Cytological Basis of Inheritance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cytological Basis of Inheritance Deck (14)
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1

The ultimate units of inheritance

Genes

2

2 types of chromosomes

Somatic/Body Chromosomes

Reproductive/Sex Chromosomes

3

A constricted region of a chromosome where it separates the short and the long arm

Centromere

4

What is mitosis?

A means of reproduction in lower forms of organisms and promotes growth and repair in multicellular organisms

One cell becomes two diploid, genetically identical cells

5

A period of growth and rest; non-dividing phase

Interphase

6

Mitosis: The nucleus, cytoplasm, and organelles grow

G1 phase

7

Mitosis: DNA and histone proteins are synthesized

Synthesis phase

8

Mitosis: RNA and proteins are synthesized

G2 phase

9

What does the kinetochore do?

Joins the spindle fiber and the chromosomes and pulls them toward opposite poles

10

What are chromatins, chromosomes, and chromatids?

Chromatin - DNA and histone proteins

Chromosome - Tightly-packed chromatin with a centromere

Chromatid - Two joined chromosomes

11

What happens after meiosis?

The number of chromosomes is reduced by half.

One cell becomes four haploid, genetically unique cells

12

What are the phases of Prophase I?

Leptotene - Chromosomes are tender and long with many beadlike structure along their length

Zygotene - Chromosomes continue to shorten and thicken, pairing or synapsis of homologous chromosomes begins

Pachytene - Coiling and shortening of the chromosome continues, the pair chromosomes form a bivalent

Diplotene - Longitudinal separation of bivalents occurs, also known as crossing over

Diakinesis - Bivalents assume maximal contraction, nucleolus disappears, spindle fibers form

13

What is another term for a bivalent?

Tetrad

14

What is a homologue?

A chromosome similar in physical and genetic attributes as another chromosome