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Flashcards in Cytology Deck (48):
1

Advantage of using condenser with light microscope

Lowering condenser allows light to focus on a broader field. Shadows are increased and more details can be observed.

2

What microscope allows 3D image

Scanning electron microscope

3

When is transmission electron microscope used?

Used with ultra thin specimen so electrons can pass through.

4

H & E stain

Hematoxylin is a basic dye that stains acidic tissues. Tissues that stain with H are basophilic.

Eosinin is an acidic dye that stains basic tissues. Tissues that stain with E are acidophilic.

5

Silver Stain

Used to ID reticular fibers

6

Masson's trichrome stain

Stain that uses 3 color staining protocol=Blue, Red, Pink

Blue is usually CT
Red can be nuclei/muscles
Pink can be cytoplasm

7

Periodic acid Schiff stain

Stains for carbohydrates as magenta

8

Wright's Stain

Common stain with blood

9

Mitosis steps

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

10

Interphase

Chromatin (genetic material) is in ball inside nucleus

11

Prophase

Chromatin still in ball form inside nucleus but start to go towards opposite sides of nucleus.

12

Metaphase

Centromeres of chromatin position in center of cell and microtubules start to form to pull chromatids away.

13

Anaphase

Sister chromatids are dragged towards opposite sides of cell

14

Telophase

Immature daughter cells are formed with nuclear envelopes beginning to form. Can see beginning of two cells.

15

Open faced vs closed face

OF- see more euchromatin and cell is mitotically active

CF- inactive mitotically

Both have heterochromatin

16

Golgi apparatus staining ID

White outside nucleus= negative Golgi stain
Neither acidic or basic, cell is making proteins.

17

RER staining ID

Around nucleus, see "purple haze" and means active cell and making proteins

18

Cell artificats

Things that just shouldn't be there

19

Cell Inclusions

Nonliving components the cell doesn't need. They do not have metabolic activity and are not membrane bound.

20

Types of cell inclusions. Most common under H&E staining?

-glycogen
-lipids
crystals
pigments

Lipids and pigments are most common

21

Glycogen

Cell inclusion: most common form of glucose. Abundant in muscle and liver. E source for cells

22

Lipids

Cell inclusion: triglycerides. Commonly in adipocytes and hepatocytes. E source for CM and hormone synthesis

Usually stored as droplets.

23

Crystals

Cell inclusion: crystalline forms of certain proteins common in sertolli and leydig cells of the testis

Consists mainly of Ca2+ oxalate and Ca2+ carbonate

24

Pigments

Cell inclusion: can be protective function (melanin) or mark cells age or exposure to oxidative stress (lipofuscin)

25

Melanin

Cell inclusion-pigment

The most common biological pigment. Made from melanocytes-->from neural crest and some parts of the nervous system.

Pigment is passed to keratinocytes.

26

Hemosiderin

Cell inclusion- pigment

Hemosiderin is the residue of blood cell destruction

27

Lipofuscin

Cell inclusion-pigment

Yellow-brown granules with residues of lysosomal digestion. Considered sign of aging or "wear and tear" pigments.

Found in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adrenals, and nerve cells.

28

Critical factor in obtaining crisp detailed image with microscope

Resolving power-resolution

29

Stroma

Nonliving connective tissue support of an organ.

30

Parenchyma (example in pancreas)

Functional part of the organ

In pancreas=pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic islet cells)

31

Septa (in pancreas)

Divides parenchyma (part of stroma)

32

Acinar cells

In pancreatic acinar cells. Is basophilic (nucleus=DNA) and acidophilic (zymogen granules) .

Zymogen is cell inclusion that contains pro enzymes needed for digestion. Zymogen on apical side of cell.

33

Dorsal root ganglia

Made of large ganglionic cells which are surrounded by satellite cells.

Has large nucleus (open faced) and nucleolus.

34

Nissl substance

RER basophilic staining in neurons.

35

RER vs SER

RER makes and modifies proteins to be packaged

SER makes cholestrols, lipids, and helps with detox

36

Space around ganglionic cells?

Shrinkage and is an artifact

37

Erythrocyte size and significance

5-7 micrometers and good marker for measurement to estimate other cell size.

38

Satellite cells in neurons

Glial cells that cover cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia.

39

Liver paranchyma

hepatocytes

40

Cell inclusions seen in hepatocytes

Lipid droplets and glycogen

41

Epidermis is derived from and made up of

Ectoderm-mostly epithelial cells

42

Dermis is derived from

Mesoderm- Nonliving extracellular material like connective tissue such as collagen.

43

Melanin

Cell inclusion.
Made by melanocytes in response to DNA damage
Protects nuclei of cell from UV damage.

44

Melanocytes

From neurocrest cells of ectoder (GERM LAYER). They export melanin to neighboring cells of epidermis.

45

Uterus with high estrogen appearance

Endometrium (endoderm origin) meets myometrium (smooth muscle=mesoderm origin).

Active mitosis (cell proliferation) going on and can see mitotic figures.

46

Uterus with low estrogen appearance

Endometrium (endoderm origin) doesn't meet myometrium (smooth muscle=mesoderm(GERM LAYER) origin) and appears shrunken.

Progesterone levels drop

Vascular tissue regression results and some RBCs in CT proper.

47

Macrophages

Specialized connective tissue cells that phagocytose dead/dying cells and foreign substances

Ususally have large open faced nucleus

If MQ devours RBC they'll look brown/rusty and cell inclusion hemosiderin results.

48

Hemosiderin

Cell inclusion

Characteristic of presence of hemomolecular cleaved from hemoglobin.

Normally seen in MG after hemorrage into CT proper.