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Flashcards in CUE Deck (973):
1

What is urbanisation

The process by which an increasing proportion of a country's population lives in towns and cities

2

What has the urban population in the world grown to from 1950 to 2014

746 million to 3.9 billion

3

What are the most urbanised regions in the world

Northern America
Latin America
The Carribean
Europe

4

What percentage of people lived in urban areas for Northern America in 2014

82%

5

What percentage of people lived in urban areas in Latin America in 2014

80%

6

What percentage of people lived in urban areas in the Caribbean in 2014

80%

7

What percentage of people lived in urban area in Europe in 2014

73%

8

Which two continents are mostly rural

Africa
Asia

9

What percentage people live in urban areas in Afrjcs

40%

10

What percentage of people live in urban areas in Asia

48%

11

Where are the fastest growing urban areas found

In Africa and Asia

12

Which three countries are expected to account for 37% of the projected growth of the worlds urban population between 2014 and 2050

India
China
Nigeria

13

How many urban dwellers is India predicted to add in 2050

404 million

14

How many urban dwellers is China projected to add in 2050

292 million

15

How many urban dwellers is Nigeria predicted to add in 2050

212 million

16

What is the total world population expected to surpass by 2045

6 billion

17

Where will much of the expected urbanisation occur

Low income countries

18

Characteristics of the fastest growing urban areas

Medium sized cities.
Cities with less than one million inhabitants.
Many areas projected to be urban in 2040 are not actually built yet.

19

What percentage of Indias expected urban growth has yet to be built

70% of the cities.

20

What led to population losses in the American cities of Buffalo and Detroit between 2000 and 2014

Economic contraction

21

In 2014 why did New Orleans experience population decline

In the wake of the 2005 hurricane Katrina natural disaster

22

What is a striking feature of the last 30 years of development

The rapid development of megacities.

23

What is a megacity

City of urban agglomeration (urban area incorporating several large towns or cities) with a population of more than 10 million

24

How many megacities were there in 1990

10

25

How many megacities were there in 2014

28

26

How many megacities are predicted in 2025

The UN predicts 37

27

In 2025 what percentage are megacities predicted to hold of the global population

13%

28

Where is the development of megacities largely concentrated

In Asian

29

In 2015 what was the worlds largest city

Tokyo, closely followed by Delhi, Mumbai and Shanghai

30

How many inhabitants did Tokyo have in 2015

38 million

31

What is a metacity

A conurbation (continuous built up area) of more than 20 million people.

32

What plans do the Chinese government have

Plans to merge nine cities in the Pearl River Delta to create an urban area 26 times larger than Greater London

33

Timeline of global ubanisation

1960: 34% in urban areas
2014: 54% in urban areas
2050: 66% in urban areas (90% of this concentrated in Africa and Asia)

34

Why can cities be classed as efficient

It is easier to provide basic services such as water and sanitation to people living closer together, likewise access to health, education and other social and cultural services is more readily available.

35

As towns and cities expand why is there a greater strain on the environment and natural resources

The cost of meeting basic needs increases

36

What has transformed agricultural practices

Globalisation and the impact of climate change

37

Why has the proportion of people leaving rural areas increased

They are leaving urban areas to find employment in the cities due to the new agricultural practices being industrialised

38

How are issues of social cohesion evident

As variations in wealth and ethnicity can sometimes lead to hostility

39

What does the future survival of cities depend on

Sustainable growth.
Ability to tackle the major issues such as provisions of affordable housing, employment, pollution and waste disposal, transport and social inequality.

40

According to the UN when did London receive megacity status

2013

41

What is urban growth

An increase in the number of urban dwellers. Classifications or urban dwellers depend on the census definition of urban areas, which vary from country to country. They usually include one or more of the following criteria: population size, population density, average distance between buildings within a settlement and legal and/ or administrative boundaries.

42

What are the two main causes of urbanisation

Natural population growth.
Migration from rural to urban areas.

43

What is urban sprawl

The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside

44

Briefly what are the negative impacts of urban sprawl

Raquires more infrastructures and roads.
Habitat loss.
More commuting from suburbs to city so more fuel consumption and congestion.
Air pollution.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impact on water quality and quantity.
Decentralisation.

45

How is requiring more infrastructures like cables and pipes a negative impact of urban sprawl

It is less economically efficient to service low-density rural areas compared to compact urban development with the same number of households

46

How is wild life loss a negative impact of urban sprawl

Because the reach of urban sprawl into rural areas ranks as one of the main causes of wildlife loss because it builds on greenfield sites

47

How is air pollution a negstive of urban sprawl

More people live a car dependant life style Which leads to increased fossil fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gas. The areas may also experience higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect

48

How is the loss of farmland due to urban sprawl a negative impact

It has led to the loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result.

49

How does urban sprawl have an impact on water quality and quantity

Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means that rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish the groundwater aquifers. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk

50

What is decentralisation

The movement of industry and businesses, including retail companies into the suburbs.

51

What has decentralisation been blamed for

Decline of retail in some city centres and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape

52

What does homogenisation mean

Where cities become indistinct from one and another

53

What is an edge city

New self-contained settlements have developed beyond the original city boundary

54

What have American cities in particular witnessed the growth of during urban sprawl

Large edge-of-city complexes including shopping malls and leisure areas

55

What are two causes of urban growth

Natural population growth.
Rural-urban migration.

56

What has urbanisation historically been linked to

Other important economic and social transformations

57

What have economic and social transformations brought about because of urbanisation

Greater geographic mobility.
Lower fertility.
Longer life expectancy.

58

How do cities hold an important role in reducing poverty

They hold much of the national economic activity, government institutions, business and transportation and have higher levels of education, better health, easier access to social services and greater opportunities for cultural and political participation.

59

What is Brazil’s economic and financial capital

São Paulo

60

In 2015 what percentage of São Paulo accounted of the population and national GDP

10% of population but 25% of GDP

61

What does GDP stand for

Gross Domestic Product

62

What percentage of Kenya accounts for the country’s population and GDP

8.4% of population and almost 20% or the country’s GDP

63

What are the age profiles in urban areas

Relatively young

64

What is the age range for young adults

15-40

65

What are pull factors in urban areas

Higher paid jobs
Better educational opportunities
Greater social and cultural diversity

66

Between 2001 and 2011 what happened to the population of large city centres in England in Whales

It more than doubled, with the number of residents aged 22-29 nearly tripling to make up almost half of their population.

67

Why are the rates of natural increase higher in cities than in surrounding rural areas

The migrants are in their fertile years

68

What are fertile years

The years during which people have children

69

Where in London is deemed ‘nappy valley’

Area stretching from Clapham, south of the River Thames, westwards to Fulham, north of the river

70

Why did ‘nappy valley’ get its name

Due to the high proportion of young families living there

71

What has encouraged young families to remain in the city

In the past professional couples with young children would have moved to the suburbs when they could afford it but the rising costs and time involved in commuting means more families stay in the city

72

What is a push factor

Cause people to move away from rural areas

73

What is a pull factor

Factors that attract people to urban areas

74

In low income countries which factors are more important

Push factors rather than pull

75

What are the six brief push factors

Population growth.
Agricultural problems.
High levels of disease and inadequate medical provision.
Agriculture is increasingly being organised globally.
Natural disasters.
Wars.

76

How is population growth a push factor

The same area of land has to support increasing numbers of people, causing over-farming, soil erosion and low yields

77

How is agricultural problems a push factors

Desertification because of low rainfall, systems of inheritance that cause land to be subdivided into small plots, systems of tenure and debt on loans taken out to support agricultural change

78

How is agriculture increasingly being organised globally a push factor

Land that has previously been used to grow food for local people is now used to produce cash crops for sale to higher income countries. Many traditional rural communities have been driven off their land and into cities

79

How are natural disasters push factors

Floods, tropical storms and earthquakes mean people flee rural areas and do not return

80

How is war and civil strife a push factor

They cause people to flee their land

81

What are 4 pull factors

Employment.
Earning money from the informal sector.
Better quality social provisions.
A perceived better quality of life.

82

How is employment a pull factor

Employment in factories and service industries is better paid with than in rural areas. There is an increasingly high demand for unskilled labour in cities

83

How is the informal sector a pull factor

Earning money for example selling goods on the street, providing transport or prostitution

84

How is better quality of social provisions

Basic needs such as education and health care to entertainment and tourism

85

How is perceived better quality of life in the city portrayed

Through images in the media

86

What are the six consequences of urban growth

Urban sprawl.
Shortage of housing in lower-income countries.
Shortage of affordable housing in high income countries.
Lack of urban services and waste disposal.
Unemployment and underemployment.
Transport issues.

87

What can problems with housing, traffic, waste disposal, crime and pollution be linked to in cities all over the world irrespective of their economic status

The unique geographical circumstances of the city, such as topography, climate and function

88

Traditionally how has the process of urban sprawl occurred

In an uncontrolled and unplanned fashion

89

What are the 6 negative impacts of urban sprawl

Requires more roads and infrastructure.
Wildlife habitat loss.
More commuting from suburbs to the city increasing fuel consumption and congestion.
Air pollution.
Loss of farmland and open spaces.
Impacts water quality and quantity.

90

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: needs more roads and infrastructures such as cables and wires

It is less economically efficient to service low density rural areas compared to compact urban developments with the same number of households

91

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: reach of urban sprawl info surrounding rural areas

Wildlife habitat loss

92

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: more commuting

Increased fuel consumption and traffic consumption

93

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: air pollution

A more car dependant lifestyle leads to increased use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. The area may also expereince higher temperatures in line with the urban heat island effect.

94

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: loss of farmland

This has in turn led to loss of fresh local food sources with greater food miles as a result

95

How is this a negative impact of urban sprawl: water quality and quantity

Covering the countryside with impermeable surfaces means the rainwater is unable to soak into the ground and replenish groundwater supplies. It can also lead to greater water run off and increased flood risk.

96

Along with the movement of people to the suburbs what's another important component in urban sprawl

Decentralisation

97

What is decentralisation


The movement of population and industry from the urban centre to outlying areas. The term may encompass the processes of both suburbanisation and counterurbanisation

98

What has decentralisation been blamed for in some city centres

The decline of retail and an increasing homogenisation of the landscape

99

What is an edge city

Self contained settlements developed beyond the original city boundary and developed as a city in its own right

100

What have American cities in particular witnessed because of urban sprawl

The huge growth of large edge-of-city complexed including shopping malls and leisure areas

101

What is a consequence of population density being high in urban areas

Shortage of accommodation, leading to the presence of large areas of informal and inadequate housing

102

Where does informal and often inadequate housing usually form

On the edge of the city or in areas of low land value prone to environmental hazards such as flooding or landslides, they may also be found adjacent to transport networks or in areas suffering high levels of air, water and noise pollution

103

What do informal settlements usually have limited access to

Basic infrastructure such as water, electricity and waste disposal and a lack of services such as health centres and schools

104

In 2013 what did the UN Habitat report the numbers of people living in slum conditions were

863 million, up from 760 million in 2000 and 650 million in 1950

105

What is another word for 'population counts'

Enumeration

106

How does the fact that slums do not have detailed enumeration affect the estimated population

The actual number of slum dwellers is likely to be in the excess of one billion not 863 million as the UN habitat estimate

107

How has the number of Mumbai slum dwellers changed from 2005 to 2015

Gone from 6 million to 9 million

108

What are the informal settlements in Brazil called

Favelas - they line the hills of Rio de Janiero

109

What are informal settlements in India called

Bustees

110

What are informal settlements in West Africa called

Bidonvilles

111

Why has the term 'slum housing' been critiqued by people

They see it as a political label

112

In Mumbai, what are some examples of 'home grown neibourhoods'

Shivaji Nagar and Dharvi

113

What is a 'Home-Grown neighbourhood'

The argument that 'slums' were developed gradually by people who live there, with the help of local artisans of construction and usually with little or no support from the authorities

114

What happened to the proportion of people living in slums between 2000 and 2012

It fell

115

What was the goal of the Millenial Development Goal 7

Ensure environmental sustainability

116

What helps provide evidence for the fact that the lives of slum dwellers have improved between 2000 and 2012

The relative success of the Millenial Development Goal 7.
The proportion of slum dwellers falling.

117

Between 2000 and 2014 what did the UN report of slum dwellers

More than 320 million people living in slum dwellers gained access to improved water sources, improved sanitation facilities or durable or less crowded housing. However the total number of people living in slums has continued to increased

118

What is a target in the post-2015 sustainable development goals

To 'ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums by 2030

119

In the last, what was the most extreme strategy adopted by authorities to do with slums and did it work

Eradicate slums.
It just moved the problem elsewhere.

120

After trying to eradicate slums, what was the authorities next approach to help and did it work

Acknowledge the presence of slums and provide help in the form of materials or services. These self help or 'site and service' schemes have proved remarkably successful in some cities but the quantity and/ or quality of housing remains inadequate in most urban areas around the world

121

What are the most recent initiatives to help slums

Slum upgrading programs. These seek to improve the slums in partnership with local NGOs and development organisations, they focus on securing rights for dwellers, formalising land tw sure rights and providing basic amenities.

122

What are examples of basic amenities

Electricity, water and waste disposal

123

What is an urbanisation bred to help slums

Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI)

124

What is the purpose of the organisation SDI

It gives a voice to those living in informal settlements and links up poor communities across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The idea is that slum dwellers share their knowledge and expertise so that they are not excluded from the economic and political processes happening in the city

125

In the Uk, what had the rising demand for accommodation in cities led to

A dramatic increase in both house prices and rental costs

126

In some parts of London what did the average house prices rise by

50% between 2010 and 2015

127

What is rising house prices fuelled by

In-migration, gentrification and by the purchasing of properties by wealth foreign investors

128

Why do overseas investors buy properties in London

Because London is a major global hub and they buy to diversify their international portfolio

129

What can financial restraints in lower income countries result in

A lack of basic services such as water and electricity, maintainence of infrastructure is also limited

130

What can limited maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, sewers and drainage result in

Traffic congestion.
Polluted watercourses.
Flooding.
Rapid spread of disease.

131

In India, what has the lack of misntenance of infrastructure led to

Old pipeline infrastructure has not kept pace with urbanisation, resulting in large urban areas devoid of planned water supply and sewage treatment.

132

In 2015 what percentage of piped water reached the slum areas in 42 Indian cities and towns

5%

133

What restraints are placed on waste disposal

Economic, physical and environmental

134

Which city authority is only able to deal with 2/3 of the rubbish created by the growing population

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

135

In Addis Ababa what happens 1/3 of the rubbish that isn’t dealt with by the city authority

It is left to private contractors to collect or is simply left on the streets and in rivers created a huge health hazard

136

Example of a landfill site where families live in makeshift housing and search for material they can use or sell

Koshe Dump

137

Why is there considerable pressure to create sufficient jobs in cities

Such a high proportion of the people who move to cities are young

138

What are unemployment rates usually

Typically high although official data is hard to find and many migrants find employment in informal work

139

What is under-employment

A situation in which a person is not doing work that makes full use of their skills and abilities

140

When may underemployment occur

When migrant moves to a new city

141

What has the processes of urbanisation and suburbanisation led to

Increased traffic in cities accords the world,m

142

What does increased traffic lead to

More congestion.
Pollution.
Damaging human health.
Wasting billions of pounds in lost productivity.

143

What has the spread of houses into the suburbs and beyond created

Surges of morning and evening commuters

144

What adds to the problem of transport issues because of urbanisation

Traffic flow for shopping, entertainment and other commercial services add to the problem

145

During the car boom of the 1960s, what did city planners build as a solution

More and wider roads, it didn’t work.

146

Why didn’t the solution to the car boom in the 1960s work

The more roads created, the more cars they attracted

147

What did the study into traffic in California in 1997 find

That new, additional traffic will fill up to 90% if any increase in road capacity within 5 years.

