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Flashcards in Cytology Deck (73):
1

Membranes

_Made of lipids, proteins, and carbs _Seals spontaneously _has Differential permeability

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Lipids

_Make up the majority of the membrane _Amphipathic

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Amphipathic

_Hydrophilic heads _Hydrophobic tails _Naturally forms a barrier in water

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Integral proteins

_Anchored to the membrane of the cell _Transmembrane: passes through both sides of the membrane

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Peripheral proteins

Proteins that are attached to integrals

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Channel proteins

Pores in the membrane the are passive

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Carrier proteins

Actively move target across the membrane

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Pumps

Use ATP to move things against the gradient

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Protein receptors

_Transmembrane proteins that bind to specific molecules _Located on the exterior of the cell _Used for interactions between cells

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Linker proteins

_Links cell to extracellular matrix _Allows for cell attachment _Links cytoskeleton to membrane

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Glycocalyx

Fuzzy exterior coating on the membrane made up of oligosaccharides

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Oligosaccharides

_Form of carbohydrate found on the cell membrane _ Attach to proteins/lipids to form glycoproteins and glycolipids

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Ribosomes

_RNA/protein particles that catalyze protein synthesis _Bring together mRNA and tRNA _ Consist of a small and large subunit

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Free ribosomes

_Located throughout the cell _where the majority of proteins are synthesized

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RER Ribosomes

_Ribosomes bound to the RER _Synthesize the proteins found in the Gogli, lysosomes, secretory granules, and plasma membrane

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Mitochondrial ribosomes

20% of mitochondria proteins synthesized by these

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Polysomes

Ribosomes attaching a single mRNA molecules to make a string of ribosomes

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Glycogen Particles

Storage forms of polysaccharides

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

_No ribosomes bound to the surface _Lipid, glycogen, and steroid metabolism _Phospholipids for membrane produced here _Prominent steroid secreting cells _ Important for detoxification

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

_Specialized SER found in muscle tissue _Storage and transport of Ca__

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

_Ribosomes bound to surface _mostly cisternae _Prominent in protein secretion cells _Proteins to be exported secreted here

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Golgi Apparatus

_Stacked/flattened/ membrane-limited cisternae _Receives and repackages RER proteins

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Cis Golgi

Receives the proteins

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Medial Golgi

Middle of the Golgi

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Trans Golgi

Mature proteins leave from here

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Secretory Vesicles

Takes the proteins from the Golgi and fused with the membrane to await a signal to release contents

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Lysosome

_Spherical organelle that digests and degrades _low pH and hydrolytic enzymes

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Primary Lysosome

Has not received substrates for digestion

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Secondary Lysosomes

Primary fused with a target

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Lipofuscin Granules

_Aka residual bodies _senescent lysosomes with undigestible materials

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Peroxisomes

_Small organelles with oxidative enzymes _Hydrogen peroxide is a product

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Adrenoleukodytrophy

Peroxisomes cannot oxidize long fatty acids, so accumulates in brain and adrenals, eventually causing death

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Zellweger Syndrome

_Mutation of proteins that transport peroxisomal enzymes from the cytoplasm _Peroxisomes lack necessary enzymes_improper formation of myelin sheaths

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Mitochondria

_Produce ATP via oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids _present in all cells except RBC and terminal keratinocytes _Can change shape and location in cell _Contains own genome

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Outer Mitochondria membrane

Numerous pores that allow small molecules, ions and metabolites

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Inner Mitochondria membrane

_Thinner/highly folded cristae _Contains many energy production enzymes _Steroid-producing cells IMM is more tubular

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Intermembrane Space

Cytochrome C located here (for Apoptosis)

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Mitochondrial Matrix

_Soluble enzymes, mitochondria DNA/ribosomes, r/m/tRNA, electron dense granules ( helps SER to regulate ion concentration of cytoplasm)

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Mitochondria myopathies

_Caused by both nuclear and mito gene mutations _if mito gene_maternal inheritance

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Nucleus

_Large organelle with genome in eukaryotic cells _Contains machinery for DNA replication, RNA transcription/processing, and one or more nucleoli

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Nuclear envelope

_2 membranes (perinuclear space in-between), nuclear lamina, nuclear pores

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Outer nuclear membrane

Continuous with RER and has some ribosomes attached to it

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Perinuclear space

Continuous with the lumen of the RER

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Inner nuclear membrane

Distinct from the ER because it can bind to chromatins/lamins and is supported by intermediate filaments

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Nuclear lamina

Thin/protein-dense layer formed by lamins

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Lamins

_Intermediate filaments that can be disassembled and reassembled _Meshwork on inner side of nucleus

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Nuclear Pores

Opening that allow communication between cytoplasm and nucleus

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Chromatin

DNA associated with roughly equal mass of various nuclear proteins

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Heterochromatin

_Densely packed chromatin _Typically in metabolically inactive cells

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Euchromatin

_Transcriptionally active DNA, so is more closely packed _Typically metabolically active cells

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Nucleolus

Small area of the nucleus where rRNA is processed and assembled into ribosomal subunits

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Fibrillar Center

Part of nucleolus where DNA loops with rRNA genes and transcription factors

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Dense Fibrillar Components

_Aka pars fibrosa _Ribosomal genes that are being translated and large amounts of RNA

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Granular Components

_aka pars granulosa _Site for ribosomal assembly, made of densely packed clusters of pre-ribosomal particles

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Cytoskeleton

_Cell shape/structural support for organelles _Major role in cell mobility

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Types of filaments

_Actin _Microtubules _Intermediate

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Action filaments

_Cell movement/shape and organelle transport _Interacts with myosin to generate force and movement

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G-actin

Soluble monomeric globular protein

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F-actin

_Polymerized double-helical filament of g-actin_very thin filaments _Polymerizes head to tail _forms the cortex of the cytoplasm _counteracts outside forces/restricts organelle movement _Restricts lateral motion of some integral proteins

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Cytoplasm Cortex

Thin sheath beneath the cytoplasm

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Microtubules

_Present in all cells except erythrocytes _Used for organelle/vesicle movement _Formation of mitotic spindle/Chromosomal movement _assists with beating of cilia and flagella

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Structure of microtubules

_Stiff, non-branching, cylindrical polymers __-tubulin and _-tubulin polymerized together _"plus" and "minus" side due to tubulin _Plus grows faster than minus

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Dynes

_Motor proteins that move towards the minus end of microtubules _Involved with beating of the cilia and flagella

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Kinesins

Motor proteins that move towards the plus end of microtubules

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Axoneme

_Classified as a microtubule _9 doublets and 1 central pair of microtubules _Forms core of cilia and flagella

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Centriole

_Aka basal body _9 triplets of MT with NO central pair _found at base of cilia and flagella

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Microtubule Organizing Center

_Found in almost every cell, except neurons and RBCs _where cellular MTs arise from

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Intermediate Filaments

_Intermediate thickness b/t actin and MT _Strong, but flexible polymers _Mech support for the cell, anchor ion channel proteins, cocoon when cell is damaged

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Keratins

Found mainly in epithelial cells

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Vimentin

Found mainly in fibroblasts of connective tissue

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Desmin

Found in muscle cells

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Glial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins

Found in support cells of nervous system (glial cells)

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Neurofilaments

Found in neurons