Flashcards in Cytology Deck (48):
Advantage of using condenser with light microscope
Lowering condenser allows light to focus on a broader field. Shadows are increased and more details can be observed.
What microscope allows 3D image
Scanning electron microscope
When is transmission electron microscope used?
Used with ultra thin specimen so electrons can pass through.
H & E stain
Hematoxylin is a basic dye that stains acidic tissues. Tissues that stain with H are basophilic.
Eosinin is an acidic dye that stains basic tissues. Tissues that stain with E are acidophilic.
Used to ID reticular fibers
Masson's trichrome stain
Stain that uses 3 color staining protocol=Blue, Red, Pink
Blue is usually CT
Red can be nuclei/muscles
Pink can be cytoplasm
Periodic acid Schiff stain
Stains for carbohydrates as magenta
Common stain with blood
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Chromatin (genetic material) is in ball inside nucleus
Chromatin still in ball form inside nucleus but start to go towards opposite sides of nucleus.
Centromeres of chromatin position in center of cell and microtubules start to form to pull chromatids away.
Sister chromatids are dragged towards opposite sides of cell
Immature daughter cells are formed with nuclear envelopes beginning to form. Can see beginning of two cells.
Open faced vs closed face
OF- see more euchromatin and cell is mitotically active
CF- inactive mitotically
Both have heterochromatin
Golgi apparatus staining ID
White outside nucleus= negative Golgi stain
Neither acidic or basic, cell is making proteins.
RER staining ID
Around nucleus, see "purple haze" and means active cell and making proteins
Things that just shouldn't be there
Nonliving components the cell doesn't need. They do not have metabolic activity and are not membrane bound.
Types of cell inclusions. Most common under H&E staining?
Lipids and pigments are most common
Cell inclusion: most common form of glucose. Abundant in muscle and liver. E source for cells
Cell inclusion: triglycerides. Commonly in adipocytes and hepatocytes. E source for CM and hormone synthesis
Usually stored as droplets.
Cell inclusion: crystalline forms of certain proteins common in sertolli and leydig cells of the testis
Consists mainly of Ca2+ oxalate and Ca2+ carbonate
Cell inclusion: can be protective function (melanin) or mark cells age or exposure to oxidative stress (lipofuscin)
The most common biological pigment. Made from melanocytes-->from neural crest and some parts of the nervous system.
Pigment is passed to keratinocytes.
Cell inclusion- pigment
Hemosiderin is the residue of blood cell destruction
Yellow-brown granules with residues of lysosomal digestion. Considered sign of aging or "wear and tear" pigments.
Found in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adrenals, and nerve cells.
Critical factor in obtaining crisp detailed image with microscope
Nonliving connective tissue support of an organ.
Parenchyma (example in pancreas)
Functional part of the organ
In pancreas=pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic islet cells)
Septa (in pancreas)
Divides parenchyma (part of stroma)
In pancreatic acinar cells. Is basophilic (nucleus=DNA) and acidophilic (zymogen granules) .
Zymogen is cell inclusion that contains pro enzymes needed for digestion. Zymogen on apical side of cell.
Dorsal root ganglia
Made of large ganglionic cells which are surrounded by satellite cells.
Has large nucleus (open faced) and nucleolus.
RER basophilic staining in neurons.
RER vs SER
RER makes and modifies proteins to be packaged
SER makes cholestrols, lipids, and helps with detox
Space around ganglionic cells?
Shrinkage and is an artifact
Erythrocyte size and significance
5-7 micrometers and good marker for measurement to estimate other cell size.
Satellite cells in neurons
Glial cells that cover cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia.
Cell inclusions seen in hepatocytes
Lipid droplets and glycogen
Epidermis is derived from and made up of
Ectoderm-mostly epithelial cells
Dermis is derived from
Mesoderm- Nonliving extracellular material like connective tissue such as collagen.
Made by melanocytes in response to DNA damage
Protects nuclei of cell from UV damage.
From neurocrest cells of ectoder (GERM LAYER). They export melanin to neighboring cells of epidermis.
Uterus with high estrogen appearance
Endometrium (endoderm origin) meets myometrium (smooth muscle=mesoderm origin).
Active mitosis (cell proliferation) going on and can see mitotic figures.
Uterus with low estrogen appearance
Endometrium (endoderm origin) doesn't meet myometrium (smooth muscle=mesoderm(GERM LAYER) origin) and appears shrunken.
Progesterone levels drop
Vascular tissue regression results and some RBCs in CT proper.
Specialized connective tissue cells that phagocytose dead/dying cells and foreign substances
Ususally have large open faced nucleus
If MQ devours RBC they'll look brown/rusty and cell inclusion hemosiderin results.