Flashcards in DD Bio Ques 150 onward Deck (84):
Before leaving nucleus, primary mRNA transcript is cut into?
Exons (expressed DNA sequence) and introns (DNA sequence that is cut out; it has no known function).
Chlorophyll is found where?
What do Leydig cells in the testes produce at beginning of puberty?
Islets of Langerhans
collection of alpha and beta cells of the pancreas
Actively contracting muscle tissue has higher amount of what?
When glucose forms lactate, net gain of how many ATP?
In yeasts growing anaerobically, pyruvate is converted to?
Sum of Purines is equal to sum of Pyrimidines.
Purines are Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines are Cytosine and Thymine. Uracil in RNA is also a pyrimidine.
Sweat glands: apocrine and eccrine definition?
Apocrine sweat glands respond to stress.
Eccrine: for maintaining body temp.
Decrease in sebaceous gland activity causes?
skin become dry and lose oils.
As age increase, sweat gland activity?
Mg+2 is found where?
Stinging cells of cnidarians are called?
specialized cells in tentacles and body wall of coelenterates. The interior is filled with nematocysts.
DNA semi-conservative replication
new DNA strand contains one parental strand and one new strand
Each nucleotide is bound to the next in both RNA and DNA by what bond?
Phosphodiester. The 3' OH of one nucleotide is joined to the 5' OH group of the next.
Food pyramid: trophic levels. Energy and mass will ___ as you move up food energy pyramid.
At bottom of food pyramid: producers are plants: most mass, most energy, most number of individuals. Name the next levels up
Herbivores (primary consumers), Carnivores, and Top Carnivors (Tertiary consumers)
Sea urchin develops fertilization memberane to do what?
protective membrane for embryo
During the menstrual cycle, a midcycle surge of LH causes?
The umbilicord cord connects the growing embryo to?
parts of the yolk sac, allantois and amnion
fluid filled sac that will protect embryo from mechanical shock.
Epidermis and epithelial
The epidermis forms the outer layer of skin, creating a tough, renewable, waterproof barrier against the environment. It is a type of epithelium, the tissue that makes up surfaces and linings in the body
Epidermis then dermis. Describe:
Epidermis: Stratum corneum (outermost, dead cells). Deepest layer is stratum germinativum: this layer contains melanocytes.
Dermis: connective tissue, erector muscles, hair follicles, sensory receptors, sweat and sebaceous glands.
Fleshy outer portion of external ear
Pleurae and peritoneum
Pleurae: think, smooth membranous outer covering
Peritoneum: tissue that covers all digestive organs and lines body cavity
Formula for cardiac output
Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
stroke volume = end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
___ offers the greatest resistance to blood flow in circ?
Steroid hormones are synthesized from?
Dwarfism, an autosomal dominant inheritance.
autosomal recessive inheritance, causing premature aging. Before child is 10 y/o see hair thinking, arthritis.
Probability of a crossover occurring between 2 genes on a homologous chromosome is increased if?
They are further apart
If the pedigree shows a dominant phenotype skipping generations, be suspicious of
autosomal recessive disorder. If there is no skip, more likely to be autosomal dominant disorder.
If it's an X-linked disease and the male is normal then
it's an X-linked dominant disease.
In sex-linked recessive diseases, affected males cannot pass the trait to?
their male offsprings.
What hormone will inhibit FSH release and thereby prevent ovulation?
Fungi are involved in decomposition. T or F
forming of new species through geographic isolation of groups from parent population.
Early earth consisted of a reducing atmosphere of?
No O2. Just CH4, NH3, H2O, H2, CO, CO2, and H2S.
Fertilized egg cell
Which types of animals have 2 chambered, 3 chambered, 4 chambered hearts?
Amphibians and reptiles: 3
Mammals and birds: 4
Angiosperms and gymnosperms are different from ferns in what way?
They produce seeds. Ferns don't. Ferns reproduce by spores: alternation between sporophytic and gametophytic.
Eukaryotes arose about 0.5 billion years ago while prokaryotes around 3.5 billion years ago. The earth is about how old?
4.5 billion years old.
cell membrane proteins to regulate flow of water
What molecules are believed to be the first carriers of genetic info?
What phase is the longest mitotic phase and shortest?
Cndaria: hydras, corals, jellyfish
Arthropoda: Spiders, crustaceans
Chordata: Tunicates (not vertebrate but have notochord), mammals, amphibians, reptiles, jawless fish.
RNA polymerase, unlike DNA polymerase, does not have what?
Transcription produces what?
mRNA, tRNA and rRNA
Often there are several t-RNA for each amino acid
Vegetative Propagation is a form of?
Angiosperms are the most diverse.
The cotyledon will do what?
store food for germinating seedling. It's called a seed leaf.
Plants contain a cell wall are more ___ to swelling in a hypotonic solution.
In what form is CO2 carried in blood?
Urine is hypertonic to the blood and contains?
high urea and solute concen.
Combination of passive diffusion and active transport in the Loop of Henle of solutes helps in?
conservation of water
ADH will allow water to be reabsorbed where? when water conservation is needed?
distal tubles and collecting ducts
Humoral immunity involves what type of cells?
What is the most abundant waste product of metabolism?
Jawless fish include?
Hagfish and lampreys. Lampreys are parasites and hagfish are scavengers. They were the first to evolve.
Denaturation of a protein will cause a change in what level of protein structure?
2nd, 3rd, and 4th degree protein structure only. The primary structure is lost only through hydrolysis/digestion.
What can cause denaturation of a protein?
Heavy metals such as Pb2+, Ag +, and Hg2+, heat, pH change, radiation.
About 90% of the ATP is generated by ___? Which occurs where?
Electron transport chain, which occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria
Where does urea formation occur?
Where is pollen produced?
female part of plant
Pistil consists of
stigma, style, and ovary
In plants the haploid gametophyte is ___ while in animals it is unicellular
male part of plant. Consists of filament and anther.
Myoglobin consists of how many chain of proteins?
Single. It stores O2 in muscles
Distinguishing feature of bone?
Mineralized ground substance and collagen fibers
is rich in collagen
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasym system?
Primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous sys?
What has excitatory and inhibitory effects on muscles and glands throughout body
can cut themselves from a chromosome and reinsert themselves in another area. This may allow a somatic cell to alter its genetic constitution without meiosis.
Segmented worms. Nephridia is their excretory organ
Do arthropods have open circulating systems?
Do annelids have closed circ system?