils raw sewage sludge during which the vapour is seperated from the solid. Solids then put into fire producing steam and driving an engine producing electricity for the systems processor and for the community. Water is put through a cleaning systems to produce drinking water.


What is dereliction

Refers to the state of having been abandoned and become dilapidated


What are derelict buildings often associated with urban areas

Former industrial sites or run-down housing estates


In the UK how did buildings become derelict

De-industrialisation led to many people leaving the inner city and industrial buildings were abandoned.
Alongside this, services such as public houses and ships may have become vacant as areas become subject to urban decline.


What is the impact of dereliction on the surrounding area

Crime and vandalism rates tend to be higher.
House prices fall.
Out-migration of residents take place.


What often discourages authorities and individuals from renovating or rebuilding

The high cost invoked in urban renewal


What can significantly increase the investment needed to compact dereliction

The presence of listed buildings, which are subject to considerable planning regulations


How does derelict land pose a risk to human health

Contamination from industrial processes lives on in an environment long after the industry that produced or used them is fine


What is a brownfield site

A term used in urban planning to describe land previously used for industrial purposes or some commercial uses


What is a greenfield site

An area of undeveloped land


What is land remediation

The removal of pollution or contaminants from the ground, which enables areas of derelict form industrial land to be bought back into commercial use


What is one of the most common strategies for tacking urban dereliction

Through regeneration schemes such as Urban Development Corporations, City Challange And New Deal for Communities which have had fading levels of success


What does the government try to build new developments on

Brownfield sites rather than greenfield sites


Between 1997 and 2009 what did the proportion of dwellings (including conversions) built on brownfield sites increase to

From 56 to 80%


What did the proportion of previous- developed land changing to residential use between 1997 and 2009 increase to

47 to 69%


What proportion of dwelling in London are built in brownfield sites



What are the 6 advantages to using brownfield sites

Improved physical environment.
Revives older urban communities.
Existing infrastructure can reduce costs and encourage faster occupancy.
Preserves historical landmarks and heritage architecture.
Reduced urban sprawl.
Preserves greenfield sites.


What are the disadvantages of using brownfield sites

Greater costs of clearing contaminated land.
Most brownfield sites are in the inner city, which have higher levels of traffic congestion and noise.


What are 4 land remediation techniques

Soil washing.
Chemical stabilisation.


What has been at the heart of Detroit’s recent strategy to tackle its derelict land areas

Community action


What are three ways to deal with derelict urban sites

Regeneration strategies
Land remediation
Community action


How can community action help derelict urban land

They can encourage small community based activities such as urban farming.
This can lead to conversion of hectares of land into community gardens and micro farms that can yield produce which can be sold to other community organisations like soup kitchens.


What can derelict buildings be converted to

Community centres, cafes and greenhouses


What do cities pose a threat to

Both the local and global environment


How much do cities consume of the worlds resourcss

Three quarters


What do cities generate

The majority of the worlds waste and pollution.


Along with the consequences of waste disposal, pollution and dereliction in cities what else is being felt globally

The effects of urban growth


What do cities rely on

Energy and resources from all over the world


Where is the pollution and waste that cities generate dispersed



What can the environmental impact of cities be measuring using

The ecological footprint calculation


What is the ecological footprint calculation

The total area of productive land and water required to produce the resources a population consumed and absorb the waste produced


In 2007 what was the average persons ecological footprint globally

2.7 global ha. However the variation in both between and within counties is huge


Who tends to have a higher ecological footprint

Cities have a higher footprint than rural areas and wealthy cities have a higher footprint than poorer ones


What did the ‘City Limits’ survey in London, 2003 find

That London’s ecological footprint covered an area twice the size of the Uk, and that if the entire population of the world made such demands, we would need at least three planets to sustain this level of activity


What did more a recent search by the Global Footprint find

That SAN Francisco’s footprint was about 6% higher than the average Americans (2011) while the average footprint of residents of the ‘green city’ of Curitiba was more than 40% higher than the Brazilian average (2010)


What is a high ecological footprint in cities attributed to

The greater affluence of city residents correlating with increased consumption and waste production


What does the concept of the ecological footprint illustrate

The disproportionate impact cities have on the environment


What needs to happen to help reduce the ecological footprint of a city

Greater global sustainability is to be achieved


What is one of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal

To make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and the city as an entity is viewed as a key factor in building a more sustainable world


Where was the idea of sustainability first brought to wider public awareness

In the 1987 Brundtland Report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)


What did the Brundtland Report state

‘Sustainable Development was meeting the needs of he present without compromising he ability of future generations to meet their own needs’


What are the dimensions (pillars) of sustainability

Social development . Economic development. Environmental managment. Urban governance.


