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Flashcards in CV Drugs 2 Deck (37):
1

what are the mechanisms of arrhythmias

-abnormal automaticity
-abnormal conduction
-disturbances in both automaticity and impulse conduction

2

class I antiarrhythmic drugs =

sodium channel blockers, prolongs AP

3

what is the drug of choice to treat atrial fibrillation in horses?

quinidine

4

it's possible to use quinidine for ventricular arrhythmias but what class IA drug would be a better choice?

procainamide, more effective

5

T/F: class IA sodium channel blockers shorten APs while class IB sodium channel blockers prolong APs

FALSE, opposite

6

what class IB sodium channel blocker is the drug of choice for treatment of ventricular tachycardia in dogs?

lidocaine (cats are sensitive! watch dosing)

7

T/F: its always safer to treat for ventricular tachycardia

TRUE! lidocaine has very short half life

8

what sort of effect do class II beta-blockers have?

inhibition of catecholamine effects on the heart

9

of the class II beta-blockers that are selective B1 antagonists, which is used in the treatment of HCM in cats

metoprolol

10

what are the three class II beta-blockers that are selective B1 antagonists?

esmolol (short-term), atenolol, and metoprolol

11

why should you wean off class II beta-blockers gradually?

risk of upregulation of receptors ("sympathetic storm")

12

when are class II beta-blockers contraindicated?

is unstable or overt heart failure present

13

in what type of patient do you see more adverse effects of class II beta-blockers?

geriatric or unstable patients (hypotension, lethary, depression, syncope, worsening CHF)

14

what type of class II beta blockers are safer to use in patients w/ bronchoconstrictive disease?

selective B1 antagonism

15

T/F: some adverse effects of amiodarone include GI, bone marrow suppression, hepatotoxicity, type I hypersensitivity w/ IV formulation

TRUE

16

what class III K channel blocker is used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in dogs and is often a 2nd or 3rd line antiarrhythmic?

amiodarone, limited use in horses, converts atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm

17

sotalol is a class III K channel blocker, what other type of blocker is it?

nonselective B-blocker

18

T/F: amiodarone is contraindicated with overt or low output CHF

FALSE, sotalol

19

which class III potassium channel blocker has more side effects?

amiodarone

20

match the blockers to the class
class I beta blockers
class II ca channel blockers
class III k channel blockers
class IV na channel blockers

class I=na channel blockers
class II=beta blockers
class III=k channel blockers
class IV=ca channel blockers

21

what type of arrhythmia are ca channel blockers indicated for?

supraventricular arrhythmias ONLY

22

what two anti-arrhythmic drugs are used in combination w/ horses to treat SVT?

quinidine (class IA na channel blocker) and diltiazem (class IV: ca channel blocker)

23

what is the drug of choice for treatment of SVT and to decrease ventricular response rate in treatment of atrial fibrillation?

diltiazem

24

what drug in what class has the greatest effects on the SA and AV nodes?

diltiazem

25

what class of antiarrhythmics are contraindicated with radiographically documented pulmonary edema?

class IV calcium channel blockers

26

T/F: diltiazem when given IV should be given very slowly

TRUE

27

nothing is working!! how can i try to stop SVT in a patient w/ no drugs?

vagal maneuvers (carotid sinus massage, ocular pressure)

28

T/F: hypovolemic patients can lead to fluid-responsive tachycardia

TRUE

29

what three drugs would you consider for treating a 2nd degree AV block?

-isoproterenol
-theophylline
-glucagon

30

what two drugs would you consider for treating sinus bradycardia?

**do nothing! often underlying cause can't be treated w/ drugs alone
-atropine
-glycopyrrolate

31

what would indicate an atrial standstill on an ECG?

absence of p-waves

32

T/F: atrial standstill is most commonly caused by severe hyperkalemia

TRUE

33

which of the following is considered the drug of choice for treatment of ventricular tachycardia?
a. lidocaine
b. mexilitine
c. amiodarone
d. propanolol

a. lidocaine, mexilitine is the oral form

34

which of the following is considered a drug of choice fro treatment of atrial fibrillation with high ventricular response rate?
a. lidocaine
b. esmolol
c. diltiazem
d. sotalol

c. diltiazem

35

which of the following if best described as a selective beta-adrenergic antagonist?
a. quinidine
b. atenolol
c. carvedilol
d. sotalol

b. atenolol

36

which of the following if least appropriate to use for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias?
a. mexilitine
b. sotalol
c. amiodarone
d. diltiazem

d. diltiazem

37

what drug is known to help treat refractory ventricular arrhythmias and can act as an adjunct to treat malignant hyperthermia?

magnesium sulfate IV