DD Bio Ques 150 onward Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DD Bio Ques 150 onward Deck (84):
1

Before leaving nucleus, primary mRNA transcript is cut into?

Exons (expressed DNA sequence) and introns (DNA sequence that is cut out; it has no known function).

2

Chlorophyll is found where?

Thylakoid membrane

3

What do Leydig cells in the testes produce at beginning of puberty?

Testosterone

4

Islets of Langerhans

collection of alpha and beta cells of the pancreas

5

Actively contracting muscle tissue has higher amount of what?

Lactate

6

When glucose forms lactate, net gain of how many ATP?

2

7

In yeasts growing anaerobically, pyruvate is converted to?

ethanol

8

Chargraff's Rules

Sum of Purines is equal to sum of Pyrimidines.
A+G=C+T
Purines are Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines are Cytosine and Thymine. Uracil in RNA is also a pyrimidine.

9

Sweat glands: apocrine and eccrine definition?

Apocrine sweat glands respond to stress.
Eccrine: for maintaining body temp.

10

Decrease in sebaceous gland activity causes?

skin become dry and lose oils.

11

As age increase, sweat gland activity?

decrease

12

Mg+2 is found where?

in chlorophyll

13

Stinging cells of cnidarians are called?

Nematocysts

14

Cnidoblasts?

specialized cells in tentacles and body wall of coelenterates. The interior is filled with nematocysts.

15

DNA semi-conservative replication

new DNA strand contains one parental strand and one new strand

16

Each nucleotide is bound to the next in both RNA and DNA by what bond?

Phosphodiester. The 3' OH of one nucleotide is joined to the 5' OH group of the next.

17

Food pyramid: trophic levels. Energy and mass will ___ as you move up food energy pyramid.

Decrease

18

At bottom of food pyramid: producers are plants: most mass, most energy, most number of individuals. Name the next levels up

Herbivores (primary consumers), Carnivores, and Top Carnivors (Tertiary consumers)

19

Sea urchin develops fertilization memberane to do what?

prevent polyspermy

20

Chorion

protective membrane for embryo

21

During the menstrual cycle, a midcycle surge of LH causes?

ovulation

22

The umbilicord cord connects the growing embryo to?

parts of the yolk sac, allantois and amnion

23

Amnion

fluid filled sac that will protect embryo from mechanical shock.

24

Epidermis and epithelial

The epidermis forms the outer layer of skin, creating a tough, renewable, waterproof barrier against the environment. It is a type of epithelium, the tissue that makes up surfaces and linings in the body

25

Epidermis then dermis. Describe:

Epidermis: Stratum corneum (outermost, dead cells). Deepest layer is stratum germinativum: this layer contains melanocytes.

Dermis: connective tissue, erector muscles, hair follicles, sensory receptors, sweat and sebaceous glands.

26

Pinna

Fleshy outer portion of external ear

27

Pleurae and peritoneum

Pleurae: think, smooth membranous outer covering

Peritoneum: tissue that covers all digestive organs and lines body cavity

28

Formula for cardiac output

Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

29

stroke volume = end diastolic volume - end systolic volume

.

30

___ offers the greatest resistance to blood flow in circ?

Arterioles

31

Steroid hormones are synthesized from?

Cholesterol

32

Achondroplasia?

Dwarfism, an autosomal dominant inheritance.

33

Progeria?

autosomal recessive inheritance, causing premature aging. Before child is 10 y/o see hair thinking, arthritis.

34

Probability of a crossover occurring between 2 genes on a homologous chromosome is increased if?

They are further apart

35

If the pedigree shows a dominant phenotype skipping generations, be suspicious of

autosomal recessive disorder. If there is no skip, more likely to be autosomal dominant disorder.

36

If it's an X-linked disease and the male is normal then

it's an X-linked dominant disease.

37

In sex-linked recessive diseases, affected males cannot pass the trait to?

their male offsprings.

38

What hormone will inhibit FSH release and thereby prevent ovulation?

