What are the three layers of an artery?
Intima, media, adventitia
What does the intima include?
Endothelium, basal lamina, myointimal cells (sm muscle, produce collgen, can phagocytose)
What are the functions of endothelium?
Barrier: tight junctions
Lipoprotein metabolism (LDL, VLDL)
What does the media include?
Elastic fibers, smooth muscles cells (make collagen, elastin, proteoglycans), innervation (adrenergic=constriction, cholinergic= dilation, afferent for pressure/CO2)
What does the adventitia include?
Connective tissue, vasa vasorum= vessels that supply the media
What are the layers of the heart?
Epicardium = mesothelium, epicardial fat, then myocardium
Myocardium = myocytes
Endocardium= inside of heart
What is the constitution of the myocardium?
Myocytes = contract
Myocytes secrete BNP when stretched (atrial cells)-- helps kidney secrete water, biomarker of heart failure
Myocytes also involved in conduction
What type of cells is the conduction system of the heart made from?
Specialized myocytes that don't contract, they conduct
What is the endocardium made from?
Collagen, elastic fibers, smooth muscle cells, endothelium
What determines the thickness of endocardium?
Thickness determined by pressure and turbulence
What are the layers of valves?
Spongiosa = looser, connective tissue
Fibrosa = denser connective tissue
Covered by endothelium
Normally don't have vessels - sign of pathology