What is a sustainable city

One which provides employment, a high standard of living, a clean, healthy environment and fair governance for all its residents.


What has increasingly been incorporated into sustainable urban design

People-centred planning and the notion of liveability is important here


What is liveability

Characteristics of a city which improve the quality of life for the people there. But this means different things to different people, for some it is tied to natural amenities such as parks and green space; for others to cultural offerings, career opportunities, economic and political stability or some degree of safety within which to raise a family.


In the context of the global liveability rankings, what does liveability mean

It related to which cities provide the best or worst living conditions for their residents


What are the inputs into an unsustainable/ linear system of a megacity

Food goods.
Non-a renewable energy.


What are the outputs to an unsuitable/ linear system of s mega city

Waste (organic, inorganic) (landfill, dumped in rivers/seas)
Air pollution (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, ozone), noise
Goods, services, wealth, sprawl


What are the components of an sustainable/ circular system of an ecosystem

Inputs, recycling of inorganic waste (paper, plastics etc), recycling of organic waste (water, compost), outputs


Examples of inputs in a sustainable/circular system of an eco city

Local foods and goods.
Conservation and use of renewable energy.


What are the outputs of a sustainable/ circular system in an eco city

Rescued outputs


Examples of green cities

Copenhagen in Denmark
Curitiba in Brazil
Freiburg in Germany


What are the two types of systems in cities

Unsustainable/ linear system in a megacity
Sustained/ circular system in an ecocity


What is urban resilience

A twenty first century word that means The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems within a city to survive, adapt and grow, no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience


What does thinking of a city as a system enable

A comparison between the characteristics of a typical megacity and that of a green city


Why is the linear system of a megacity unsustainable

Uncontrolled use of inputs and outputs leads to resources becoming exhausted and extremely high pollution and waste levels


How is a circular system in a city sustainable

Some of the outputs are recycled, which reduces the demand for new input resources and pollution and waste levels


What can sustainability be measured in

A number of different ways and different organisations will use different criteria to rank cities in terms of their sustainability


What are terms like 'green city' and 'Eco city' used to describe

Cities with a good environmental record, but the range of indicators used for measuring urban sustainability needs to be far greater and incorporate the social, economic and political elements


7 Examples of the social development pillar for achieving sustainability

Adequate provision of schools and health services.
A ability of foods supplies.
Green housing and buildings.
Clean water and sanitation.
Green public transport.
Green energy access.
Recreational areas and community support.


3 examples of the economic development pillar for achieving sustainability

Decent employment opportunities.
Production and distribution of renewable energy.
Investment in green technology and innovation.


5 examples of the environmental managment pillar for achieving sustainability

Waste and recycling managment.
Energy efficiency.
Water managment.
Air quality conservation.
Adaption to and mitigation of climate change.
Forest and soil managment.


4 examples of the urban governance pillar of sustainability

Adoption of green urban planning and design strategies.
Strategies to reduce inequality.
Strengthening of civil and political rights.
Support of local, national, regional and global links.


What are the 11 key features of a sustainable city

Resources and services accessible to all.
Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars.
Public transport is safe and reliable.
Walking and cycling is safe.
Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable.
Where possible, renewable resources are used.
Water is seen as a resource and recycled when possible.
New homes are energy efficient.
Access to affordable housing.
Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all.
Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues like crime and security.


What does chronic stresses include

Day-to-day challenges such as high unemployment, inefficient public transport systems, endemic violence and chronic food and water shortages.


What are acute shocks

Sudden events that may threaten a city including earthquakes, floods, disease outbreaks and terrorist attacks


What must a sustainable city be able to cope with

The physical, social and economic challenges that are a growing part of the tenth first century


What is the main obstacle for cities to become more sustainable

Financial ability


In the context of rapidly growing urban populations and limited budgets, what do authorities tend to choose

Short-term cheaper solutions over long-term planning


In cities with a large number of people lacking access to water and electricity, what do authorities tend to focus on

Providing basic infrastructure over invest in environmental projects and sustainable development


What are challenges to developing sustainable cities

Short term needs.
Poor infrastructure.
Weak infrastructure.
Lack of enforcement of planning regulations.


What are the main social urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

By 2025, urban population will live in mainly small and medium sized cities.
Number of urban people living in slums continues to grow.
Inefficient use of public services (water, electricity).


What are the main economic urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

Inequality and financial fragility.
Food insecurity.


What are the main environmental urban trends in developing/developing countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

Energy access.
Climate change.


