Flashcards in DD Bio ques 263 onward Deck (71):
Monocots and dicots differ in the arrangement of vascular bundles which are multistranded cords of phloem and xylem tissues.
In dicots: vascular tissues are arranged around central core.
Monocots: they are scattered
How do leaf veins run in monocots and dicots?
eukaryotes: hydra, paramecium, euglena (some have plant and animal features). All protists live in moist environ.
In a dihybrid cross, the F1 generation have what genotype? and F2?
F1: 100% TtPp
F2: 9:3:3:1 ratio
Electron transfer through the respiratory chain leads to the pumping of H+ ions from where to where?
matrix to the cytosolic side of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Cytosine, uracil, and thymine are pyrimidines, which contain one ring. What about Adenine and Guanine?
They are purines, containing two rings.
Adenine is larger than thymine.
are a group of nitrogen-based molecules that are required to form nucleotides, the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA. Nucleobases provide the molecular structure necessary for the hydrogen bonding of complementary DNA and RNA strands, and are key components in the formation of stable DNA and RNA molecules.
Best technique to determine tertiary structure of a protein is?
prevents food from entering the trachea
Virus that infects bacteria
small proteins made by most body cells following a viral, bacterial, or parasitic attack. Belong to a class of glycoproteins called cytokines.
Main purpose of fungi?
Notable examples of fungi?
Mushrooms, yeast, and lichens
An algae is a protist. Blue-green algae are classified with moneras.
What are decomposers that occupy no particular trophic level since they feed on organisms from all trophic levels?
Bacteria and fungi
The everage ecological efficiency of any one trophic level is approx. how many %?
Primary succession occurs to which kind of areas? Secondary succession?
Primary: areas without soil, has not previously supported a community.
Secondary: disturbed areas such as burned over land
most stable ocmmunity marked by a large biomass with no environ change.
using radioactive label on a protein to detect what's happening to molecules in cells.
reptiles do not lose gills. What do they have to facilitate tolerance for drier climates?
thick skin, thick shelled eggs, an amnion, and internal fertilization
organisms that use redox reactions to produce ATP
lipid soluble elctron carrier in electron transport chain
Bacteria use how many electron transport chains to produce ATP?
multiple. Sometimes at the same time.
Which amino acid is the only optically INACTIVE amino acid?
ARe hemoglobin and myoglobin water soluble?
typical pH of eukaryotic cell?
after ovulation, what will the ovarian follicle become?
The second meiotic division is not complete until?
What is the precursor to the cholesterols: cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone?
Where are epinephrine and thyroxin derived from?
Predominant form of ferns?
Sporophyte. Spores are produced in sporangia. Clusters of sprorangia are called sori found on the lower surface of the leaf.
Mitosis makes up how many percent of cell cycle?
What can readily move through a selectively permeable membrane?
small uncharged polar molecules and lipids
Do fungi contain chitin?
the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulas of mollusks, and the beaks of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses. In terms of structure, chitin may be compared to the polysaccharide cellulose and, in terms of function, to the protein keratin. Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes.
Recombinant frequencies can be used to create?
One genetic map unit is how many recombinant frequencies?
cannot self-fertilize. They are distinctly male or female. Used mainly for plan species.
members have low reproductive rates and roughly constant in size (humans are ok).
R selected populations
like bacteria: rapid growth, numerous offsprings, fast maturation and very little postnatal care.
What stage of a life cycle predominates in the following:
man, angiosperms, ferns, frogs
(in Bryophytes and fungi: the haploid is dominant)
The main solute transported by the phloem is?
Waxy band in plants to aid in water control.
A branched polymer of glucose
Glycogen can be found in?
Liver and skeletal muscles
Polymers of alpha glucose
starch and glycogen
Can glycogen be stored intracellularly?
alpha and beta polysaccharides
Storage Polysaccharides: Starch and glycogen: polymers of alpha glucose. Starch is a plant storage polysaccharide that is composed entirely of glucose joined by @1-4 glycoside linkages. amylose is the simplest form of starch. amylopectin is more complex and is branched. Glycogen is an animal starch stored in the liver and muscles of vertebrates. It is more highly branched than amylopectin.
Structural Polysaccharides: Cellulose and chitin are polymers of beta glucose. They are examples of structural polysaccharides.
Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth. It is made of glucose, like starch, but they differ in the type of 1-4 linkage. Instead of an @ linkage as in starch cellulose contains a B 1-4 linkage.
This causes the polysaccharide to take on a step arrangement and not a linear one like in starch.
Animal enzymes find it difficult to breake the B 1-4 linkage. Humans cannot digest cellulose.
Polysaccharides can be branched or linear where as peptides are?
Which offer more variety: polysaccharides or polypeptides?
Beta-pleated sheet is a secondary structure held together by?
Amino acids are held together by peptide bonds (between the amino and the carboxyl group). The beta pleated sheet is a secondary structure held together by hydrogen bonds between the N-H group of one and the C=O group of another.
Normally, glucose is reabsorbed completely in glomerular filtrate but in diabetes, what happens?
blood glucose levels rise high, significant quantities of glucose appear in urine.
Which organelle is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
At rest, the concentration of K+ inside is ___ compared to outside?
higher inside than outside.
In order to maintain the cell membrane potential, cells keep a low concentration of sodium ions and high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular). The sodium-potassium pump moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus in total removing one positive charge carrier from the intracellular space
What are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and cause death by respiratory paralysis?
acetylcholine (Ach) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE)
During neurotransmission, ACh is released from the nerve into the synaptic cleft and binds to ACh receptors on the post-synaptic membrane, relaying the signal from the nerve. AChE, also located on the post-synaptic membrane, terminates the signal transmission by hydrolyzing ACh. The liberated choline is taken up again by the pre-synaptic nerve and ACh is synthetized by combining with acetyl-CoA
Autosomal recessive disease, lysosomal enzyme defect, lipid buildup in brain, common among infants of European-Jewish descent, fatal within first 5 years, causes mental retard and blindness and death.
Blood travels fastest where?
at a constriction
Blood pressure is indirectly related to what?
blood vessel radius to the fourth power.
BP = cardiac output/R to the fourth
R is radius of blood vessel.
BP = cardiac output x PVR
PVR is peripheral vascular resistance
smooth muscles are slow to contract, mononucleated and are involuntary?
Skeletal muscle is made up of individual components known as myocytes, or "muscle cells", sometimes colloquially called "muscle fibers". They are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts (a type of embryonic progenitor cell that gives rise to a muscle cell). These long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells are composed of myofibrils.
The myofibers are in turn composed of myofibrils. The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin myofibrils repeated as a sarcomere, the basic functional unit of the muscle fiber and responsible for skeletal muscle's striated appearance and forming the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction. The term muscle refers to multiple bundles of muscle fibers held together by connective tissue.
air and food passages cross where?
A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation. In animal cells, the very long fatty acids are converted to medium chain fatty acids, which are subsequently shuttled to mitochondria where they are eventually broken down to carbon dioxide and water.In yeast and plant cells, this process is exclusive for the peroxisomes.
enzyme that can convert hydrogen peroxide to H2 and O2 since it is toxic to cells
is an oxidizing agent, helping to break down long chain fatty acids that are taken in by peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are membarnouse vesicles that contain enzymes to produce H2O2.
pH of the extracellular fluid is maintained by which buffer? And intracellular fluid?
Intracellular: phosphate buffer
Extracellular: Bicarbonate buffer
Bacteria in the large intestine produce what?
Main function of large intestine?
Resorption of water, sodium, and other minerals