Day 17, Lecture 1: Cancer IV: Chemotherapy Overview II Flashcards Preview

MCS > Day 17, Lecture 1: Cancer IV: Chemotherapy Overview II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Day 17, Lecture 1: Cancer IV: Chemotherapy Overview II Deck (26):
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What is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) treated with 

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Breast Cancer classifications

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Imatinib/Gleevec

  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
    • targets ABL (including BCR-ABL)
    • KIT
    • PDGF receptor (platelet derived growth factor)
  • Used for CML (chronic myeloid leukemia)
    • Philadelphia chromosome positive t(9;22)
      • has BCR-ABL fusion protein
      • Displays hyperproliferation of granulocytes 
  • Also used for therapy of GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor)
    • targets in this case is KIT

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HER2 and breast cancer

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HER2 inhibitors

  • Trastuzumab/Herceptin
    • ​anti-HER2 antibody
  • Lapatinib
    • HER2 kinase inhibitor

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EGFR inhibitors 

  • Erlotinib/Tarceva
    • treats NSCLC (non-small cell Lung cancer)
  • Gefitinib/Iressa
    • treats NSCLC (non-small cell Lung cancer)
  • Cetuximab/Erbitux
    • antibody
    • treats:
      • Squamous cell carcinoma
      • colon cancer 

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Angiogenesis Inhibitors

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Bevacizumab (Avastin)

  • Angiogenesis inhibitor
  • VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody
  • Treats:
    • Colorectal cancer
    • NSCLC (non small cell lung cancer) 

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Vemurafenib/Zelboraf

  • Serine/Threonine kinase inhibitors
  • Targets V600E mutation of B-RAF (60% of all melanomas; FDA approved for late stage melanomas) 

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Bortezomib/Velcade

  • Proteasome inhibitors
  • Small molecule inhibitor of 26s proteosome
  • Treats:
    • Multiple Myeloma 

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The study of heritable change in gene expression that occurs independent of changes in the primary DNA sequence 

  • Epigenetics 

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DNA methylation 

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Azacitidine (Vidaza)

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Vorinostat/SAHA

  • Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor
    • thus resulting in reactivation of tumor suppressor genes
  • Treats:
    • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

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Immunotherapy

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Gene Therapy

  • Insertion, alteration, or removal of a gene in a patient's cells to treat disease
  • Requires a deliver vehicle (e.g. virus) that carries a gene and is taken up by target cells 
  • Gene has to be persistant within the target cell and direct the efficient expression of its gene product 
  • Issues to be addressed
    • Specificity for target cells
    • Persistant expression
    • Adverse immune responses

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Virotherapy

  • Reprogram viruses to treat disease
  • Often mixed with Gene therapy and/or immunotherapy

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