148

Why is transport issues such a big consequence of urbanisation and urban sprawl

Because no matter how much money is spent on traffic infrastructure, congestion and parking problems seem to get worse

149

What is counter urbanisation

Movement of people from large urban areas into smaller urban areas or into rural areas thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe. It can mean daily commuting but can also require lifestyle changes and the increased use of ICT

150

What is deindustrialisation

The loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, which occurred in the UK in the second half of the twentieth century

151

What is gentrification

The buying and renovating of properties, often in more run-down areas, by wealthier individuals

152

What is suburbanisation

The movement of people from living in the inner parts of a city to living on the outer edges. It has been facilitated by the development of transport networks and the increase in ownership of private cars. These have allowed people to commute to work.

153

What is urban resurgence

Refers to the regeneration, both economic and structural, of an urban area which has suffered a period of decline. This is often initiated by redevelopment schemes but is also due to wider social, economic and demographic processes

154

What was the trend of movement in the industrial period

More people moving into urban areas as opposed to more recently people moving outwards

155

During the mid twentieth century what was suburbanisation facilitated by

The growth of public transport systems and the increased use of the private car.
The presence of railway lines and arterial roads also enabled wealthier commuters to live some distance away from their places of work.

156

What was ribbon development in towns and cities

In the 1930s planning controls and urban growth took place alongside main roads - this was known as ribbon development.

157

By the 1940s what was created because of the concern due to growth in ribbon development

Creation of green belts - areas of open space and low-density land use around towns where further development was controlled

158

Since 1950s what has happened to suburban expansion

It has increased and been better planned

159

During the 1950s and 1960s what construction took place

Large scale construction of council housing took place on the only land available; the suburban fringe

160

In the 1970s what construction occurred

There was a move towards home ownership, which led to private housing estate being built, also on the urban fringe. These allowed people to have more land for gardens and more public open space

161

Why has there recently been more development on the edge of towns

Car ownership grew.
More land available for car parking and expansion.

162

What was built on the edge of cities in the 1970s

New offices, factories and shopping outlets. In a number of cases, the strict control of the green belt was ignored

163

What has recently been built on the edge of cities

New housing estates.
Local shopping centres.
Schools.

164

Why do people move to the suburbs

They desire a quieter, less congested and less polluted environment. The suburbs are perceived as relatively crime free.
they also demonstrate other key benefits of the rural urban fringe such as woodlands and parks, golf courses and playing fields.

165

What are many housing estates in suburban areas seen as

Highly sought after in the property market

166

What are some negative impacts specifically to do with suburbanisation

Increased social segregation: wealthy move out and poor remain in city.
Diversion of funding from the inner city to the suburbs to pay for new infrastructure and services.

167

Example of social segregation to do with suburbanisation

American cities, where segregation has occurred as a result of both wealth and ethnicity

168

What does counterurbanisation lead to

Not suburban growth, but to growth in rural areas beyond the main city.

169

What is reduced as a consequence of counter urbanisation

The difference between rural and urban areas

170

What are the 4 factors causing counter urbanisation

People want to escape air pollution, dirt and crime of urban environment.
Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute.
Many employers have moved from the city.
Improvement of technology has allowed more freedom of location.

171

What is 'rural idyll'

What people see as a pleasant, quiet and clean environment of the countryside where house prices are cheaper

172

How has improvement in technology been a factor in counter urbanisation

The spread of broadband and high speed internet access means that someone working from a home computer csn now access the same global system as a person in an office block in the same centre of a city

173

What has there been a rising demand for in the countryside

Second homes and early retirement

174

What is the rising demand for second homes and retirement a direct consequence of

Rising levels of affluence

175

What is one straightforward way for farmers to raise money due to agriculture facing economic difficulties

Sell unwanted land and buildings

176

How does counter urbanisation affect the layout of rural settlements

Modern housing estates are built on the edge of smaller settlements, and small industrial units on the main road leading into the settlement. Former open areas are built on, old properties and some agricultural buildings are converted and modernised

177

Why may there be tension between newcomers and locals because of counter-urbanisation (much like with gentrified areas in inner cities)

Despite the influx of new people, local services tend to shut down.
Bus services to many rural communities have disappeared, schools and post offices have closed and churches have closed are parishes are amalgamated to larger units.

178

What is the main reason for local services shutting down because of counter urbanisation

Newcomers have the wealth and mobility to continue to use the urban services some distance away

179

What are the four pieces of evidence for counter urbanisation in an area

Increase in the use of a commuter railway station in the area.
Increased house prices.
Construction of more executive housing in the area, often on newly designed building land, following demolition of old properties.
Conversions of former farm buildings to exclusive residences.

180

What is sometimes referred to as the rural turn around

Processes which contribute to social and demographic change in rural settlements

181

What four things may be included in a 'rural turnaround'

Outmigration of young village born adults seeking opportunities elsewhere.
Decline of elderly village born population, through deaths.
In migration of young to middle aged married couples or families with young children.
In migration of younger, more affluent people, which results in increased house prices.

- NOTE these changes do not take place uniformly within all rural settlements and these are considerable variations between and within parishes

182

What is a suburbanised village

The parishes with the most change are key settlements that have a range of basic services and good access to commuter routes

183

Why has urban resurgence been seen in many cities in recent years

Redevelopment schemes have made city living more attractive

184

Where is urban resurgence particularly present

Former industrial cities in the UK which suffered from the manufacturing decline in the 1970s and 1980s but have reinvented themselves as cities of culture and commerce.

185

Examples of former industrial cities in the UK that bounced back after de-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth century

London, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds

186

How have former industrial cities revived their fortune

Developing strong financial, business and consumer service industries and have attracted more university students, young professionals and immigrant workers

187

How is urban resurgence evident in a city

In its changing landscapes

188

Areas of a city may contain industrial architecture of the past such as

Factories and warehouses

189

Increasingly, what have industrial architectures of the past been converted to

Housing or commercial use and modern infrastructure and services are added

190

What have many urban rebranding schemes been successful in

Transforming run down areas.
Rebranding them as fashionable districts or 'quarters'.

191

How does rebranding cities into fashionable districts help the city

It attracts more new comers, often young professionals with s higher disposable income

192

What is urban resurgence often driven by

Government-led regeneration schemes but there are wider economic, social and demographic processes which hare also important

193

What has redevelopment by private companies led to

Wholesale transformation of parts of UK cities in recent years and this has served to attract further investment

194

Why has city living become more attractive

Urban areas are improved by urban resurgence so people chose to live closer to work, entertainment and leisure facilities rather than face the long and costly commute

195

What has facilitated the resurgence in some places

Globalisation and technology change

196

Example of a place where its reputation for creative and digital start up businesses have attracted a huge in-migration of people

East London

197

What can act as a catalyst to changing the fortune of an area

Major sporting events such as the London Olympics bringing much needed investment to former industrial parts of East Lodnon

198

What kind of effect does resurgence babe

A positive multiplier effect, it initiates further improvements and attracts greater investments into an area

199

Why is urban resurgence sometimes not good

As more people are attracted back to the city, grates pressure it put on the urban infrastructure and some people may find themselves displaced as house prices rise in line with the demand.
Also concerns that not everyone benefits from resurgence and this has led to increasing inequality between rich and poor.

200

Examples of American cities which have experienced an urban resurgence in recent decades

New York, Boston and Los Angeles

201

In what time frame saw a huge population decline in urban areas as families increasingly moved to the suburbs

Second half of the twentieth century

202

What process does the term 'dead-heart syndrome' describe

Loss of manufacturing and retail businesses and the traditional 'downtown' areas (major retain centre of cities) were in decline, along with neighbouring residential areas, due to outwards movement of families to suburbs in the twentieth century

203

What time frame saw the beginning of a resurgence

1900s

204

What has helped revive the fortune of many American cities

A sustained period of national economic growth, successful regeneration schemes and more attractive urban design.
More young people are remaining in cities to start a family while many older people whose children have left home are moving back to the city to be close to urban services.

205

What has the population revival in urban cities increased

Demand for services and has fuelled a prosperous urban economy in many cities

206

Prior to deindustrialisation in the late twentieth century, what was a key development in the growth of urban areas

The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the manufacturing industry

207

What did cities become synonymous with in the period of the industrial revolution

Particular types of industry.
Textiles - Manchester.
Iron and Steele - Sheffield.
Shipbuilding - Glasgow.

208

In the industrial revolution why did so many people migrate to urban areas

Because of the rise of the manufacturing industry, there were thousands of jobs created

209

By the 1980s what were many of the older industrial cities experiencing

Severe economic problems associated with the decline of manufacturing

210

What were the 3 main factors attributing to the decline of manufacturing in cities

Mechanisation.
Competition from abroad, particularly rapidly industrialising cities of the time such as Taiwan, South Korea, India and China.
Reduced demand for traditional products as new materials and tschnologies have developed.

211

What is mechanisation

Most firms can produce their goods more cheaply by using machines rather than people

212

During the decline of manufacturing employment, what did the variation of the unemployment figures between cities depend on

The size of the city, ths composition of the urban economy and the actions of the local government

213

Which cities suffered more extensive loses during the decline of manufacturing employment

Cities in the manufacturing heartlands such as Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield

214

What was the difference in number of employees between 1980 and 2015 as shown by ONS

1980-6,403
1995- 4,201
2015-2,658

215

How was their significant variation of employment within cities during the decline of manufacturing employment

Inner city areas contained many of the old types of workplace most likely to be closed - old plants with the oldest production techniques, lowest productivity etc.
The inner city also lacked suitable land for the expansion of existing manufacturing and as a result new investment tend to be located on the edge of urban areas or more rural locations.

216

What is the movement of industry away from the inner city known as

Decentralisation

217

What did decentralisation affect in the late twentieth century

Residential and retail land

218

What was decline in manufacturing employment in the late twentieth century accompanied by

The rise of the service economy in urban areas

219

What activites does the service economy cover

Tertiary activities such as financial services like banking, retailing, leisure, transport, education and health.
Quaternary activites where knowledge or ideas are the main output, such as advertising, computer programming and software design.

220

What are the four reasons the service sector has grown

Population growth.
Financial services are needed to support manufacturing industries, which are sill important in many cities.
Societies become more technologically sophisticated, they need a larger range of specialised services to keep them running.
Societies become wealthier, they demand more leisure and retail services.

221

For many urban areas what has there been a dramatic shift in

Their economic core from manufacturing to service based activities

222

Where are the major financial centres located

In world cities

223

Where are corporate headquarters located and why

In clusters in urban areas where they can access national and international markets, a highly skilled labour force and specialist support services

224

As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 8 economic impacts of de-industrialisation on urban areas

Loss of jobs and disposable income.
Closure of other businesses: 'closing industry'.
Loss of tax income to local authority.
Potential decline in services.
Increase in demand for state benefits.
Loss of income in service sector as a result of falling spending paper of the local population.
Decline in property prices as outmigration occurs.
Leads to the de-multiplier effect in urban areas affected.

225

As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 social impacts of de-industrialisation

Increase in unemployment.
Higher levels of deprivation.
Out migration of population, usually those who are better qualified and more prosperous.
Higher levels of crime, family breakdown, alcohol and drug abuse and other social problems.
Loss of confidence and morale in local population.

226

As said by Drake and Lee's 'The Urban Challenge' what are the 5 environmental impacts of de-industrialisation

Derelict land and buildings.
Long term pollution of land from 'dirty industries' such as dye works remain a problem because there is no money for land remediation.
Deteriorating infrastructure.
Reduced maintanence of local housing caused by lower personal and local authority incomes.
Positive impacts: reduction in noise, land and water pollution and reduced traffic congestion.

227

Who created 'the urban challenge'

Drake and Lee

228

Where provides an important environment for social networking, which is heavily drawn upon in business

City bars.
Restaurants.
Clubs.

229

The growth of the service sector has gone some way to reduce unemployment caused by de-industrialisation however these 4 problems still exist

Many people who lost their jobs through deindustrialisation have continued to suffer from long term unemployment.
Many service jobs are part time or temporary.
Number of service jobs created has not always made up for loss of manufacturing jobs.
Inner city locations avoided by service industries and newer manufacturing companies leading to continued inner city decline.

230

What is urban policy

The strategies chosen by local or central government to mans have the development of urban areas and reduce urban problems

231

Since when has regeneration been a key element of urban policy in the UK

The 1980s

232

What did early regeneration strategies focus on compared to more recent strategies

'Top-down' economic regeneration but subsequent policies have recognised the need to adopt a more holistic approach, hackling economic, social and environmental problems from the 'bottom-up'.

233

The urban policy used between 1979-1991

Emphasis given to property-led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture

234

Details of the urban policy in 1979-1991

Emphasis on the role of the private sector to regenerate inner city areas.
Coalition boards set up with people from local business community and they were encouraged to spend money buying land, building infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment.

235

Examples of the urban policy of emphasis given to prosperity led initiatives and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture in 1979-1991

Urban development corporations.
Urban land grants.
Enterprise zones.
Derelict land grants.

236

The urban policy used between 1991-1997

Partnership schemes and competition-led policy

237

Details of the urban policy in 1991-1997

Focus on local leadership and partnership between the private sector, local communities, voluntary sector and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run-down parts of the city, which now include peripheral estates.

238

Example of urban policy of partnership schemes and competition led policy in 1991-1997

City challenge.
City pride.
Single regeneration budget.

239

What does the term ‘bottom up’ mean

When local people are consulted and supported in making decisions to undertake projects or developments that meet on or more of their specific needs

240

What does ‘top down’ mean

When the decision to undertake projects or developments is more by a central authority such as government with little or no consultation with the local people whom it will affect

241

What is devolution

The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration

242

The urban policy used between 1997-2000s

Area-based initiatives

243

Details of the urban policy used between 1997-2000s

Focus on narrowing the gap in key social and economic indicators between the most deprived neighbourhoods and the rest of the country.
Local authorities set targets to improve levels of health, education and employment opportunities and funding was allocated to assist them in delivering government objectives.

244

Examples of the urban policy of area based initiatives used in the 1997-2000s

New deal for communities.
Regional Development Agencies (RDAs).
The housing market renewal programme.

245

What might the urban policy's be in the future

There have been calls for a greater devolution of powers (devolution deals) to English Cities, such as the type granted in Greater Manchester in 2014. Some feel this will lead to more effective place-based urban policies.

246

What does urban form refer to

The physical characteristics that make up built up areas, including the shape, size, density and organisation of settlements

247

Details of the regeneration policy: Urban Development Corporations

Set up in the 1980s primarily to regenerate inner city areas.
The boards of UDcs were made up of people from local community and they were encouraged to spend money on land, infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment. Funding came direct from central government.

248

Details of the regeneration policy: city challenge

1990s, Cities had to compete with each other for government regeneration grants.
The cities with the 'best' schemes were awarded the grant.
Local authority led scheme which formed partnerships between the private sector, local communities and the local authority.
Strategies focused on tackling social, economic and environmental problems in run down parts of the city.

249

Details of the regeneration policy: New Deal for Communities

2000s, the NDC partnerships were established to carry out 10-year strategic programmes designed to transform the 39 most deprived neighbourhoods and improve the lives of those living within them.
Local partnerships of residents, businesses, community organisations and local authorities were established but the focus was very much on communities being 'at the heart of the regeneration'

250

What scales can urban forms be considered at

From regional to urban, neighbourhood and street

251

What are urban forms continually evolving in response to

Social, economic, environmental, political and technological developments

252

What did a government report on 'Urban form and infrastructure in the U.K.' (2014) report

That the UKs urban form is characterised by 64 'primary urban areas', including one built up megacity region (London and the Greater South East), six large metropolitan areas (Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield) and 56 towns and cities with more than 125,000 people

253

What are the largest urban forms

Megacity is and world cities

254

What has led to the rapid rise of megcities

Globalisation and economic competition between countries and cities

255

How has mass migration fuelled large scale population growth

When people are faced with poorer economic prospects in rural areas and the perception of a better life in the city they tend to move in mass migration

256

Historically, what were the greatest global cities

The largest, however recently this is not important it is more the influence

257

Of the worlds most populous cities which 3 cities are in the top ranking of the worlds most important cities

Tokyo, New York , Beijing

258

What term is given to cities which have the greatest influence on a global scale

World city/global cité

259

What is one of the more commonly cities rankings to measure a city

It is carried out by the Globalisation and World Rankings Research Network (GaWC) called the Alpha, Beta and Gamma rankings

260

What is the Alpha, Beta and Gamma ranking of cities based on

Initially on the connectivity of cities through four advanced producer services: accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law.
New indicators were added in 2004 but economic factors are still deemed more important than political and cultural indicators.

