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Flashcards in Day 12.1 Neuro Deck (28):
1

Most common causes of meningitis in newborns--> 6mo

Gp B Strep
E. coli
Listeria

2

Most common causes of meningitis in small kids 6mo--> 6yrs

S. pneumonia
N. meningitidis
HiB
Enteroviruses (Echo, Coxsackie- these cause aseptic meningitis, whereas the others cause bacterial)

3

Most common causes of meningitis in kids-adults 6yr-->60yr

Enteroviruses
S. pneumonia
N. meningitidis
HSV (this also causes temporal lobe encephalitis)

4

Most common causes of meningitis in 60+ yr elderly?

S. pneumonia
Gram-neg rods
Listeria

5

What genes are responsible for skeletal devt?

Hox genes

6

Clinical px of thyroglossal duct cyst?

Midline of neck
Moves when swallowing

7

Which phase of hepatic metabolism is lost first by geriatric pts?

Phase I

8

Which phase of hepatic metabolism is mediated by Cytochrome p450?

Phase I

9

What are the 4 obligate aerobe bacteria?

Nagging pests must breathe:
Nocardia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycobacterium TB
Bacillus spp

10

Vasculitis w necrotizing granulomas of lung and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Wegener's granulomatosis

11

Vasculitis w necrotizing immune complex inflam of visceral/renal vessels

Polyarteritis nodosa

12

Vasculitis in a young Asian woman

Takaysu's

13

Vasculitis in a young asthmatic

Churgg-Straus

14

Vasculitis in young children; coronary arteries can be involved

Kawasaki dz

15

Most common vasculitits

Temporal arteritis
Kids- Henoch-Scholein purpura

16

Vasculitis a/w HBV infection

Polyarteritis nodosa

17

Rx to prevent the neurotoxicity of isoniazid

Pyridoxine (Vit B6)

18

Rx for TCA cardiotoxicity

NaHCO3 to alkalinize the plasma/urine

19

Rx for Theophylline cardiotoxicity

B-blocker

20

Where is CN III wrt the arteries in the circle of willis?

Between the PCA and the SCA (superior cerebellar artery).
An aneurysm in PCA or SCA can cause CN III palsy d/t mass effect.

21

Where does the PICA enter the circle of willis?

Vertebral arteries (PICA = posterior)

22

Where does the AICA enter the circle of willis?

Basilar arteries (AICA = anterior)

23

Medial medullary syndrome is the occlusion of which artery?

Anterior Spinal Artery (the one that comes up in the middle of the 2 vertebral arteries)

24

What are the characteristics of medial medullary syndrome?

Pyramid/corticospinal tract dmg --> Contralateral spastic hemiparesis of lower extremities
Medial lemniscus dmg --> Contralateral tactile and kinesthetic defects (proprioception)
Hypoglossal nucleus/nerve dmg --> tongue deviates toward lesion (ipsilateral paralysis)

25

What artery is occluded in lateral medullary syndrome (aka Wallenberg's)?

PICA
(Infarct of lateral part of rostral medulla)

26

What are the characteristics of lateral medullary syndrome/Wallenberg's?

Spinothalamic tract dmg --> Loss of contralateral pain/temp
Trigeminothalamic tract dmg --> loss of pain/temp on ipsilateral face
Nucleus ambiguus- glossopharyngeal and vagus dmg --> hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, loss of gag reflex (ipsilateral)
Descending symp tract dmg --> Ispilateral Horner's syndrome
Vestibular nuclei dmg --> vertigo, nystagmus, naus/vom
Inferior cerebellar peduncle dmg --> Ipsilateral cerebellar deficits (ataxia, past pointing)

27

What artery is occluded in lateral inferior pontine syndrome?

AICA (which comes off of basilar artery)

28

What are the characteristics of lateral inferior pontine syndrome?

Facial nucleus/nerve dmg --> ipsilateral facial paralysis
Solitary nucleus/nerve dmg --> ipsilateral loss of taste from ant 2/3 of tongue
Cochlear nucleus/nerve dmg --> Ipsilateral deafness and tinnitus
Vestibular nucleus/nerve dmg --> Nystagmus, vertigo, naus/vom
Middle and inferior cerebellar peduncle dmg (MCP, ICP) --> ipsilateral limb and gait ataxia
Spinal trigeminal nucleus/nerve dmg --> ipsilateral loss of pain/temp from face
spinothalamic tract dmg --> contralateral pain/temp from body
descending symp tract dmg --> ipsilateral Horner's syndrome

note: contralateral motor to body and light touch/vib/kinesthetics are fine