DD Bio ques 204 onward Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DD Bio ques 204 onward Deck (94):
1

What is the major criterion in defining a species

Reproductive isolation

2

The binding energy drived from enzyme substrate interaction may be used to do what?

hold the two in correct orientation

3

mollusks have open circulatory systems, they have blood ___

sinuses

4

What has tentacles to capture prey, include squid, the largest known invertebrate, have well dev nervous system, ha ve giant nerve fibers connecting brain with muscles used in jet propulsion?

cephalopods

5

Prions

Prions are infectious protein particles, misfolded proteins which replicate by converting their properly folded counterparts. Implicated in Creutzfeldt_jakob disease.

6

Prions are implicated in which diseases?

Mad Cow, kuru, scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

7

shape of tRNA is maintained by?

hydrogen bond

8

Distinguishing feature of t-RNA?

Presence of unusual bases such as methylinosine, pseudouridine, and 4-thiouridine

9

Glycolysis will produce?

2 ATP net, 2 NADH, 2 moles of pyruvate and 2 H+

10

Bateria and blue-green algae belong to which kingdom?

Monera. (Green algae and paramecium, however, will belong to the kingdom Protista.) Mushrooms are in the Fungi Kingdom

11

Platyhelminths

tapeworm and flukes (flat like pieces of mints)

12

Annelids

earthworms and leeches

13

Corals and sea anemones belong to which phylum?

Cnidarians

14

Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes. Meaning?

Anus forms then the mouth forms, from the blastopore. In all other organisms, the blastopore will form the mouth first.

15

Non-vascular bryophytes include?

mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Have underground stems, live in moist and humid habitats.

16

sporazoans

diverse group of parasites including the plasmodium which causes malaria (mosquitoes transmit to birds and humans)

17

distinguishing feature of bones?

extracellular matrix of collagen fibers and ground substance. Glycoproteins and fibrous proteins form the jelly like ground substance.

18

bone consists of

living cells and collagen fibers

19

Where do we find marrow in bones?

Irregular spaces of spongy bone, meduallry cavities of long bones, and in the haversian canals.

20

Once trapped in small spaces of bone, osteoblasts mature into?

Osteocytes (living bone cells)

21

Fibroblasts?

produce extracellular fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. They make collagen too.

22

Mast cells

histamine release

23

Plasma cells

Antibody production

24

Amnion

fluid filled sac that surrounds embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals (not in amphibians)

25

Allantois sac

stores nitrogenous wastes until hatching. Allantoi only found in reptiles, birds, and mammals (not amphibians).

26

Blue eyes are homozygous recessive

.

27

The most abundant RNA is?

r-RNA (80% total). The least abundant is mRNA

28

t-RNA is the smallest of RNA.

.

29

How many possible codons are there?

64

30

The t-RNA triplet that hydrogen bonds to the codon is called?

anticodon

31

Bacteria can convert nitrogen to ammonia (which will dissolve in water to form NH4+), convert nitrate or nitrite to N2 and a small amount of N2O (denitrification).

.

32

Greenhouse gases include?

ozone, methane, CO2, chlorofluorohydrocarbons

33

Lichen

Symbiosis between blue-green alga with a fungus. The alga supplies the food while the fungus protects the alga and absorbs water and minerals for both.

34

Some names of fungi groups

Zygomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes

35

Amount of blood in an adult is

about 5 quarts

36

Disulfide bonds are seen where?

In many proteins (antibodies, hair, insulin). They restrict the way the protein can fold. It's a covalent bond.

37

Antibodies (immunoglobulins) consist of?

two heavy chains linked to two light chains by disulfide bonds.

38

Which part of flower will catch pollen?

Stigma: the sticky part

39

Fats yield more than ___ the energy than protein or carbohydrate.

twice.

(vitamins will not yield any energy)

40

FADH2 and NADH will transfer electrons to the?

electron transport chain

41

Electron transport chain pumps protons out of the mitochondrial matrix, creating a?

proton gradient.

42

Tundra

treeless frozen plain with permafrost.

43

Savanna

Grassland with low rainfall, hooved, plant-eating mammals such as giraffes

44

Mullerian mimicry

group of organisms such as wasps, bees, and hornets all possessing yellow warning colors.

45

Batesian mimicry

deceptive mimicry: family of flies that resemble the yellow bees and hornets but do not sting at all.

46

Tannin

chemical in plants which imparts an unsatisfactory taste to leaves and twigs, discourage herbivores

47

Unpalatable prey is often highly ___ to warn predators

colored

48

Smoking will damage cilia of respiratory cells, globet cell's mucous production will ?

increase. Causing unproductive cough because the lungs have decreased means of moving the mucous out.