261

What are the cities called below the alpha, beta and gamma rankings

Cities with 'sufficiency of services' - not world cities but have sufficient services so as not to be dependant on world cities. They tend to include smaller capital cities and traditional centres of manufacturing regions

262

What are the 12 characteristics of a world city

Centres of media and communications for global networks.

Headquarters of multinational corporations.

Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities.

Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area.

Dominance of the national region with great international significance.

Existence of financial headquarters, stock exchange and major financial institutions.

Centre of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture and politics.

Considerable decision making power at a global level.

High proportion of residents employed in service information sectors.

Variety of international financial services including insurance, real estate, banking, marketing etc.

High quality educational institutes including renowned universities, international student attendance and research facilities.

Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal,C medical and entertainment facilities, in the country.

263

What is an Alpha ++ city

More integrated than all other cities and constitute their own high level of integration

264

Example of Alpha ++ cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

London
New York

265

What is an Alpha + city

Other highly integrated cities complement London and New York, largely filing in advanced service needs for the Pacific Asia

266

Example of Alpha + cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

Tokyo
Hong Kong
Paris
Shanghai
Singapore
Beijing
Sydney
Dubai

267

What is an Alpha and alpha - cities

Very important world cities that link major economic regions and states into the world economy

268

Example of Alpha and alpha- cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

Chicago
Milan
Mumbai
Moscow
São Paulo
Frankfurt
Toronto
LA
Madrid
And more

269

What is a beta level city

Important world cities that are instrumental in linking their region state into the world economy

270

Example of Beta cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

Bangalore
Lisbon
Copenhagen
Santiago
Rome
Cairo
And more

271

What is a Gamma level city

These can be world cities linking smaller regions or states into the world economy, or important world cities whose major global capacity is not in advanced producer services

272

Example of Gamma level cities from 2012 GaWC ranking

Zagreb
Lahore
St Petersburg
Durban
Bristol
Islamabad

273

What does urban morphology refer to

The spatial structure and organisation of an urban area, traditionally this would have been affected by physical factors such as relief and drainage

274

Why did early industrial areas develop close to rivers

So they could harness the power of water for energy and transportation

275

Why was flat land also important for some industrial areas

To transport goods via roads or railways

276

Why does relief still play an important role today for the organisation of an urban areas

Because flat land is easier to build on and may attract a higher land value. Conversely, flat land close to rivers may pose a flood risk.

277

In poorer cities where are informal settlements often found

On undeveloped steep land

278

Example of shanty town built on steep land

Brazil's largest shanty town, Rocinha is built on a steep and rugged hillside overlooking Rio de Janiero. The poorer parts of the shanty town are found higher on the hilltop, with many houses only accessible on foot.

279

Why is urban form today more strongly influenced by human nature

Because humans have been able to overcome the limitations imposed by physical factors

280

What is the main factor affecting land use in high-income countries

Land value

281

Where is land value traditionally higher

In the centre of a city where accessibility is greatest

282

Where is the Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)

The point with the highest land value and from here, land prices decline in line with the theory of distance-decay

283

What is the point with the highest land value called

The Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)

284

Describe the typical land values for s city in a high income country

The Peak Land Value Intersection in the middle.
From this runs motorways and main roads.
As you get further from the PLVI there is a decline in land values.
However, you can get Secondary Land Value Peaks such as where there are shopping outlets on the edge of cities.
Along these is the outer ring roads.

285

Which businesses usually occupy the PLVI

Only very profitable businesses such as large retailers that can afford the prices of the PLVI. In the Uk the site has been occupied by the likes of Marks and Spencer's.

286

Who occupies the CBD

Other retailers and commercial enterprises but they cannot all afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations

287

What is likely to be found towards the edge of the CBD

Smaller retailers and businesses who cannot afford to pay the high prices required for the most accessible locations

288

Why do land values fall significantly in transect of the CBD to the suburbs

The different land users are less reliant on accessibility and unable to pay the higher prices associated with this, this is known as the bid-rent theory

289

Traditionally, what does the bid-rent theory show

There has been a move from retailing to industrial and commercial and then residential areas

290

What is the distance decay theory

As distance from the CBD increase there is less competition for land, so the values fall

291

Roughly what does the bid-rent theory show

Shops and offices can afford the high land values of the CBD.
Industry cannot afford the highest land values so is found away from the CBD.
Housing can only afford low land values.


Price of land ^
Distance from CBD >

292

What shows that the 1980s trend towards out of town shopping centres affected land values in some cities

The presence of secondary peaks

293

Why did secondary land value peaks occur

An increase in traffic meant that the city centre was no longer always the most accessible part of the city and a lack of expansion encouraged some of the large retailers to look elsewhere for potential new sites

294

For the consumer, what did the growth of edge-of-town developments provide

Free parking and other land uses such as cinemas and restaurants which proved to be highly attractive. Land values subsequently rose in such areas.

295

What is the CBD

The central areas of a place which contains the major shops, offices and entertainment facilities

296

What is the inner city

An area of old housing and light manufacturing industry. This area dates back to the industrial revolution when it was compromised mainly of terraced housing providing accommodation for factory workers. Many British cities have seen regeneration in these areas in the last three decades.

297

What is the residential land use in a city

Consists of housing from a range of periods, which has traditionally increased in both size and price as one moves towards the outskirts. Urban regeneration and gentrification means that some of the more expensive properties can now be found in traditional 'low class residential' areas while council estates are on the edge of cities and are now among some of the most depressed parts of British cities

298

What is the green area of a city

Such as parks tend to be dotted throughout an urban area. They range from large botanical gardens of national importance down to playgrounds within a housing estate

299

What is the out of town retail developments in a city

Originally developed by large supermarkets, these spaces soon expanded to include non food retail units and entertainment complexes. They have had a negative impact on some towns and cities. In 1994 the UK govern,went started to actively discourage their development

300

What is the business or science parks in a city

Tend to be found on the edge of urban areas where there is good access to main roads. Some science parks are located near universities

301

What is the industry part of a city

Manufacturing industries often require large areas of land and tend to be located towards the edge of cities where cheaper land is available. Deindustrialisation brought about the large scale decline of manufacturing industry in British cities and former factory sites have either been demolished or converted into other land use. The later may scull occupy their hisotrical location in the inner city

302

What is the informal settlement part of a city

Features of cities in low income countries. Traditionally developed on the edge of cities although they have also been found adjacent to transport routes or in areas of the city unpopular with residents like rubbish dumps. Physical factors such as steep slopes, unstable land and areas prone to natural hazards may also encourage their development.

303

What can encourage greater financial investment

Government policies such as the establishment of Special Enterprise Zones in Chinese cities

304

Why do problems occur because of population growth

The growth in population is not matched by a growth in resources and infrastructure

305

How do megacities in low income countries spread

In haphazard fashion

306

What has the haphazard fashion of megacities in low income countries led to

The challenge of providing employment, housing and basic services

307

What are the concerns about megacities

About how city authorities can effectively govern such large cities

308

On average how much more GDP do megacities produce compared to other cities

2 to 3 times more

309

What were the 5 characteristics and benefits highlighted in 2014 by a United Nations report on urbanisation

1: they offer opportunities to expand access to services, such as health care and education, for large numbers of people in an economically efficient manner.
2. Less environmentally damaging to provide public transport, housing, electricity, water and sanitation for a densely settled urban population than a dispersed rural population.
3. Urban dwellers have access to larger and more diversified employment markets.
4. Better levels of education and healthcare can improve the lives of the poor and empower women in countries where they do not have equal status.
5. Megacities are centres of innovation where many solutions to global problems are being trialled

310

Why are political protests more common in urban areas

Large numbers of younger people are brought together

311

What is a fortress landscape

Landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion

312

What is a world city

Cities which have great influence on a global scale, because of their financial status and worldwide commercial power.

313

Which are the three cities which have traditionally sat at the top of the global hierarchy

New York.
London.
Tokyo.

314

Which cities are now joining New York, London and Tokyo at the top of the global hierarchy

Beijing.
Shanghai.
Mumbai.

315

What are some characteristics of the 6 cities at the top of the global hierarchy

House the headquarters of many transnational corporations (TNCs).
Centres of world finance.
Provide international consumer services.

316

What are the 7 main land use zones in a city

Central business district.
Inner city.
Residential.
Green areas.
Out of town retail developments.
Business of science parks.
Industry.
Informal settlements.

317

What have some city centres in the UK experienced in the last 30 years

Decline

318

Why was the decline in city centres due to in the 1980s and 1990s and more recently

1980-1990s: The development of out-of-town retail parks and the decentralisation of business and residential areas, which served to pull people away from the CBD.
High parking costs, congestion and perceptions of the city centres as dirty and unsafe were further disincentives for shoppers.
Recently: due to the phenomenal growth of Internet shopping.

319

What are a few strategies devised to help reverse the decline of city centres

Provision of a more attractive shopping environment.
The construction of all weather shopping malls.
Improvement in public transport links.
Establishment of business and marketing teams to co-ordinate managment of the CBD and run special events.
The 2000s ha e seen two other notable strategies as well.

320

What are many cities encouraging the development of to increase The attraction of the city centre

Functions other than retailing

321

Briefly, what are 7 functions other than retrial encouraged in city centres

Wider range of leisure facilities.
Availability of space.
Promotion of street entertainment.
Developing nightlife.
Developing flagship attractions.
Constructing new offices, appartments, hostels and conference centre.
Encouraged residential areas to return to the city centre.

322

Example of leisure facilities

Cinema
Theatre
Cafe
Wine bars
Restaurants
Other cultural and meeting places to attract a greater range of people

323

Examples of adding space into a city centre

Gardens.
Squares or plazas.

324

What does adding space into a city enable

People watching and other activists

325

Example of a famous street entertainment

Covent Garden in London

326

Example of developing nightlife

Clubbing

327

Why is developing nightlife not always positive

These see negative issues associated with clubbing such as the high level of policing that is necessary

328

Example of a developed flagship attraction

At-Bristol Science Centre and M Shed museum and gallery in Bristol

329

How does constructing new apartments, offices, hotels and conference centres help a city

It raises the status of the CBD for business and encourages tourists to remain near the city centre

330

How can a city encourage residential areas to return to city centres

By providing flats, redeveloping old buildings (gentrification) or building new upmarket apartments

331

What has the combination of strategies to increase the attraction of the city centre and stricter planning controls placed on out of town developments meant

That large cities in the UK have successfully attracted shoppers and visitors back to the city centre.

332

Where are decision makers still worried about the decline of the CBD

In smaller cities and urban areas

333

What have many cities across the uk initiated the planning and development of and why

Cultural and heritage quarters as a deliberate model for urban regeneration of declining inner urban areas

334

When did culturally-led urban development first begin to appear

1980s

335

Early UK examples of culturally or heritage quarters in 1980

Sheffield Cultural Industries Quarter and Manchester Northern Quarter

336

What is a prerequisite for a cultural quarter

Presence of cultural production (making objects, goods and products) or consumption (people going to shows, visiting venues, galleries)

337

What do heritage quarters focus on

The history of the area based around small-scale industries

338

What do the most successful quarters tend to be

Those actually making something or associated with a product, such as the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter

339

What reputation do many famous quarters tend to build and why is this good

Regional and in some cases national reputation which attracts visitors and tourists from further afield bringing financial benefits to the wider area

340

What have some critics argued about cultural quarters

That not all towns and cities need them and in some areas they have simply created higher property values

341

What have experiences of different 'quarters' shown

That some are more successful than others

342

Why are quarters usually viewed in a positive light

They are a good tool for regeneration, they improve perceptions of place and preserves the history and culture

343

What is gentrification

The buying and renovating of properties often in more run-down areas by wealthier individuals

344

Who supports gentrification

Groups such as estate agents and local authorities

345

In the last few decades what has gentrification helped to do

Regenerate large parts of British inner cities

346

What is involved in gentrification

Rehabilitation of old houses and streets on a piecemeal basis

347

Who carries out gentrification

Individuals or groups of individuals rather than large organisations

348

What are 5 brief reason gentrification can happen

The rent gap.
Commuting costs.
The 'pioneer' image.
The support of government and local decision makers.
Changing composition of households.

349

What does the rent gap refer to

The situation when price of property has fallen below its real value, usually due to lack of maintenance or investment, and there is a 'gap' between actual and potential prices.

350

Why are properties with the rent gap attractive to builders, property developers or individuals

They can afford to renovate the properties and then sell them on to make a property

351

How does commuting costs cause gentrification

Commuting can be time consuming, expensive and stressful. Moving closed to the city centre can eliminate the need to commute.

352

What does the 'pioneer' image refer to

The trend of creative individuals such as artists and designers moving into more 'edgy' neighbourhoods.

353

Why does the 'pioneer' image exist

The groups moving into the edgy neighbourhoods are not interested in the conformity of suburban living but are drawn to the diverse cultural opportunities of the urban centre

354

Examples of the 'pioneer' image

Hoxton and Shoreditch in London and SoHo in New York City are seems as the location of vibrant art scenes

355

How does the support of government and local decision makers cause gentrification

Both groups are keen to impoverished the economy and environment of the inner city areas and gentrification is seen as an improving part of this

356

How does changing composition of households cause gentrification

Many cities have seen the growth of single or two person households without children. These households are more likely to see the benefits of inner city living

357

What are the 4 costs of gentrification

People on low incomes cannot afford higher property prices or rents.
Higher cad ownership may increase congestion.
Potential loss of business for traditional local shops.
'Gentrifers' may be seen as a threat to the traditional community and friction may occur between 'newcomers' and original residents.

358

What are 4 benefits to gentrification

Rise in general level or prosperity and increasing number and range of services and businesses.
Increased local tax income for the local authority.
Physical environment of the area improved.
Greater employment opportunities created in areas such as design, buildings and refurbishment.

359

What are the two conflicting views of commentators on gentrification

Some have emphasised the importance of gentrification in inner city regeneration, others have raised concerns about the displacement of low income families and small businesses.

360

In London, what has gentrification continued significantly to

The lack of affordable housing and prices have been pushed up even beyond the level of well-paid professional workers

361

What are becoming more common because of gentrifcation

Anti-gentrification processes

362

What does fortress landscape mean

Refers to landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion

363

In the UK what are 5 strategies used to reduce crime in urban hotspots

Greater use of CCTV.
Railings and fencing around private spaces.
'Mosquito' alarms which emit a high pitched sounds heard only by young people, to discourage loitering around certain buildings.
Effective use of street lighting.
Speed bumps to prevent joyriding.

364

Examples of urban hotspots

City centres and inner city estates

365

What are more recent strategies used to rescue crime in urban hotspots

Focused on ths concept of 'designing out crime' through better urban architecture

366

Examples of UK city 'designing out crime'

Manchester, the redevelopment of housing in parts of Greenheys and Wythenshawes estates have included more Windows to provide more natural surveillance, provision of front gardens with fences or hedges to mark a clear boundary between private and public space and bins in gated compounds rather than open alleyways.

367

What are features avoided in 'designing out crime'

Recessed doorways for people to hide in.
Projecting window sills or exposed rainwater downpipes, which would make it easier for anyone to climb on to the roof and dark alleys and dead ends associated with muggings and drug deals.