Progesterone

39

Fungi are involved in decomposition. T or F

T

40

Allopatric speciation

forming of new species through geographic isolation of groups from parent population.

41

Early earth consisted of a reducing atmosphere of?

No O2. Just CH4, NH3, H2O, H2, CO, CO2, and H2S.

42

Zygote

Fertilized egg cell

43

Which types of animals have 2 chambered, 3 chambered, 4 chambered hearts?

Fish: 2
Amphibians and reptiles: 3
Mammals and birds: 4

44

Angiosperms and gymnosperms are different from ferns in what way?

They produce seeds. Ferns don't. Ferns reproduce by spores: alternation between sporophytic and gametophytic.

45

Eukaryotes arose about 0.5 billion years ago while prokaryotes around 3.5 billion years ago. The earth is about how old?

4.5 billion years old.

46

Aquaporins

cell membrane proteins to regulate flow of water

47

What molecules are believed to be the first carriers of genetic info?

RNA

48

What phase is the longest mitotic phase and shortest?

Prophase: longest
Anaphase: shortest

49

Cnidaria
Arthorpoda
Chrodata
Examples?

Cndaria: hydras, corals, jellyfish
Arthropoda: Spiders, crustaceans
Chordata: Tunicates (not vertebrate but have notochord), mammals, amphibians, reptiles, jawless fish.

50

RNA polymerase, unlike DNA polymerase, does not have what?

proofreading ability

51

Transcription produces what?

mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

52

Often there are several t-RNA for each amino acid

true

53

Cloverleaf structure

t-RNA

54

Vegetative Propagation is a form of?

Asexual reproduction

55

Angiosperms are the most diverse.
The cotyledon will do what?

store food for germinating seedling. It's called a seed leaf.

56

Plants contain a cell wall are more ___ to swelling in a hypotonic solution.

resistant

57

In what form is CO2 carried in blood?

Bicarbonate: HCO3-

58

Urine is hypertonic to the blood and contains?

high urea and solute concen.

59

Combination of passive diffusion and active transport in the Loop of Henle of solutes helps in?

conservation of water

60

ADH will allow water to be reabsorbed where? when water conservation is needed?

distal tubles and collecting ducts

61

Humoral immunity involves what type of cells?

B-lymphocytes

62

What is the most abundant waste product of metabolism?

CO2

63

Jawless fish include?

Hagfish and lampreys. Lampreys are parasites and hagfish are scavengers. They were the first to evolve.

64

Denaturation of a protein will cause a change in what level of protein structure?

2nd, 3rd, and 4th degree protein structure only. The primary structure is lost only through hydrolysis/digestion.

65

What can cause denaturation of a protein?

Heavy metals such as Pb2+, Ag +, and Hg2+, heat, pH change, radiation.

66

About 90% of the ATP is generated by ___? Which occurs where?

Electron transport chain, which occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria

67

Where does urea formation occur?

Liver

68

Where is pollen produced?

Anther

69

Pistil

female part of plant

70

Pistil consists of

stigma, style, and ovary

71

In plants the haploid gametophyte is ___ while in animals it is unicellular

multicellular

72

Stamen

male part of plant. Consists of filament and anther.

73

Myoglobin consists of how many chain of proteins?

Single. It stores O2 in muscles

74

Distinguishing feature of bone?

Mineralized ground substance and collagen fibers

75

Extracellular matrix

is rich in collagen

76

What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasym system?

Acetylcholine

77

Primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous sys?

Norepinephrine

78

What has excitatory and inhibitory effects on muscles and glands throughout body

Acetylcholine

79

Transposable elements

can cut themselves from a chromosome and reinsert themselves in another area. This may allow a somatic cell to alter its genetic constitution without meiosis.

80

Annelids are?

Segmented worms. Nephridia is their excretory organ

81

nematodes are

round worms

82

Do arthropods have open circulating systems?

yes

83

Do annelids have closed circ system?

yes

84

Thin actin filaments are the __ bands?

I bands