What percentage of the urban population in 2025 will live in small and medium cities

42% and 24%


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They need to Improve access to housing, water and sanitation; improve public infrastructure; foster institutional capacity


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They can invest in possible public infrastructure (including transportation); construction of compact buildings in middle-income cities; strengthen the links between cities and rural areas


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They need to reduce the number of urban poor and disease risk, improve social cohesion, reduce youth unemployment


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They can invest in universal access to affordable water and sanitation, public transport. Creation of jobs to reduce growth of slums, employment of the ‘youth’ dividend in low-income countries


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They need to improve waste and recycling management, support consumption of local produce, change overconsumption patterns of high income households


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They can provide subsidies to households and small firms to reduce non-saving water systems and waste, incentive to local communities to improve recycling systems


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population

They need to create productive employment for older persons


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in universal pensions, extend the working age, support family networks


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility

They need to create policy space for inclusive development, reduce underemployment, promote economic diversification


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility

They can invest in green industry, adapt to climate change, structure economic change (industrial and service ‘leapfrogging’ for least developed countries) and strengthen regional corporation


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity

They need to improve access to food and increase productivity


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity

They can invest in urban agriculture, local crops, storage facilities


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access

They need to provide access to clean energy and reduce use of ‘dirty’ energy in poor households, they need to discourage high energy consumption in high income households


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access

They can invest in capacity development, energy-saving devices, production and use of renewable sources of energy; subsidies and incentives for efficient energy use and water use for middle and high income households


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change

They need to reduce the impact of livelihood, reduce carbon emissions, generate financial resources for adaptation


What are the opportunity to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change

They can investment in health and education infrastructure and facilities; adapt and mitigate technology and early warning systems; green public transportation; strengthen regional cooperation for green technology transfer


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

There is Social cohesion


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They can invest in compact urban development and decentralisation


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

Thy need to reduce urban unemployment due to economic crises (of youth in particular); provide adequate housing in poor neighbourhoods


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They need to strengthen and widen social safety nets, upgrade investment in social protection for an effective response to crises and their aftermath


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They need to change overproduction and overconsumption styles, improve waste and recycling management


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They can invest in retrofitting in buildings of water and energy saving devices, upgrading public furniture


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They have fiscal pressure to reduce health costs and need to improve productivity


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in retraining older people and extend the working age


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inequality and financial fragility

They need to reduce unemployment, boost economic growth, strengthen international cooperation


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in green infrastructure, policy coherence and coordination


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the food insecurity

They need to Reduce food waste


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of food insecurity

They can invest in storage infrastructure, reducing food subsidies, policy coordination


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access

They need to reduce overproduction and overconsumption to sustainable levels


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access

They can invest and use incentives to produce and use renewable energy sources; decentralisation of energy production


What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change

They need to upgrade disaster risk prevention systems and reduce carbon emissions to sustainable levels


What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change

They can invest in mitigation, industrial green transformation, retrofitting of buildings and policy coordination


Why is there no ‘one scheme fits all’ approach towards achieving sustainability

Because the challenges faced by individual cities are diverse and depend on their population size, economic status, technological capacities and development priorities


What are 9 key strategies to achieve sustainability

Investment in infrastructure like roads, water, sewers and electricity and services such as schools and health care.
Green investment in low income countries.
Investment in the production and use of renewable energy sources as well as the renovation of infrastructure, retrofitting of buildings and improved electricity and water efficiency.
Investment in the reduction of waste production and waste collection.
Provision of more ‘green’ areas.
Investment in sustainable and affordable housing.
Adoption of a local currency.
Active participation of different city stakeholders.
Disaster risk reduction.


What has it been argued that greater investment in rural areas is important to do

Reduce the rural-urban migration that has put increasing pressure in cities in the last few decades


How does green investment in low income countries help sustainability

They can help poorer cities ‘leapfrog’ from high-carbon energy use to a zero-carbon development path which could provide employment for the ‘youth bulge’ within these cities


What was the name and content of the report by the British environmental charity Groundwork in 2012

‘grey places need green spaces’ in which they outlined the benefits of green spaces in cities.
This includes greater public health, better personal well-being and economic prospects and reduced violence and aggression


Examples of stakeholders

Local businesses in urban planning.


Examples of disaster risk reduction

Schemes such as tidal barrages and early warning systems can help mitigate the impacts of floods, storm surges and other hazards to which some cities are vulnerable


What do local currencies tend to do

Serve the need of local people because they keep money within the local economy


Example of a local currency

The Bristol Pound


What has Research by the New Economics Foundation round

That for every local currency pound spent in a local business, £1.73 is generated through the multiplier effect. In contrast for every pound spent in a chain store, only 35p is re-spent in the local economy


What can local currency encourage a sense of



What can adoption of local currency include

A mechanism to generate donations for local schools and social services