368

What are some exclusionary tactics some UK cities have adopted from North America

The use of anti-homeless spikes fitted into the ground in shop doorways or outside upmarkets apartments. Heavily criticised.
High pitched mosquitos alarm.
Sloped bus shelter seats.
Special benches to deter skateboards.
These raise few eyebrows.

369

What are increasingly becoming a feature of some urban landscapes

Gated communities

370

Where are gated communities common

USA and South Africa

371

What is increasing in British cities security

Electronic control of access into housing complexes

372

What notion is present in the idea of fortress landscapes

The idea of 'insider' and 'outsider'

373

What are edge cities associated with

The urban landscape of North America and have been viewed by some as a feature of postmodern urban living

374

What are edge cities largely the result of

Urban sprawl

375

Why has the emergence of edge cities happened on a large scale in the USA

It is a result of higher car ownership, greater willingness to travel long distances for work, shopping and entertainment and limited planning restricting in the suburbs

376

What is a common example of a sprawling urban settlement

Los Angeles

377

How is Los Angeles a good example of a sprawling urban settlement

In 2015 the core city of Los Angeles which is 30 kilometres wide had 4 million residents.
However this is surrounded by a metropolitan area of nearly 18 million people which is more than 100 kilometres at its widest point.
Within this area there are more than 20 edge cities.

378

Where do edge cities develop close to

Major roads or airports and tend to be found in close proximity to shops, offices and other businesses which decentralised from the original city

379

While edge cities lack a clear structure they have a wide range of amenities including

Schools, shopping malls and entertainment facilities, residents may rarely go back to the original core city

380

What has edge cities been linked to

Extreme social segregation where the wealthy have moved to the new suburban settlements leaving only the poor and disadvantaged sections of society in the original city boundary

381

What does the term post modern describe

The changes that took place in Western society and culture in the late twentieth century

382

What did post modernism mainly concern

Art and architecture and it marked a departure from the conformity and uniformity of modernism

383

What is post modernism characterised by

The mixing of different artistic styles and architecture

384

What are 7 features of a postmodern western city

Fortress Landscapes.
More fragmented urban form comprising independent settlements (Edge cities), economies, societies and cultures.
Greater ethnic diversity but heightened economic, social and cultural inequalities and polarisation.
Spectacular flagship developments such as the Guhgenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain.
Eclectic and varied architecture as seen in the London city scape.
Greater emphasis on producer services and knowledge based industries rather than industrial mass production.

385

What has the notion of the postmodern western city been based on

While elements of postmodernism can be seen in cities all over the world,cit is based on experiences of a small number of (mainly American) cities

386

What is Los Angeles often referred to as

The archetypal postmodern city but experiences of cities like Los Angeles are clearly not representative of cities elsewhere in the world.

387

What is economic inequality

The increasingly large wealth gap between rich and poor residents which is a key feature of cities in Asia, Africa and South America

388

Where is a good example of economic inequality

In Mumbai, the worlds most expensive home towers over one of the largest slums in the area. Antilla is a 27 storey home worth $21 billion. Within a short distance is Byculla, an area I habituated by Mumbais 9 million slum dwellers

389

What do most slum dwellers in Mumbai survive on

Less than $2 a day

390

What is cultural diversity

The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society

391

What is diaspora

A group of people within a similar heritage or homeland who have settled elsewhere in the world

392

What is social segregation

When groups of people life apart from the larger population due to factors such as wealth, ethnicity, relgion or age

393

What is urban social exclusion

Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation

394

What are three reasons the wealthy and the poor seem to concentrate specially

Housing.
Changing environments.
The ethnic dimension.

395

How does housing cause social segregation

Developers, buildings and planners tend to build housing on blocks of land with a particular market in mind.
The requirement to include a proportion of affordable housing may affect housing values in some areas but wealthy people can choose where they live, paying premium prices for houses away from poor areas which pleasing environments and services. Poorer groups have less choice.

396

How does the changing environment affect social segregation

Housing is only a partial explanation for inequality since neighbourhoods change over time.
Houses built for large families in Victorian and Georgian times are now too big for the average family.
Many have been converted into apartments for rental to people on low income.
Conversely, former poor areas are being gentrified.

397

Which legislation helped transform many council estates and how

The 'right to buy' legislation in the 1980s.
The houses were bought by occupants and gentrified.

398

How does the ethnic dimension cause social segregation

Ethnic groups originally come to the country as new immigrants.
When they first arrive they may suffer discrimination in the job market and may be unemployed or employed in low paid jobs.
They are only able to afford cheap housing or rent privately.
Therefore, newly arrived migrants concentrate in poor areas of the city, often clustered into multicultural areas.
Such ethnic groupings tend to persist into later generations.

399

What is the index of multiple deprivation

A Uk government qualitative study measuring deprivation at small-area level across England. It is an overall measure of multiple deprivation experienced by people living in an area

400

How is the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 calculated

The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are based on 37 separate indicators, organised across seven distinct domains of deprivation which are combined, using appropriate weights, to calculate the IMD

401

What areas are part of the IMD

Every Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA), or neighbourhood, in England

402

What are the seven different dimensions of deprivation

Income
Employment
Health deprivation and Disability
Education, Skills and Training
Crime
Barriers to Housing and Services
Living Environment

403

What did the 2010 IMD data find

That 98% of the most deprived areas in England were cities

404

What did the 2015 IMD data find

The concentrations of deprivation were mainly found in large urban conurbations, areas that have historically had large heavy industry, manufacturing and/or mining sectors, coastal towns, and large parts of East London

405

Examples of the 20 most deprived local authorities in 2015

Largely the same as those found in 2010

406

Examples of local authorities which were in the most deprived 20 in 2010 but have become relatively less deprived and no longer feature in this list in 2015

London Boroughs of Hackney.
Tower Hamlets.
Newham.
Harringeyz

407

What is largely responsible for deprived neighbourhoods becoming less deprived

Gentrification

408

Why may people in deprived areas not be themselves be deprived

The statistics of the IMD are a measure of relative deprivation, not affluence, and so not every person in a highly deprived area will be deprived themselves. Likewise there will be some deprived people living in the least deprived areas.

409

What does urban social exclusion refer to

The problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation, these people are excluded form full participation in society by their social and physical circumstances

410

What are some examples of urban social exclusion

People can’t attain a decent job because of poor education or obtain decent housing because of poverty.
Often they suffer from poor health and from high levels of crime in an unattractive physical environment.

411

In a city what can inequality cause

Lack of social cohesion and in extreme cases it can lead to civil unrest

412

Where have traditionally been the most deprived urban neighbourhood

Inner city areas

413

What were the characteristics of deprivation caused by

De-industrialisation in the second half of the twentieth when unemployment became a major problem. Population loss followed and the movement of younger, more affluent and skilled residents left behind a population who were older, less skilled and poor

414

What are the four measures of the quality of life

Social
Physical
Economic
Political

415

Examples of the social aspect to working out quality of life

Incidence of crime
Fear of crime
Percentage on free school meals
Percentage on state benefits
Standard of education (e.g percentage staying on post-16)
Standards of health and access to health facilities (e.g percentage in poor health)

416

Example of political aspect to working out quality of life

Opportunities to participant in community life and influence decision making (e.g percentage voting in an election)

417

Example of physical aspect to working out quality of life

Quality of housing
Level of pollution (air/noise)
Incidence of litter
Graffiti
Vandalism

418

Example of economic aspect to working out quality of life

Access to leisure services, open spaces etc
Access to employment (e.g percentage unemployed long term)
Level or income
Percentage of lone-parent families
Percentage of lone pensioners

419

Is there a clear geographical pattern to urban poverty today

No

420

What image of urban poverty is outdated

The image of a troubled inner core surrounded by affluent suburbs is out-dated

421

Where are some of the highest levels of urban poverty found

In peripheral estates

422

Why do inner cities no longer have the highest levels of urban poverty

They have been transformed by regeneration schemes

423

Where are rich and poor areas today found

Across city and suburbs alike

424

What remains a major challenge for cities in the twentieth century

Inequality

425

What can the gap between rich and poor within a city be compared to across a whole country

Greater within a city

426

Where do inequalities exist

In terms of access to job opportunities, education, housing and basic public services such as water and sanitation

427

In poor cities, what is primarily channelled to upper and middle class neighbourhoods

Adequate water and sanitation services, while low income neighbourhoods often depend on distant and unsafe water wells and lack any form of waste disposal

428

What are the knock on impacts of poor people living in overcrowded and informal accommodation which lacks basic infrastructure and services

Poorer health, higher unemployment and a lack of social mobility

429

What is the poverty cycle

The poor being stuck in a cycle of poverty which is hard to escape from

430

What is the difference between poverty and inequality

Poverty is an absolute term, referring to a level of deprivation that does not change over time. Whereas inequality is a relative term referring to the differences between people, usually economic, over a geographic distribution

431

When can inequality be high in society without high levels of poverty

Due to a large difference between the top and the middle of the income spectrum

432

Examples of inner city decline

Loss of jobs
Lack of skills
Ageing population
Declining industries
Population loss
Lack of capital investment
Illness
Lack of capital investment
Poor infrastructure for industrial expansion

433

Examples of inner city despair

Riots
Social unrest
Rising crime rates
Low public participation
Vandalism
Political extremism

434

Example of inner city deprivation

Poorly built tower blocks
Poverty
Pollution
Population loss
Inadequate services
Dereliction
Difficult schools
Traffic congestion
Lack of adequate open space
High concentration of ethnic groups

435

What is the main drive of urban inequality

Wealth

436

What do richer cities tend to have higher rates of compared to smaller cities

Big cities like London have higher rates of inequality while more equal cities are those that are smaller, have lower average wages and are coming out of the end of years of industrial decline

437

On a national stage what can a redistributive tax system help to do

Reduce inequality but on a local level the effects are less clear

438

What are 7 strategies to reduce poverty and inequality

Enforcing a living wage or providing an urban subsidy.
Provision of schools.
Support low skilled workers who want to develop their abilities.
Access to affordable housing.
Greater provision of public transport.
Enforce minimum environmental standards.
‘fairness commissions’.

439

Examples of enforcing a living wage to help battle poverty and inequality

The London Living Wage has achieved success with over 10,000 families lifted out of working poverty since 2005

440

How does provision of schools help battle poverty and inequality

Education may be taken for granted in many high income countries but schooling beyond primary school level helps lift millions of people out of poverty in lower income countries

441

How does supporting low skilled workers help battle poverty and inequality

Cities need to ensure labour markets are inclusive, giving all residents the skills and opportunities needed to enter the workforce

442

How does access to affordable housing help battle poverty and inequality

The presence of slum housing in poorer cities should not hide the fact that access to affordable housing is a major problem in wealthy cities too.

443

Examples of access to affordable housing causing inequality and poverty

In London, the lack of affordable housing has been blamed for breaking up families, reducing employment prospects and mobility and slowing the economy

444

How does greater provision of public transport help battle inequality and poverty

Affordable public transport schemes improve mobility for the city poor, enabling them access to employment, education and services that could improve their lives

445

Example of greater provision of public transport reducing poverty and inequality

The Rio de Janiero sky-high transport system, which connects six hilltops and covers 3.5km was installed in 2011 to service 13 favelas and provide access to the main part of the city. Scheme was designed to give mobility to a once-stranded population and 12,000 people ride it daily.

446

How does enforcing a minimum environmental standard battle poverty and inequality

Poor health is strongly linked to poor environmental conditions. This can be improved through effective legislation

447

Examples of British cities who have established ‘Fairness Commissions’

Liverpool and Sheffield

448

What do ‘fairness commissions’ look at

How local areas can address inequality

449

What can culture relate to

Nationality, race, age and traditions

450

What is a key influence of cultural diversity

Immigration

451

Which places does cultural diversity tend to flourish

Urban areas, especially large cities

452

What has led to the creation of multicultural urban societies

Cities like London, New York and Amsterdam

453

What is London considered to be

One of the most diverse cities in the world

454

How many languages are spoken by people in London

More than 300

455

How many non-indigenous communities are within London

50 with populations of 10,000 or more

456

What has increased movement around the world

Globalisation

457

In some global cities what do diasporas make up of the population

A larger proportion of the population than the indigenous residents

458

Example of a place where diasporas make up a higher proportion than indigenous residents

The United Arab Emirate state of Dubai, the majority of the city’s population is made up of expatriates. Two thirds of the population if make up of Asian descent with people coming from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Arabic is recognised as the official language but many languages are readily spoken like English, Urdu, Hindi and Chinese etc.

459

What percentage of the people in Los Angeles are multilingual

57%

460

Examples of places in Los Angeles which reflect its cultural diversity

Cultural enclaves such as Chinatown, Koreatown and Thai Town

461

What are 5 reasons immigrants are likely to choose to live in urban areas

Cities tend to offer a greater range of employment.
Cities are the first point of entry into the country for many immigrants.
Cities tend to house earlier immigrant groups with the same ethnicity.
Established cultural diversity in cities means there are specialist ethnic shops and religion centres located there.
Urban populations tend to be more tolerant of immigrants.

462

What did the port city of Liverpool attract

Many Irish migrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

463

Where are there large concentrations of the Indian ethnic minorities

In cities such as Leicester and Greater Manchester, Where labour intensive industries such as clothing were traditionally located

464

What is a more recent influx of migrants

Eastern European has led to changes in the demographic makeup of many British cities

465

What is the population like in Southampton

More than 10% of the population are now Polish and specialist Polish supermarkets and restaurants have opened to cater for them

466

What are the commonly cited advantages of cultural diversity

Relates to the greater exposure people get to different foods, music, language and religion

467

Examples of events in England that have become part of the British calendar

The Notting Hill Carnival in London and Mela in Newcastle

468

What do festivals in the Uk serve to illustrate

An acceptance of and interest in different cultures

469

What can cultural diversity put pressure in

Already stretched urban services

470

Where language differences exist what may local authorities need to provide

English Lessons or Bilingual literature

471

Because of cultural diversity, what may hospitals need to do

Cater for specific illnesses

472

Because of cultural diversity, what may schools need to do

Alter their curricula and holiday patterns to cater for different ethnic groups

473

Why is it the responsibility of local authorities to ensure that all children have the same opportunities

Because variations in educational attainment have been noted

474

What percentage of Cardiff is White, Asian, Black or Chinese

White: 84.24%
Black: 1.67%
Asian: 5.56%
Chinese: 0.95%

475

What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Birmingham

White: 63.26%
Black: 6.57%
Asian: 19.62%
Chinese: 1.11%

476

What are the different percentages of ethnicities in Southampton

White: 81.75%
Black: 2.15%
Asian: 6.38%
Chinese: 0.59%

477

What are the different percentages of ethnicities in London Borough of Brent

White: 38.08%
Asian: 24.42%
Black: 16.09%
Chinese: 1.76%

478

Why have many countries adopted a multicultural policy

To protect and celebrate cultural diversity

479

What do some argue about countries adopting a multicultural policy

That at an urban level, this can encourage culturally and spatially distinct communities leading ‘parallel lives’ which is known as segregation

480

Example of segregation in an urban area

In Dubai, British migrant workers tend to live in expat (sometimes gated) communities and integrate little with local society

481

What has London witnessed an influx of in recent years

Wealthy immigrants and these have tended to cluster together

482

Why does the pricing of houses in Mayfair and Knightsbridge far exceed the reach of even wealthy British people

They are home to a multitude of millionaire from the Middle East and the former Soviet Union

483

What did the 2011 census show as the distribution of white British and Pakistani people in London

The distribution of white British populations shows a concentric pattern around the edge of London while those of Pakistani descent are concentrated in three main areas of the city (North East) (south) and (West)

484

In which cities have different ethnic communities been isolated from wider society

In some European and North American cities

485

How have some ethnic community become isolated from wider society

They have maintained their own language and beliefs and limited their interactions with others

486

What can local schools being dominated by a particular group lead to

Suspicion and hostility as younger people do not get to know each other

487

In American cities what has the term ghetto been used to describe

An area of a city where the population is almost exclusively make up of an ethnic or cultural minority

488

Where are ‘ghettos’ usually located

In the poorer parts of the city, where wealthier residents have left and where unemployment rates are high

489

What does the place sit on Brick Land and Spitalfields highlight

The large concentration of people of Bangladeshi decent in East London

490

What are the two reasons for segregation in cities

Self-segregation
External factors

491

What are the four self-segregation

Migrants seek the support and security of living near friends and relatives within an ethnic minority community.
Provision of specialist faculties such as places of worship and food shops.
Protection against racial abuse and attacks from the majority population.
Maintenance of cultural, language and traditions.