49

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells are found?

in trachea and upper respiratory sys

50

Pseudostratified columnar epithelia cells may contain?

Goblet cells that secrete mucous.

51

Smoking does what to the cilia of respiratory cells, allow what to remain in lungs?

cilia,.... toxin.

52

Human oocytes can be most successfully fertilized how?

micro-injection: injecting sperm cell into an egg

53

Promoter sites

bind RNA polymerase and determine where transcription begins. In prokaryotes, it's the Pribnow box. In Eukaryotes, its the TATA box.

54

Operon

consists of promoter gene, operator gene and structural genes: to provide regulation of transcription.

55

Erythroblastosis fetalis?

Rh+ fetus, Rh- mother

56

Nucleosomes

bead-like structures composed of histones wrapped by DNA

57

Histones

Small DNA binding proteins that allow DNA coiling

58

chiasma

the point where two homologous non-sister chromatids exchange genetic material during chromosomal crossover during meiosis

59

Synapsis

pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis. This is the key distinguishing feature between meiosis and mitosis.

60

Allopatric speciation vs. sympatric speciation?

Allopatric: species arise from geographical isolation.

Sympatric: species arise after ecological, genetic, or behavioral barries arise within the same geographical boundary of a single population.

61

Founder effects and bottlenecks occur when a population is?

rebuilt or originated from very few individuals. This illustrates a genetic drift. Amount of genetic variation is very limited.

62

Genetic/population bottleneck?

disaster nearly wipes out a large population.

63

allosteric regulation

regulation of an enzyme or other protein by binding an effector molecule at the protein's allosteric site (that is, a site other than the protein's active site

64

When the first O2 binds to Hgb, salt bridges are broken and disturbed upon binding, causing conformational change, additional O2 binds more easily. This effect is called?

Cooperative effect.

65

allosteric molecules?

have more than one binding sites.

66

earthworms are?

annelids

67

Red algae

Rhodophyta

68

Green algae?

Spirogyra

69

cephalization

having sensory structrures and nerve cells mainly up front, in a head.

70

protostomes

opening of the first indentation becomes the mouth.

71

Examples of deuterostomes and protostomes.

Mollusk, arthropods, and annelids are protostomes.

Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes.

72

Oncotic or colloidal osmotic pressure

form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in blood plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.

73

zymogen

inactive form of an enzyme. Example pepsinogen

74

Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis

Endocytosis: taking something into the cell
Pinocytosis: transport of liquid droplets into an animal cell
Phagocytosis: same thing but with a solid substance

75

Streptococci forms? and staphylococci forms?

Streptococci form chains. (think strep throat, long, chain)

Staphylococci form clusters. (staff of a hospital cluster at a huddle)

76

Spirilla

helical shaped bacteria.

The spherical bateria: cocci. Rod shaped: Bacilli

77

A normal adult has how many of what kinds of teeth?

8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, and 12 molars

78

G-C have what kinds of bonds?

Three hydrogen bonds.

A-T only has two hydrogen bonds.

79

cytochromes

group of heme containing proteins found in the electron transport chain.

80

What's the most recent era?

Cenozoic

81

List the eras

Cenozoic - Mesozoic - Paleozoic - Precambrian (oldest)

Mesozoic: Dinosaurs
Paleozoic: first land vertebrates, land plants, fish, alga
Precambrian: Invertebrates, monera, fungi

82

Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny: notion that has NOT been accepted in modern evolutionary theory. The notion means?

They thought embryos pass through stages that resemble adult ancestors.

83

Plasmolysis

Shrinkage of a cell due to water loss.

84

Sucrose

glucose and fructose

85

Maltose

2 moles glucose

86

Lactose

glucose and galactose

87

As we move down the food pyramid, we get approximately how many fold increase in energy?

10 fold

88

The purple and green bacteria found in anaerobic sediments of lakes and ponds carry out photosynthesis in which what is an electron donor?

H2, H2S or D,

not O2!!!

89

The earliest organisms were probably?

Heterotrophs. (amoebas)

(more complex organisms which can perform photosynthesis came later)

90

halophiles

bateria that live in extremely salty water

91

An erythrocyte does not have?

nucleus or DNA

92

Bohr Effect with hemoglobin?

Hgb will unload O2 more under conditions of low pH (high CO2, [H+])

93

The heme group is the same in both hemoglobin and myoglobin.

true

94

Most protein hormones and polypeptide hormones act by way of?

cyclic AMP: they activate enzymes, initiates protein syn, even alter membrane permeability