492

What are the external factors for segregation in cities

Traditionally, migrants have been a source of cheap labour focusing them into areas of cheap housing.
Ethnic minorities had been discriminated against in access to local authority housing. They have also been less successful in securing mortgage loans.
Hostility from the majority population.
Movement of the majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved.

493

What is often referred to as ‘white flight’

The movement of he majority population out of the area into which minority populations have moved

494

What do geographical patterns of ethnic segregation tend to be

The result of self-segregation, but there are also external factors which have encouraged ethnic minorities to live in particular areas

495

What did analysis of the 2012 census data reveal

That many large cities in the Uk like Birmingham and Manchester recorded a decrease in segregation for most ethnic groups between 2001 and 2011

496

Examples of decreased segregation in the Uk

Indian and Chinese groups across England and Wales.
In London even the most diverse wards of Brent and Newham have experience a decrease in segregation.

497

Why has a policy of interculturalism been introduced

To tackle the negative issues associated with ethnic segregation

498

What does interculturalism do

Emphasises Interactions and the exchange of ideas between different cultural groups.
Areas of mutual interest are found and community engagement is conducted in ‘intercultural spaces’ such as libraries, schools, sports clubs and community centres

499

In the Uk what is there legislations on

Anti-racism
Employment rights
Opportunities to combat discrimination.
Prejudice
Racism

500

What can encouragement of greater political involvement of different cultural groups also encourage

Greater integration and provide a voice for those who may feel under-represented

501

What do urban areas create their own

Climate and weather or ‘microclimate’

502

What is a ‘climatic dome’

Within the dome the weather is different from that of surrounding rural areas in terms of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, visibility, air quality and wind speed

503

For a large city, how big can the climatic dome extend

Upwards to 250-300m and it’s influence may continue for tens of kilometres downwind

504

WhT is albedo

The reflectivity of a surface. It is the ratio between the amount of incoming isolation and the amount of energy reflected back into the atmosphere.

505

Why do light surfaces have a greater albedo

Light surfaces reflect more than dark surfaces

506

What is a microclimate

The small scale variations in temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation that occur in a particular environment such as an urban area

507

What is particulate air pollution

A form of air pollution caused by the release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere. Emissions of particles can occur naturally but they are largely caused by the combustion of fossil fuels

508

What is photochemical pollution

A form of air pollution that occurs mainly in cities and can be dangerous to health. Exhaust fumes become trapped by temperature inversions and, in the presence of sunlight, low-level ozone forms. It is associated with high pressure weather systems

509

What is a temperature inversion

An atmospheric condition in which temperature, usually, increases with height. As the inversions are extremely stable conditions and do not allow convection, they trap pollution in the lower layer of the atmosphere

510

What is the urban heat island

The zone around and above an urban area, which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas

511

What are the two levels in an urban dome

Urban canopy where processes act in the space between buildings (sometimes referred to as ‘canyons’)

Above this is the urban boundary layer, the dome extends downwind and at heigh as a plume into the surrounding rural areas.

512

What is the temperature increase of urban areas compared to nearby areas

Annual mean - 0.5-0.8*C increase
Winter minimum - 1.0-1.5*C increase

513

What is the increase of precipitation in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Quantity: 5-10% increase
Days with less than 5mm: 10% increase

514

What is the decrease of relative humidity in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Annual mean: 6% decrease
Winter: 2% decrease
Summer: 8% decrease

515

What is the increase of visibility in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Fog in winter: 100% increase
Fog in summer: 30% increase

516

What is the change in wind speed in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Annual mean: 20-30% decrease
Calms: 5-20% increase
Extreme gusts: 10-20% decrease

517

What is the radiation in urban areas as opposed to surrounding rural areas

Ultraviolet in winter: 30% lower
Ultraviolet in summer: 5% lower
Total on horizontal surface: 15-20%

518

What is the increase of pollution in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas

Dust particles: 1,000% increase

519

Briefly describe the urban climatic dome

Prevailing wind causes the dome shape.
Rural-urban-fringe through to high rise characteristics of the central business district and back to the rural urban fringe.
Rural boundary layer.

520

What can the annual mean temperature of a city with one million or more people be

1 to 3*C warmer than it’s surroundings and on a clear, calm night, this temperature difference can be as much as 12*C

521

What is the fluctuation of temperatures in urban areas dependant one

Season, weather conditions, sun intensity and ground cover

522

When are surface urban heat islands typically largest

In the summer

523

What do smaller urban areas produce

Heat islands, but the effect tends to decrease as city size decreases

524

What does the US Environmental Protection Agency show of the urban heat island effect

It can be seen that typically the urban temperatures are at their highest in the mid-afternoon over the CBD.
Secondary peaks of high temperatures appear over other built up areas such as the suburban residential areas.
Temperature range from rural to city centre is often greatest at night due to the high heat storage capacity of building materials compared to vegetation.
There is very little variation in surface temperatures over areas of water.

525

Why is there very little variation in surface temperature over areas of water

Because water maintains a fairly constant temperature over a 24 hour period due to its high heat capacity

526

What is a landsat satellite image

Land surface temperature map

527

In a Landsat satellite image why are the mostly densely vegetated areas the coolest areas

Because vegetation cools the surface through evaporation of water

528

In an aerial photo, what do the colours represent

Trees and other vegetation are green.
Roads and development appear grey.
Bare ground is tan or brown.

529

In a land surface temperature map what do the colours mean

Cooler temperatures are yellow and hotter temperatures are red.

530

Where development is denser what is the land surface temperature

Near 30*C

531

What are the 4 reasons that cities tend to be warmer than rural areas

Surfaces in the city tend to be much less reflective than those in rural areas.
Air pollution from industries and vehicles increase cloud cover and create a pollution dome.
In urban areas, water falling to to the surface is disposed of as quickly as possible.
Heat comes from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel.

532

Examples of building materials that have a low albedo

Concrete, bricks and tarmac

533

What do building materials like concrete, bricks and tarmac absorb large quantities of

Heat during the day

534

How do the surfaces in the city tend to increase temperature in the cities

Surfaces in the city have a lower albedo and absorb large quantities of heat during the day. Much of the heat is stored and slowly released at night. Some urban surfaces like large windows have a high reflective capacity, and multi-storey buildings tend to concentrate the heating effect in the surrounding streets by reflecting energy downwards.

535

In winter what happens to the albedo in rural areas

As rural areas keep snow for a much longer period of time they therefore have a greater albedo ranging from 0.86-0.95

536

What does a ‘pollution dome’ allow

It allows in short wave radiation but absorbs large amounts of the outgoing radiation as well as reflecting it back to the surface

537

How does water falling on the surface being disposed of quickly affect temperature in cities

It changes the urban moisture and heat budget - it reduces evapotranspiration meaning that more energy is absolve to heat the atmosphere

538

How does heat coming from industries, buildings and vehicles, which all burn fuel affect temperature in citizen

Although they regulate the temperatures indoors, air conditioning units release hot air into the atmosphere. Even people generate heat and cities contain large populations in a small space

539

Examples of urban surface albedos

Asphalt:0.05-0.20
Concrete: 0.10-0.35
White paint: 0.50-0.90
Highly reflective roof: 0.60-0.70
Tar and gravel: 0.03-0.18

540

What do Evan environment albedos tend to be compared to rural areas

Much lower

541

Examples of rural surface albedos

Deciduous forest (0.17)
Coniferous forest (0.14)
Sand (0.37)

542

How has rising temperatures in the summer months caused concern about the UHI in London

The conditions can become uncomfortable in buildings and on city transport. During extreme heat island events, the case of heat stroke, asthma, organ damage and even death increase. Vulnerable groups like babies and the elderly are most likely to be effected.

543

How have the hot and still anticyclonic weather conditions caused concern about the UHI in London

They are responsible for intense urban heat island events and also produce higher air pollution levels. This is because the chemical reactions that produce ozone and smog are accelerated by high temperatures while the lower wind speeds keep the heat and pollution trapped in the city.

544

How has excessive heat caused concern about the UHI in London

It puts an increased strain on the supply of energy for cooling and air conditioning

545

How has the fact that In warmer periods the added heat from the urban heat island can lead to increased water consumption caused concern about the UHI in London

This places extra strain on the water supply infrastructure and can lead to water-use restrictions. Evapotranspiration rates will also be higher with the result that plants and trees will potentially extract water from the soil at greater rates than normal.

546

How does the earlier flowing times of plants and trees in cities caused concern about the UHI in London

There is a prolonged growing season which may cause discomfort for city residents who face a longer allergy season

547

How does the prologued survival and higher reproduction rates of some animals and insects cause concern about the UHI in London

They can be problematic and there is a greater potential for algae blooms in water courses as a result of rising temperatures

548

How has the increased rates or temperature related chemical weathering caused concern about the UHI in London

There is an increased risk of deterioration of historical monuments and buildings

549

What is climate change expected to increase the intensity of

The urban heat island effect in most urban areas

550

What can urban temperatures be mapped using

Isotherm maps

551

Example of urban heat island in London

Temperatures in central London rise to aiding 3*C higher which Richmond Park is 1*C cooler than it’s surroundings.
There is a positive correlation between high surface temperatures and high density urban areas, the relatively cool areas to the southwest coincide with the large open and green spaces of Richmond Park

552

How can you investigate the presence of an urban heat island

By taking a temperature readings for a transfer from a transect from the rural-urban fringe through the urban centre and out to the other side of the settlement

553

How can an alternative view of London’s UHI be gained

From the analysis of surface temperatures as measured by infrared cameras located on satellites

554

What are 5 strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect

Urban planning and design have focused the strategies:
Cool surfaces.
Green roofs.
Urban Greening.
Sky view factors.
Cool cars.

555

How would cool surfaces help combat the urban heat island effect

Cool roofs built from materials with high solar reflectance or albedo absorb and store less solar energy during the day and thus are not major emitters of heat into the urban atmosphere at night. Cool pavements are being trialled around the world.

556

How do green roofs combat the urban heat island effect

They consist of a growing medium planted over a waterproof membrane, they can reduce rooftop temperatures by 20-40*C on a sunny day. They can also reduce rainwater run-off, act as insulators and increase urban biodiversity by providing habitat space for birds and animals.

557

How does urban greening help combat the urban heat island effect

Planting trees and vegetation provides shade (surface peak temperature reductions of 5-20*C may be possible) and can have a natural cooling effect as seen by lower temperature in urban parks around the world. Urban trees act as a carbon store and can reduce urban flooding by intercepting rainfall and filter pollutants from the air.

558

Example of a green roof

The curving green roof structure of the School of Art, Design and Media At Nanyang Technological University in Singapore

559

What is a sky view

Sky view describes the relative openness between buildings in an urban area.

560

How does the sky view contribute to the urban heat island effect

A restricted sky view, as found for narrow streets and tall buildings, will reduce the escape of heat from street and building surfaces. This contributes to the accumulation of heat within ‘street canyons’ and lead to the increase of air temperatures.

561

How does changing the sky view factor combat the urban heat island

If streets are angled perpendicular to the prevailing wind, during intense urban heat island events this will reduce the chance of ventilation and removal of heat and pollutants that accumulate between buildings

562

How does cool cars help combat the urban heat island

A lighter coloured car shell reflects more sunlight than a traditionally dark car shell. This cools the inside of the car and reduces the need for air conditioning. Cars contribute to the higher temperatures and pollution levels experience and so the use of cool cars would benefit the cities and drivers significantly

563

What did a recent study find about the effect of temperature on car colour

After parking in the sun for an hour, a silver Honda Civic (0.57 albedo) has a cabin air temperature about 5-6*C lower than an otherwise identical black car (0.05).

564

Why is rainfall higher over urban areas than rural areas

Because higher urban temperatures encourage the development of lower pressure over cities in relation to the surrounding area.

565

Which rainfall tends to be heavier and more frequent

Convection rainfall

566

What are 5 reasons convection rainfall is more heavy and frequent, along with thunder and lightning

The urban heat island generates convection.
Presence of high-rise buildings and a mixture of building heights induce air turbulence.
Surface winds are drawn from the surrounding rural area.
City pollution can increase cloud formation and rainfall.
Cities may produce large amounts of water vapour.

567

How does the urban heat island generate convection

As ground surfaces are heated, rapid evapotranspiration takes place and can result in cumulus cloud and conventional weather patterns

568

What does the presence of high rise buildings and a mixture of buildings heights induce

Air turbulence and promotes increased vertical motion

569

How are surface winds drawn in from surrounding areas

Due to low pressure caused by rising air

570

How does surface winds being drawn from the surrounding rural area cause convection rainfall

The air converges as it is forced to rise over the higher urban canopy, a similar process occurs as the prevailing winds move over the city. Friction from the urban boundary creates an orographic process but the moving air may split apart due to the barriers created by high rise buildings. As the air comes back together downwind of the high buildings, they are thought to converge and rise upwards forming rain clouds.

571

Example of an orographic process

A mountain barrier

572

How does the city population increasing cloud formation and rainfall cause rainfall

Pollutants act as hygroscopic (water attracting) nuclei and assist in raindrop formation. Also some suggestion that city pollution enhances the chance of lightening as the cloud droplets take on different electrical charges

573

Why do cities produce large amounts of water vapour

From industrial sources and power stations

574

What have studies shown about rainfall in urban areas

That rainfall downwind of major urban areas can be as much as 20% greater than it is in upwind areas.

575

Why is rainfall in downwind areas more than in upwind areas

The hearing of the surface and the overlying air creates instability in the atmosphere that encourages air to rise. As it rises, it cools, and water vapour condensed into rain that falls downwind of the city

576

In cities why did the occurrence of fog increase

It happened along with industrialisation

577

What do records of London weather show about fog

That in the early 1700s there would have been about 20 days of fog every year but by the end of the 1800s this had risen to over 50 days.

578

What was discovered in the 1950s about fog

That the average number of particles in city air in the more developed world was much greater than in rural areas. The particles acted as condensation nuclei and encouraged fog formation at night, usually under high-pressure weather conditions

579

In the Uk which act was established in the 1950s to combat the increase of fog

The Clean Air Acts

580

What did the Clean Air Acts of the 1950s result in

A dramatic reduction in smoke production and particulate emissions, and a decrease in the number of foggy days

581

What are cities that are undergoing more recent industrialisation events experiencing

More fog

582

Where do thunderstorms develop

In hot humid air

583

What are thunderstorms characterised by

Violent and heavy precipitation associated with thunder and lightning.

584

In urban areas when are the chances of thunderstorms increased

During late afternoon and early evening in the summer months

585

In what conditions do thunderstorms form

By conventional uplift under conditions of extreme instability

586

How are thunderstorms created

Updraught of air through the central area of the towering cloud causes rapid cooling and condensation. THis leads to the formation of water droplets, hail, ice and super-cooled water, which coalesces during collisions in the air. During condensation, latent heat is released that further fuels the convectional uplift. As raindrops are split in the updraught, positive electrical charges build up in the cloud. When the charge is high eneough to overcome resistance in the cloud, or in the atmosphere, a discharge occurs to areas of negative charge in the cloud or to the earth. This produces lightning. The extreme temperatures generated cause a rapid expansion of the air which develops a shock wave. This is heard as thunder.

587

What is channelling

Wind redirected down long straight canyon like streets where there is less friction. These are sometimes referred to as urban canyons

588

What is the Venturi effect

The squeezing of wind into an increasingly narrow gap resulting in a pressure decrease and velocity increase

589

What do urban structures and layouts have an effect on

Wind speed, direction and frequency

590

What can cause changes in wind speed and direction

Buildings can exert a powerful frictional drag on the air moving around them

591

What are the three main types of effect wind can have

Average wind speeds are lower in cities than in the surrounding areas and they are lower in city centres than in suburbs.
Wind can be powerful that it makes the buildings sway and knocks pedestrians of their feet.
Conventional processes can draw in strong localised winds from cooler surrounding areas.

592

Why are average wind speeds lower in cities than surrounding areas

The surface area of cities in uneven because of varying heights of the buildings. The buildings exert a powerful frictional drag on air moving over and around them. This creates turbulence, giving rapid and abrupt changes in both wind direction and speed.

593

How can wind be powerful enough that it makes buildings sway and knocks pedestrians over

High rise buildings may slow air movement but they also channel air into the canyons between them making the wind in such places powerful

594

When do connections processes draw in string localised winds from cooler surrounding areas

On calm and clear nights when the urban heat island effect is at its greatest

595

Briefly how does a single building modify an airflow passing over it

Air is displaced upwards and around the sides of the building and is also pushed downwards in the lee of the structure

596

Explain how the windward side of a building causes the wind to be displaced

The air pushes against the wall here with relatively high pressure.
The air flows around the sides of the building and becomes separated from the walls and roof and sets up suction in these areas.
On the windward side the overpressure; which increases with height, causes a descending flow.
This forms a vortex when it reaches the ground and sweeps around the windward corners.

597

When is the vortex which is caused by wind passing a building increased

If there is a small building to windward

598

In the lee side of a building, what happens

There is a zone of lower pressure, causing vortices behind it.

599

When may the Venturi effect take place

It two separate buildings allow airflow between them

600

How is the Venturi effect avoided

Some buildings have gaps in them or are built on stilts or podiums

601

What is essential to remove pollution

A reasonable flow of air at street level

602

What can reduce ground level wind nuisance

Building design such as pitches over doorways avoid pedestrian being down-blasted by wind

603

What does the disturbance to the airflow because of building depend on

The height of the buildings and the spacing between them, if building are widely spaced, each building will act as an isolated block, but if they are closer, the wake of each building interferes with the airflow around the next structure and this produces a complex pattern of airflow

604

When building are designed what is important

That pollution emitters (chimneys) are high enough to ensure that pollutants are released into the undisturbed flow above the building and not into the lee eddy or the downward flowing air near the walls

605

What are four titles of pollutants

Carbon monoxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Particulars matter
Sulphur dioxide

606

Describe carbon monoxide

A colourless, tastless, odourless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion

607

Causes of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere

The road transport is responsible for almost 90% of all carbon monoxide emissions in the Uk. Concentrations tend to be highest close to busy roads

608

Impacts of carbon monoxide

It affects the transport of oxygen around the body by the blood. Breathing in low levels can result in headaches, nausea and fatigue

609

Describe nitrogen dioxide

It reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to create ozone, and contributes to the formation

610

Causes of nitrogen dioxide

Road transport is estimated to be responsible for about 50% of total emissions of nitrogen oxides

611

Impacts of nitrogen dioxide

It can inflame the lining of the lung and impacts are more pronounced in people with asthma.
Oxides of nitrogen can also cause accelerated weathering of buildings and acid rain.

612

Describe particles or particulate matter

Tiny bits of solids or liquids suspended in the air

613

Causes of particulate matter

They originate mainly from power stations and vehicle exhausts. Other particulate matter includes small bits of metal and rubber from engine wear, dust, ash, sea salt, pollens and soil particles

614

Impacts of particulate matter

Particles smaller than about 10 micrometers are referred to as PM10 and can settle in the airway and deep in the lungs, causing health problems

615

Describe sulphur dioxide

A colourless has with a strong odour produced when a material or fuel containing sulphur is burned

616

Cause of sulphur dioxide

In the UK the major contributors are coal and oil burning by industry such as power stations and refineries rises

617

Impacts of sulphur dioxide

Short term exposure may cause coughing, tightening of the chest and narrowing of the airways. Sulphur dioxide can also produce haze, acid rain, damage to lichens and plants and corrosion of buildings

618

What is air quality in urban areas compared to rural areadb

It is often poorer

619

What is particulate air pollution caused by

The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere

620

Can emissions of particles be natural

Yes

621

What are produced from vehicles and industrial processes

A combination of dust, soot and gases which have negative impact on human health

622

How does air pollution vary

With the time of the year and with air pressure

623

How much can concentrations of pollutants increase in winter and why

5 or 6 cold because temperature inversions trap them over the city

624

What does the mixture of fog and smoke particulates produce

Smog

625

When was smog common in European cities and why

Through the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries because of the high incidence of coal burning.

626

Why was many of the smogs in Britain known as ‘pea-suppers’

They were so thick

627

Example of smog in the UK

In London 1952, smog in London was responsible for more than 4,000 deaths

628

Why is photochemical smog an increasing concern

Photochemical oxidants (ozone and perixycetyl nitrate - PAN) are associated with damage to plants and a range of discomforts to people including headaches, eye irritation, coughs and chest pains.

629

What causes production of ozone (the low level ozone not the high level ozone in the atmosphere)

The action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in vehicle exhaust gases causes a chemical reaction which results in the production of ozone

630

What does the high level ozone do

Protects the earth from damaging ultraviolet radiation

631

When is photochemical smog a particular hazard

During anticyclonic conditions

632

Why is photochemical smog particularly hazardous during anticyclonic conditions

Because once the air has descended it is relatively static owing to the absence of wind. Such weather systems tend to be stable and can persist for weeks during the summer months.

633

Who has reducing air pollution in cities become increasingly important for

National and local governments

634

What are the 3 pollutions reduction policies

Clean Air Acts
Vehicle Control and Public Transport
Zoning of industry

635

After what did the British government decide legislation was needed to prevent so much smoke entering the atmosphere

The catastrophic London smog of 1952

636

What did the Clean Air Act of 1956 introduce

Smoke free zones into urban areas and this policy slowly began to clean up the air

637

Examples of the 1956 Clean Air Acts being reinforced by later legislations

In the 1990s tough regulations were imposed on levels of airborne pollution, particularly on PM10s.
Local councils in the Uk are now required to monitor pollution in their area and to establish Air Quality Management Areas where levels are likely to be exceeded.

638

While in London the air quality standards have in improve, what were the 2015 NOx emissions

Higher than the UK and European Law recommend

639

Why have measures to clean up construction sites in London been introduced

Because they are responsible for around 12% Of London’s NOx emissions (nitrogen oxides)

640

What have been introduced in London to reduce NOx emissions

Measures to clean up construction sites and the use of dust suppressants at industrial sites have been increased

641

What can be effective on reducing pollution

Greater provision of public transport and general restrictions on polluting vehicles

642

What are 8 strategies to reduce the number of cars in urban areas

Park and ride.
Greater use of waterways for transport (possible park and glide).
Greater provisons for cyclists.
Road schemes such as urban bypasses.
Creation of bus or car-pooling lanes.
Congestion charges.
Mass transit systems.
Banning cars from driving on certain days and alternating between cars with license plates that end in even or uneven numbers.

643

Example of a mass transit system

The Metrolink in Manchester

644

Example of provision for cyclists

The ‘Snake’ bridge in Copenhagen

645

Example of the Congestion charge

Central London in 2003

646

In London what will be introduced from September 2020

Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ).
Transport for London’s bus fleet will also be upgraded so that all double decker buses operating in central London will be hybrid and all single deck buses will be zero emission.

647

What is the ULEZ that was introduce in London

This is where the exhaust emissions standards are set and a daily non-compliance charge introduced to encouraged cleaner vehicles to drive in central London.

648

What is the hope of having an Ultra-Low Emission Zone

That almost all the vehicles running in central London during working houses could be zero or low emissions

649

How has zoning of industry helped reduce pollution

Industry has been located downwind in cities if at all possible and planning legislation has forced companies to build higher factory chimneys to emit pollutants above the inversion layer

650

Why do built up areas need to be drained

To remove surface water run-off

651

Traditionally how has urban drainage been achieved

By using underground pipe systems to convey the water away as quickly as possible

652

Why did the traditional way of urban drainage not effective

They were not designed to take into account the amenity aspects of drainage systems, such as water resources management, community facilities, landscaping potential and provision of varied wildlife habitats.

653

Why has water quality issues become increasingly important

Pollutants from urban areas are being washed into rivers or into the ground and once polluted, groundwater is extremely difficult to clean up.

654

What is a modern approach to urban drainage

Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)

655

Why are SUDS used

They deliver a more holistic approach to managing surface water and wherever possible mimic natural drainage

656

How do natural landscapes precipitation differ to urban landscapes

Forests, wetlands and grasslands trap precipitation and then allow it to infiltrate slowly into the ground.
Impermeable urban surfaces like roads, car parks and rooftops prevent precipitation from infiltrating.

657

Where does most precipitation in urban landscapes go

It remains above the surface where it runs off rapidly in unnaturally large amounts

658

How are urban areas designed to shed water quickly

Slipping roofs, smooth rounded guttering and cambered roads all contribute to the rapid movement of water away from the surface.

659

How does precipitation drain away in an urban environment

Water runs off the impermeable surfaces.
It is then gathered in smooth storm sewer systems which act like a high density drainage system.
It gathers speed and erosional power as it travels underground.
It leaves the storm drains and empties into streams, filling them rapidly.

660

What are the effects of urban surfaces on the water cycle

Reduced evapotranspiration.
Large volumes of poor quality runoff.
Reduced infiltration.
Wastewater discharge.
Imported water + precipitation.

661

Why are groundwater and soil water levels reduced in urban areas

Because much of the precipitation is unable to infiltrate the impermeable urban surfaces

662

What are base level flows reduced in urban areas

Groundwater and soil water levels are reduced because of reduced infiltration and since this is the water that feeds streams during dry periods the base level flows are reduced

663

What is the resultant storm hydrograph for an urban river

Shows a river with a flashy discharge but low base flow

664

What is the result of a flashy hydrograph

The result is that urban areas are more likely to have flooded rivers after heavy rainfall

665

What combination has meant that many people are now at risk from flooding in urban areas

Combination of population and urban growth along with the predicted increase in the occurrence of severe weather as a result of climate change has meant more people are at risk

666

What has the Red Cross said about natural disasters

About half the natural disasters they dealt with in 2014 were caused by floods

667

What has the Asian Development Bank (ADB) said

The Asians population vulnerability to inland flooding is expected to reach 350 million by 2025

668

Explain the changes in a storm hydrograph for a stream following urban development compared to pre-urban development

The pre urban development storm hydrograph:
Gentle rising limb, longer lag time, lower peak discharge, gentle falling limb.

Post urban development storm hydrograph:
Discharge increases soon after the start of the storm, steep rising limb, short lag time, higher peak discharge, steep falling limb.

Note: the base flow of the urban river is lower than base flow of pre-urban river

669

What are the issues associated with urban river catchment management

River flow: increased flow leads to flooding and erosion of the river bank during wet periods, decreased flow during dry weather harms fish and other aquatic life.
——>
Issues: higher water temperatures can disturb ecosystems, very high flows can overload the foul water system resulting in raw sewage on the surface.

670

While flooding is important in managing catchment in urban areas, what else needs to be considered by planners

Pollutants can harm fish and wildlife populations, kill naive vegetation, foul drinking water supplies and make recreation areas unsafe and unpleasant. Sediment from erosion can fill spaces between rocks on the street bottom, thus reducing living space or habitat for the biological communities

671

Two engineering strategies to help with flooding

Fail-Safe (cement and controlled, channelisation)
Safe-to-fail

672

What are sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)

A relatively new approach to managing rainfall by using natural processes in the landscape to reduce flooding, control flooding and provide amenity for the community

673

Examples of how a SUD works

Roofwater is collected in water butts for use in gardens or flows to grass channels called Swales.
Then travels on to grass basin where it is stored before release into local ditches.
Rain falling on roads or paths soaks through a permeable block paving where it is filtered and stored in the stone below, or it flows into grass channels, which have a stone filter dean underneath, before it joins the rest of the SUD system.

674

What is the bioswale rain garden

A sloped retention area designed to capture and convey water while allowing it to infiltrate the ground slowly over a 24- to 48 hour period. Some of the water is soaked up by the vegetation, thereby reducing flooding by natural means

675

Usually what will be in the detention ponds and Swales when the rainfall is light

Only a little water

676

If it rains heavily what happens to the Swales and basin

They full for a short period protecting the areas downstream, water is collected, cleaned and stored in the local landscape, providing an attractive place for play and wildlife

677

Example of a SUD in the UK

Moor Park Centre In Bispham, North Blackpool. It is a case study for susdrain

678

What is the community for sustainable drainage

Susdrain

679

Example of SUD in USA

Phoenix, Arizona has a desert climate with typical infrequent but heavy rainstorms

680

What can inadequate waste disposal be linked to

Air and water pollution, both of which have negative impacts on human health

681

What are some negatives of waste disposal

Pollution, which is detrimental for human health.
It is becoming increasingly expensive to deal with wastes
Space for landfill is running out and incineration is costly.
It is 5% of total greenhouse gas emissions.

682

How much does waste account for of total global greenhouse emissions

5%

683

How much does methane from landfills represent of total global methane emissions

12%

684

What rates are increasing

Recycling

685

While recycling rates are increasing it is clear that more needs to be done to tackle the growing waste crisis, what do some argue the first step in waste management is

To stop calling it ‘waste’

686

Globally how much does waste increase each year

7%

687

What accounts for the amount of waste increase each year

Population growth accounts for much of it but economic development also plays a role since greater personal wealth increases consumption of goods and archives and this leads to more waste

688

When is the amount of municipal solid waste particularly high

In urban areas where there is a large concentration of people

689

Why is the amount of MSW set to increase significantly over the next decade

It is a result of urbanisation and rising living standards

690

In 2002 how many urban residents were there

2.9 billion

691

In 2002 how much MSW did each person generate

0.64 kg

692

In 2012 how much did the population increase

To about 3 billion

693

In 2012 how much did each person generate of waste

1.2kg

694

Why is solid waste seen as an ‘urban issue’

Because urban residents produce about twice as much waste as their rural counterparts

695

Globally what do rural dwellers tend to be

Poorer, purchase fewer store-brought items (which results in less packaging), and have higher levels of reuse and recycling

696

Does waste generation varies significantly between cities

Yes

697

In 2010 what were rates of waste production

Much higher in cities in HICs

698

Why in 2010 were rates of waste production much higher in cities in HICs

Waste generation tends to be greater where disposable incomes and living standards are higher

699

Which cities are set to be the biggest increase in waste generation over the next decade

Cities in low and middle income countries as a result of rapid urbanisation and continued industrialisation

700

Which city is the amount of municipal solid waste growing fastest in

China, it overtook the US as the worlds largest waste generator in 2004

701

What is an interesting finding to come out of studies on urban waste managment

That both richer and poorer cities in a region often outperform middle-income ones

702

What do the average residents of Kuala Lumpur (middle income) use of water and produce of waste

497 litres of water.
816 kilograms of waste.

703

What do the average residents of Singapore (rich income) use of water and produce of waste

309 litres of water.
307 kilograms of waste.

704

What does the average resident of Delhi (poor) use of water and produce of waste

209 litres of water.
147 kilograms of waste.

705

What is atmospheric pollution caused by

The release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere

706

In 2014 what did the WHO find about urban air pollution

It was 2.5 times higher than the recommended levels in about half of the urban populations being monitored, which puts urban dwellers at risk

707

How many Londoners died prematurely in 2010 because of air pollutants

9,400

708

In London what air pollutants were people exposed to that caused them to die prematurely

Nitrogen dioxide
Fine PM2.5 particles

709

While human activity produces air pollutants what determines what will happen to them once they are released

The weather. During wet or windy conditions pollution concentrations remain low, either blown or washed away. During periods of hot, still weather, pollution is able to build up harmful amounts, leading to what is known as pollution episodes

710

What are pollution episodes

During periods of hot, still weather pollution is able to build up

711

Somewhere in the midst of economic growth what appeared to overtake sustainability

Consumption

712

When is consumption controlled

When a city becomes comparatively wealthy

713

What is the ‘tipping point’ to controlling consumption in Asia

A per capita GDP of around US $20,000

714

What is urban waste made up of

Millions of separate waste items

715

What are the 6 sources of waste

Residential.
Industrial.
Commercial.
Institutional.
Construction and demolition.
Urban services.

716

Which kinds of waste are easiest to manage

Large waste items such as organically (food and horticultural waste) and papers

717

Which wastes are pose disproportionately large problems for disposal

Wastes such as multi-laminates, hazardous (for example syringes) and e-waste

718

Why is difficult to dispose of waste a particular concern for low income countries

They may not have the facilities to properly dispose of them safely

719

Annually how much hazardous waste is deposited in Cairo

50,000 tonnes

720

What does the composition of waste vary according to

A number of records such as level of economic development, cultural norms, geographical location, energy sources and climage

721

As a country urbanises and population becomes wealthier what happens

Consumption of inorganic materials like plastics, paper and aluminium increases , while the relative organic proportion decrease

722

What percentage of organic matter is in the urban waste stream for low and middle income countries

Ranging from 40 to 85%

723

What is the costs of collecting and treating waste

High

724

In lower income countries what is solid waste management

It is usually a city’s single largest budgetary item

725

In low income countries how much to urban authorities spect of their budget on solid waste management

20-50%

726

Environmentally waste is a large source of what

Methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
It also contributes to water, ground and air pollution.

727

What is a waste generator of residential waste

Households

728

Types of residential waste

Food waste.
Paper.
Cardboard.
Plastics.
Textiles.
Leather.
Take waste.
Wood.
Glass.
Metals.
Ashes.
Household hazardous wastes like paints and aerosols.
E-wastes like computers.
Special wastes like batteries and oils and tyres.

729

What is a waste generator of industrial waste

Light and heavy manufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plants

730

Types of industrial waste

Housekeeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials,hazardous wastes, ashes, special waste

731

What is a waste generator of commercial waste

Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings

732

Types of commercial waste

Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste

733

What is a waste generator of institutional waste

Schools, hospitals (non medical wastage), prisons, government buildings, airports

734

Examples of institutional waste

Same as commercial: Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-waste

735

What is a waste generator of construction and demolition

New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings

736

Examples of construction of demotion waste

Wood, Steel, concrete, dirt, bricks, tiles

737

In someone’s what percentage of the total waste steam is construction and demolition waste

40%

738

What is a waste generator of urban services

Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plants

739

Examples of waste created by urban services

Street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas, sludge

740

What can untreated or uncollected waste lead to

Health problems such as respiratory ailments, diarrhoea, cholera and dengue fever

741

What was the 2012 World Bank report on waste

It found that 30-60% of urban solid waste in lower income countries is uncollected

742

In Cairo what percentage of daily waste is collected or disposed of in an appropriate way

40%

743

Where does the other 60% of Cairo’s waste go if not disposed of correctly

It is simply dumped in the desert

744

What are cities running out of

Landfill space

745

What does waste management generally follow

An accepted hierarchy

746

What is the key target of waste management

To reduce the amount of waste produced in the first place

747

How can reducing the amount of waste produced be done

Through a combination of waste related legislation, education and financial incentives

748

What can waste disposal occur through

Incineration or landfill

749

What is the waste hierarchy

Most preferred option:
Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
Recover (digestion, composting)
Landfill
Incineration (with energy recovery)
Controlled dump
: least preferred option

750

What is a controlled dump

One in which there has been site selection, controlled access and possibly compaction of waste. The bottom ash, non combustibles and by passed waste from incineration all go to landfill

751

Which waste management strategies are waste disposal

Incineration
Controlled dump

752

Which waste management strategies are waste diversion

Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
Recover
Landfill

753

What are he most common methods of waste disposal in high income countries

Landfiling and thermal treatment

754

How do most low and lower middle income countries dispose of their waste

Waste in open dumps, some of this disposal may be unregulated

755

What does unregulated mean

It is not controlled or supervised by regulation of law

756

What can solid waste that is not properly collected and disposed of be

A breeding ground for insects, vermin and scavenging animals and can thus pass on air and water borne disease

757

What did a survey conducted by by UN-Habitat in 2009 find

That in areas where waste is not collected frequently, the incidence of diarrhoea is twice as high and acute respiratory infections six times higher than in areas where collection is frequent

758

What do environmental threats from waste management include

Contamination of groundwater and surface water by leachate, as well as air pollution from burning of waste that is not properly collected and disposed of

759

What is resource recovery

The selective extractions of disposed materials for a specific next use, such as recycling, composting or energy generation

760

When is recycling carried out

When materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products

761

In recent years what has the global market for recyclables been doing

Increasingly significantly

762

What is the world market for post consumer scrap metal estimated at

400 million tonnes annually and around 175 million tonnes annually for paper and cardboard (UN-Habitat 2009)

763

What is the world market for post consumer scrap global value

At least $30 billion per year

764

Where does recycling occur in low and middle income countries

Through an active, although usually informal, sector

765

What estimate percentage of the urban population survive by salvaging recyclables from waste

1%

766

What can save significant energy

Manufacturing new products using recited materials

767

How much less energy does producing aluminium from recycled materials take than producing it form virgin materials

95% less

768

What is urban mining

The name given to the process of recovering compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste which would otherwise be left to decompose in landfills

769

By collecting and salvaging valuable components to be reused and recycled what is there a greater chance of

Reducing landfill waste

770

What are the key advantages of recycling and recovery

Reduced quantities of disposed waste and the return of materials to the economy

771

What are the negative environmental issues of recycling and recovery

Energy may be required for the operation of material recovery from waste and this leads to greenhouse gas emissions.
Informal recycling by waste lickers will have little greenhouse gas emissions, except for processing the materials for sale or reuse which can be relatively high if improperly burned (for example metal recovery from e-waste)

772

What are the different methods of waste management and disposal

Recycling and recovery.
Trade.
Reduction (incineration).
Burial (landfill).

773

What is the global waste trade

The international trade of waste between countries for further treatment, disposal, or recycling

774

What happens to toxic or hazardous waste is the global waste trade

It is often exported from high to low income counties as seen in the example of e-waste

775

Why are hazardous wastes not properly treated or disposed of

Because the waste is exported to low income countries but they do not often have safe recycling processes or facilities and hazardous wastes are not properly disposed of or treated

776

What can un-properly treated hazardous waste lead to

Contamination of the surrounding environment

777

What laws have been introduced to prevent movement of toxic waste

International laws such as the Basel Convention

778

What has international laws such as the Basel Convention been introduced for

To prevent transboundary movement of hazardous waste but evidence suggests it still happens

779

How much can incineration of waste reduce the volume of disposed waste

By up to 90%

780

How can general waste produce electricity and heat

If it’s safely burned at high temperatures and under carefully controlled conditions

781

Why is incineration without energy recovery not a preferred option of waste management

Due to its cost and pollution

782

When is the open burning of waste common

In poorer countries

783

Why is the open burning of waste particularly discouraged

Due to severe air pollution associated with low temperature combustion

784

What has a rapidly growing surplus of electronic waste around the world result from

Quickly evolving technological advances

785

What is the estimation for how much e-waste is produced each year

50 million tonnes

786

What did the UN Step report in 2013

That e-waste is the worlds fastest growing waste stream

787

Where does much of the e-waste come form

The USA and Europe

788

Examples of countries e-waste is shipped to

Poorer countries in Asia and Africa

789

What toxic substances are usually found in electronic goods

Lead
Mercury
Cadmium
Arsenic
Flame retardants

790

Why do people who work in informal waste sites for e-waste in poorer countries often suffer bouts of poor health

Once in a land fill the toxic materials in electronic goods seep into the environment, contaminating land, water and the air

791

What is burial

The placement of waste in man made or natural excavations, such as pits or landfills

792

What are landfill sites

A common final disposal site for waste in urban areas

793

What may a landfill site be in low income countries

Simply a hole in the ground where open dumplings occur

794

Describe landfill sites in high income countries

Much stricter regulations and the types of materials that can be sent to landfill are often defined by law.

795

What are landfill sites like in the UK

Most landfill sites now control and collect the gas that is released by the decomposing waste, often using it to generate electricity through turbines

796

What is the greenhouse gas methane produce by in a landfill

Rotting organic matter

797

In a landfill site what else besides methane can cause harm

Bleach and ammonia can produce toxic gases that negatively impact the quality of air in the vicinity.
Dust and other forms of non-chemical contaminants can also make their way into the atmosphere.
Landfills can affect ground water and river quality because toxic chemicals can leach out and contaminate the water.

798

Advantages to landfill

Facilities are properly suited with necessary controls.
Different types of waste accepted and ordered.

799

Advantages of incineration

Can reduce the volume of waste needing disposal by 90%.
Can inactivate disease agents.
Can reduce toxicity of waste.
Can be used to produce energy.
Incinerator bottom ash can be recycled as a secondary aggregate.

800

Disadvantages of landfill

Unsightly.
Often opposed by neighbouring residents.
Potential leaching of chemicals threatens groundwater supply.
Decaying matter produces methane, a strong greenhouse gas which is also explosive.
Landfill takes up a lot of space.
High transportation costs.

801

Disadvantages of incineration

Expensive.
Not all waste is combustible.
Poses challenges of air pollution and incinerator bottom ash disposal.
Capacity limitations.
Unpopular with local residents.

802

What has been banned by international conventions about waste disposal

The actual submergence if waste in oceans

803

According to the United Nations, what have some companies been doing with radioactive waste and hazardous materials

Dumping them into the coastal waters of Somalia, taking advantage of the fact that the country lacks strong governance

804

Where do enviornmental problems tend to be worse and what is the impact

Worse in poorer cities experiencing rapid growth and impacts most severely on the more vulnerable groups with that urban society

805

What is the main problems concerns of urban areas

Pollution of the air, water and waste disposal and urbanisation leading to a loss of land and therefore habitats. Noise pollution also.

806

By 2030 what is the estimated expansion of Urban land area

Expanded by as much as 3.3 million square kilometres

807

What is the CBO

The cities and Biodiversity Outlook project

808

What did the CBO project say the expansion of urban areas will cause

‘A considerable loss of habitat in key biodiversity hotspots’ in cities such as flood plains, estuaries and coastlines

809

In Shenzen China how much of the population complained more about noise pollution than air or water pollution

3/4

810

What is noise pollution linked to

Traffic and industry

811

What are the three biggest environmental treats facing cities in the twenty-first century

Atmospheric pollution
Water pollution
Dereliction

812

What are 4 some simpler measures fo improve air quality

Ensuring that houses are energy efficient.
Urban development is well served by public transport routes.
Street design is safe and appealing for pedestrians and cyclists.
Waste is well managed.

813

What is a well known environmental company

AECOM

814

What has AECOM calculated about londons trees

That londons 8.3 million trees provide £95 million worth of air filtration every year in terms of health costs avoided

815

What can all the strategies to manage air pollution serve to do

Act as a catalyst for local economic development and the promotion of healthy urban lifestyles

816

What does the Daily Air Quality Index (DAQI) air to do

Detail the level of air pollution in the UK and provide recommended actions and health advice

817

For European cities, how often is the Urban Air Quality Index updated

Every hour and allows comparison of air quality over a 24-hour period

818

What does UK-AIR do

Provides automated tweets about current and forecast air quality including episodes of poor air quality

819

What is over 90% of air pollution in low and middle income cournriss due to

The high number of older vehicles, poor vehicle maintenance and low fuel quality

820

Recently what schemes have been introduce in low to middle income countries to manage air pollution C

UN partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles air to improve air quality, there have been greater investment in improving road quality and commitments have been made to promote non-motorised journeys

821

What is water pollution

The contamination of water sources including rivers, lakes, oceans, aquifers and groundwater

822

When does water pollution occur

When pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

823

Examples of indirect water pollution

Contaminants that enter the water from soils or groundwater or from the atmosphere via rain

824

What do the high concentration of impermeable surfaces in urban areas increase

Run-off from roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils, heavy metals, rubber and other vehicle pollutants into water ways and streams.
Reduction in water percolation into the ground which also affect the quantity and quality of ground water.
Increase stormwater runoff in urban areas which can overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment systems when high flows exceed treatment capacities.

825

What do reports suggest about urban stormwater

It can be just as polluted as untreated domestic wastewater

826

What are 6 causes of water pollution in urban areas

Surface run off from streets carry contaminates from motor vehicles.
Industrial waste.
Poorly/untreated sewage.
Rubbish dumps, toxic waste, chemical and fuel storage which can all leak pollutants.
Intentional dumping of hazardous substances.
Air pollution can lead to acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition.

827

Why is untreated/poorly treated sewage a problem

It is Los in dissolved oxygen and high in pollutants such as nitrates, phosphorus and bacteria

828

What can treated sewage still be high in

Nitrates

829

How is acid rain, nitrate deposition and ammonium deposition a cause of water pollution

It can alter the water chemistry of an area

830

How many people lack access to clean water

Over 1.2 billion

831

What percentage of waterborne infections account for all infectious diseases

80%

832

What does increased water pollution create

Breeding ground for malaria-carrying mosquitos as well as damaging ecosystems, leading to species extinction

833

How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: heavy metals

Heavy metals From industrial processes can slow development, resulting in birth defects and may be carcinogenic

834

How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: industrial waste

It often contains toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or poisoning

835

How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: microbial pollution

Comes from sewage and often results in infectious diseases that infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water.

836

Examples of the diseases caused by microbial pollution

Cholera and typhoid fever which are a major cause of infant mortality in low income counties

837

How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: organic matter and nutrients

They can cause an increase in aerobic algae and deplete oxygen from the water. This can lead to the suffocation of fish and other aquatic organisms

838

How does this form of water pollutant affect human health: suspended particles

In freshwater, reduces the quality of drinking water for humans and the aquatic environment for marine life. They can also reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water, disrupting the growth of photosynthetic plants and micro-organisms.

839

Why does improving water quality requires strategies

To prevent, trust and remediate water pollution

840

Ideally, how would one manage water pollution

By preventing pollutants from entering water courses in the first place

841

In reality, what is the way to manage water pollution

Treating potential pollutants before they are discharged.

842

What is the final and often most expensive strategy of managing water pollution

Polluted watercourses being restored through remediation

843

In high income countries, what does water quality improvements focus on

Construction of water treatment facilities and wastewater plants.
Regulations aimed at 'point source' polluters such as industries which discharge water pollution into receiving water or sewer systems that flow into treatment plants.

844

What is the most difficult water-quality challenge

Dealing with 'non-point source' pollution which is the result of precipitation run-off from a wide range of sources including fertilisers and pesticides from agriculture, and chemicals and toxins from urban settlements. These pollutants are difficult to regulate

845

In Low income countries what has resulted in lower water quality standards

Lack of money and inadequate technology.
Effecfive legislation is often absent and enforcement of pollution controls are limited.

846

What are the five key water pollution strategies

Low impact development (LID)
Legislation, regulation and enforcement
Education snd awareness
Improvements in sewage and wastewater processing
Appropriate technology

847

What is low impact development

A stormwater managment approach that can help to reduce stormwater run-off

848

What is LID primarily done

The use of vegetation and permeable surfaced to allow infiltration of water into the ground. Permeable streets and pavements, green roofs, rain gardens and more urban parks allow water infiltrate into soils rather than flow directly into sewers

849

What has filtering stormwater stormwater through vegetation and soil been shown to reduce

Organic pollution, oils and heavy metals by more than 90%

850

How do legislation, regulations and enforcement become a key water pollution strategy

There are many different anti-pollution laws and agreements in operation worldwide. But these laws need to be enforced.

851

How is legislation and enforcement a key water pollution strategy

Some cities have adopted incentive-based approaches charging polluters per unit. Charges start low but are increased if pollution counties, creating an incentive to rescue discharges and purchase wastewater treatment technologies.

852

How are regulations a key water pollution strategy

Factories are allowed to discharge only limited amounts of carefully controlled pollutants. By slowly reducing the levels of permitted discharges, year by year, pollution levels are reduced

853

How does education and awareness help manage water pollution

the more prone Who about the causes and effects of pollution the more likely they will avoid adding to it

854

In 2014 what did Wessex Water use

Mobile billboards in hotspot areas urging people to bin wet wipes rather than flush them down the toilet as they are a common cause of sewer blockages since they do not decompose like toilet paper

855

Example of appropriate technology being a key water pollution strategy

Janicki omniprofessor - a small scale innovation aimed st providing clean water in low income countries. It first boils raw sewage sludge during which the vapour is seperated from the solid. Solids then put into fire producing steam and driving an engine producing electricity for the systems processor and for the community. Water is put through a cleaning systems to produce drinking water.

856

What is dereliction

Refers to the state of having been abandoned and become dilapidated

857

What are derelict buildings often associated with urban areas

Former industrial sites or run-down housing estates

858

In the UK how did buildings become derelict

De-industrialisation led to many people leaving the inner city and industrial buildings were abandoned.
Alongside this, services such as public houses and ships may have become vacant as areas become subject to urban decline.

859

What is the impact of dereliction on the surrounding area

Crime and vandalism rates tend to be higher.
House prices fall.
Out-migration of residents take place.

860

What often discourages authorities and individuals from renovating or rebuilding

The high cost invoked in urban renewal

861

What can significantly increase the investment needed to compact dereliction

The presence of listed buildings, which are subject to considerable planning regulations

862

How does derelict land pose a risk to human health

Contamination from industrial processes lives on in an environment long after the industry that produced or used them is fine

863

What is a brownfield site

A term used in urban planning to describe land previously used for industrial purposes or some commercial uses

864

What is a greenfield site

An area of undeveloped land

865

What is land remediation

The removal of pollution or contaminants from the ground, which enables areas of derelict form industrial land to be bought back into commercial use

866

What is one of the most common strategies for tacking urban dereliction

Through regeneration schemes such as Urban Development Corporations, City Challange And New Deal for Communities which have had fading levels of success

867

What does the government try to build new developments on

Brownfield sites rather than greenfield sites

868

Between 1997 and 2009 what did the proportion of dwellings (including conversions) built on brownfield sites increase to

From 56 to 80%

869

What did the proportion of previous- developed land changing to residential use between 1997 and 2009 increase to

47 to 69%

870

What proportion of dwelling in London are built in brownfield sites

98%

871

What are the 6 advantages to using brownfield sites

Improved physical environment.
Revives older urban communities.
Existing infrastructure can reduce costs and encourage faster occupancy.
Preserves historical landmarks and heritage architecture.
Reduced urban sprawl.
Preserves greenfield sites.

872

What are the disadvantages of using brownfield sites

Greater costs of clearing contaminated land.
Most brownfield sites are in the inner city, which have higher levels of traffic congestion and noise.

873

What are 4 land remediation techniques

Soil washing.
Chemical stabilisation.
Bioremediation.
Sorting.

874

What has been at the heart of Detroit’s recent strategy to tackle its derelict land areas

Community action

875

What are three ways to deal with derelict urban sites

Regeneration strategies
Land remediation
Community action

876

How can community action help derelict urban land

They can encourage small community based activities such as urban farming.
This can lead to conversion of hectares of land into community gardens and micro farms that can yield produce which can be sold to other community organisations like soup kitchens.

877

What can derelict buildings be converted to

Community centres, cafes and greenhouses

878

What do cities pose a threat to

Both the local and global environment

879

How much do cities consume of the worlds resourcss

Three quarters

880

What do cities generate

The majority of the worlds waste and pollution.

881

Along with the consequences of waste disposal, pollution and dereliction in cities what else is being felt globally

The effects of urban growth

882

What do cities rely on

Energy and resources from all over the world

883

Where is the pollution and waste that cities generate dispersed

Globally

884

What can the environmental impact of cities be measuring using

The ecological footprint calculation

885

What is the ecological footprint calculation

The total area of productive land and water required to produce the resources a population consumed and absorb the waste produced

886

In 2007 what was the average persons ecological footprint globally

2.7 global ha. However the variation in both between and within counties is huge

887

Who tends to have a higher ecological footprint

Cities have a higher footprint than rural areas and wealthy cities have a higher footprint than poorer ones

888

What did the ‘City Limits’ survey in London, 2003 find

That London’s ecological footprint covered an area twice the size of the Uk, and that if the entire population of the world made such demands, we would need at least three planets to sustain this level of activity

889

What did more a recent search by the Global Footprint find

That SAN Francisco’s footprint was about 6% higher than the average Americans (2011) while the average footprint of residents of the ‘green city’ of Curitiba was more than 40% higher than the Brazilian average (2010)

890

What is a high ecological footprint in cities attributed to

The greater affluence of city residents correlating with increased consumption and waste production

891

What does the concept of the ecological footprint illustrate

The disproportionate impact cities have on the environment

892

What needs to happen to help reduce the ecological footprint of a city

Greater global sustainability is to be achieved

893

What is one of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal

To make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and the city as an entity is viewed as a key factor in building a more sustainable world

894

Where was the idea of sustainability first brought to wider public awareness

In the 1987 Brundtland Report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)

895

What did the Brundtland Report state

‘Sustainable Development was meeting the needs of he present without compromising he ability of future generations to meet their own needs’

896

What are the dimensions (pillars) of sustainability

Social development . Economic development. Environmental managment. Urban governance.

897

What is a sustainable city

One which provides employment, a high standard of living, a clean, healthy environment and fair governance for all its residents.

898

What has increasingly been incorporated into sustainable urban design

People-centred planning and the notion of liveability is important here

899

What is liveability

Characteristics of a city which improve the quality of life for the people there. But this means different things to different people, for some it is tied to natural amenities such as parks and green space; for others to cultural offerings, career opportunities, economic and political stability or some degree of safety within which to raise a family.

900

In the context of the global liveability rankings, what does liveability mean

It related to which cities provide the best or worst living conditions for their residents

901

What are the inputs into an unsustainable/ linear system of a megacity

Food goods.
Non-a renewable energy.
People.

902

What are the outputs to an unsuitable/ linear system of s mega city

Waste (organic, inorganic) (landfill, dumped in rivers/seas)
Air pollution (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, ozone), noise
Goods, services, wealth, sprawl

903

What are the components of an sustainable/ circular system of an ecosystem

Inputs, recycling of inorganic waste (paper, plastics etc), recycling of organic waste (water, compost), outputs

904

Examples of inputs in a sustainable/circular system of an eco city

Local foods and goods.
Conservation and use of renewable energy.
People.

905

What are the outputs of a sustainable/ circular system in an eco city

Rescued outputs

906

Examples of green cities

Copenhagen in Denmark
Curitiba in Brazil
Freiburg in Germany

907

What are the two types of systems in cities

Unsustainable/ linear system in a megacity
Sustained/ circular system in an ecocity

908

What is urban resilience

A twenty first century word that means The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems within a city to survive, adapt and grow, no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience

909

What does thinking of a city as a system enable

A comparison between the characteristics of a typical megacity and that of a green city

910

Why is the linear system of a megacity unsustainable

Uncontrolled use of inputs and outputs leads to resources becoming exhausted and extremely high pollution and waste levels

911

How is a circular system in a city sustainable

Some of the outputs are recycled, which reduces the demand for new input resources and pollution and waste levels

912

What can sustainability be measured in

A number of different ways and different organisations will use different criteria to rank cities in terms of their sustainability

913

What are terms like 'green city' and 'Eco city' used to describe

Cities with a good environmental record, but the range of indicators used for measuring urban sustainability needs to be far greater and incorporate the social, economic and political elements

914

7 Examples of the social development pillar for achieving sustainability

Adequate provision of schools and health services.
A ability of foods supplies.
Green housing and buildings.
Clean water and sanitation.
Green public transport.
Green energy access.
Recreational areas and community support.

915

3 examples of the economic development pillar for achieving sustainability

Decent employment opportunities.
Production and distribution of renewable energy.
Investment in green technology and innovation.

916

5 examples of the environmental managment pillar for achieving sustainability

Waste and recycling managment.
Energy efficiency.
Water managment.
Air quality conservation.
Adaption to and mitigation of climate change.
Forest and soil managment.

917

4 examples of the urban governance pillar of sustainability

Adoption of green urban planning and design strategies.
Strategies to reduce inequality.
Strengthening of civil and political rights.
Support of local, national, regional and global links.

918

What are the 11 key features of a sustainable city

Resources and services accessible to all.
Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars.
Public transport is safe and reliable.
Walking and cycling is safe.
Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable.
Where possible, renewable resources are used.
Water is seen as a resource and recycled when possible.
New homes are energy efficient.
Access to affordable housing.
Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all.
Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues like crime and security.

919

What does chronic stresses include

Day-to-day challenges such as high unemployment, inefficient public transport systems, endemic violence and chronic food and water shortages.

920

What are acute shocks

Sudden events that may threaten a city including earthquakes, floods, disease outbreaks and terrorist attacks

921

What must a sustainable city be able to cope with

The physical, social and economic challenges that are a growing part of the tenth first century

922

What is the main obstacle for cities to become more sustainable

Financial ability

923

In the context of rapidly growing urban populations and limited budgets, what do authorities tend to choose

Short-term cheaper solutions over long-term planning

924

In cities with a large number of people lacking access to water and electricity, what do authorities tend to focus on

Providing basic infrastructure over invest in environmental projects and sustainable development

925

What are challenges to developing sustainable cities

Finance.
Short term needs.
Poor infrastructure.
Weak infrastructure.
Lack of enforcement of planning regulations.

926

What are the main social urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

By 2025, urban population will live in mainly small and medium sized cities.
Number of urban people living in slums continues to grow.
Inefficient use of public services (water, electricity).
Ageing.

927

What are the main economic urban trends in developing/developed countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

Inequality and financial fragility.
Food insecurity.

928

What are the main environmental urban trends in developing/developing countries drawn from the United Nations World Economic and Social Survey In 2013

Energy access.
Climate change.

929

What percentage of the urban population in 2025 will live in small and medium cities

42% and 24%

930

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They need to Improve access to housing, water and sanitation; improve public infrastructure; foster institutional capacity

931

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They can invest in possible public infrastructure (including transportation); construction of compact buildings in middle-income cities; strengthen the links between cities and rural areas

932

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They need to reduce the number of urban poor and disease risk, improve social cohesion, reduce youth unemployment

933

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They can invest in universal access to affordable water and sanitation, public transport. Creation of jobs to reduce growth of slums, employment of the ‘youth’ dividend in low-income countries

934

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They need to improve waste and recycling management, support consumption of local produce, change overconsumption patterns of high income households

935

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They can provide subsidies to households and small firms to reduce non-saving water systems and waste, incentive to local communities to improve recycling systems

936

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population

They need to create productive employment for older persons

937

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in universal pensions, extend the working age, support family networks

938

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility

They need to create policy space for inclusive development, reduce underemployment, promote economic diversification

939

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of inequality and financial fragility

They can invest in green industry, adapt to climate change, structure economic change (industrial and service ‘leapfrogging’ for least developed countries) and strengthen regional corporation

940

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity

They need to improve access to food and increase productivity

941

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of food insecurity

They can invest in urban agriculture, local crops, storage facilities

942

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access

They need to provide access to clean energy and reduce use of ‘dirty’ energy in poor households, they need to discourage high energy consumption in high income households

943

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developing countries because of energy access

They can invest in capacity development, energy-saving devices, production and use of renewable sources of energy; subsidies and incentives for efficient energy use and water use for middle and high income households

944

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change

They need to reduce the impact of livelihood, reduce carbon emissions, generate financial resources for adaptation

945

What are the opportunity to create sustainability in developing countries because of climate change

They can investment in health and education infrastructure and facilities; adapt and mitigate technology and early warning systems; green public transportation; strengthen regional cooperation for green technology transfer

946

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

There is Social cohesion

947

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the urban population being predicted to mainly live in small and medium sized cities

They can invest in compact urban development and decentralisation

948

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

Thy need to reduce urban unemployment due to economic crises (of youth in particular); provide adequate housing in poor neighbourhoods

949

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because the number of urban people living in slums continue to grow

They need to strengthen and widen social safety nets, upgrade investment in social protection for an effective response to crises and their aftermath

950

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They need to change overproduction and overconsumption styles, improve waste and recycling management

951

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inefficient use of public services (water, electricity)

They can invest in retrofitting in buildings of water and energy saving devices, upgrading public furniture

952

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They have fiscal pressure to reduce health costs and need to improve productivity

953

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in retraining older people and extend the working age

954

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the inequality and financial fragility

They need to reduce unemployment, boost economic growth, strengthen international cooperation

955

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of the ageing population

They can invest in green infrastructure, policy coherence and coordination

956

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of the food insecurity

They need to Reduce food waste

957

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of food insecurity

They can invest in storage infrastructure, reducing food subsidies, policy coordination

958

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access

They need to reduce overproduction and overconsumption to sustainable levels

959

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of energy access

They can invest and use incentives to produce and use renewable energy sources; decentralisation of energy production

960

What are the challenges to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change

They need to upgrade disaster risk prevention systems and reduce carbon emissions to sustainable levels

961

What are the opportunities to create sustainability in developed countries because of climate change

They can invest in mitigation, industrial green transformation, retrofitting of buildings and policy coordination

962

Why is there no ‘one scheme fits all’ approach towards achieving sustainability

Because the challenges faced by individual cities are diverse and depend on their population size, economic status, technological capacities and development priorities

963

What are 9 key strategies to achieve sustainability

Investment in infrastructure like roads, water, sewers and electricity and services such as schools and health care.
Green investment in low income countries.
Investment in the production and use of renewable energy sources as well as the renovation of infrastructure, retrofitting of buildings and improved electricity and water efficiency.
Investment in the reduction of waste production and waste collection.
Provision of more ‘green’ areas.
Investment in sustainable and affordable housing.
Adoption of a local currency.
Active participation of different city stakeholders.
Disaster risk reduction.

964

What has it been argued that greater investment in rural areas is important to do

Reduce the rural-urban migration that has put increasing pressure in cities in the last few decades

965

How does green investment in low income countries help sustainability

They can help poorer cities ‘leapfrog’ from high-carbon energy use to a zero-carbon development path which could provide employment for the ‘youth bulge’ within these cities

966

What was the name and content of the report by the British environmental charity Groundwork in 2012

‘grey places need green spaces’ in which they outlined the benefits of green spaces in cities.
This includes greater public health, better personal well-being and economic prospects and reduced violence and aggression

967

Examples of stakeholders

Government.
Residents.
Local businesses in urban planning.

968

Examples of disaster risk reduction

Schemes such as tidal barrages and early warning systems can help mitigate the impacts of floods, storm surges and other hazards to which some cities are vulnerable

969

What do local currencies tend to do

Serve the need of local people because they keep money within the local economy

970

Example of a local currency

The Bristol Pound

971

What has Research by the New Economics Foundation round

That for every local currency pound spent in a local business, £1.73 is generated through the multiplier effect. In contrast for every pound spent in a chain store, only 35p is re-spent in the local economy

972

What can local currency encourage a sense of

Community

973

What can adoption of local currency include

A mechanism to generate donations for local schools and social services