Flashcards in dd Bio ques 341 onward Deck (126):
Morula - Blastula (Blastocyst in mammals) - Gastrula
Blastocyst attaches to endometrium of uterus.
Protobionts - anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryotes - chemosynthetic prokaryotes
Early earth atmosphere does not contain O2.
It had CO2, H2O vapor, CO, H2, N2, NH3, H2S, and even CH4
allow cells to exchange nutrients and for molecular communication
attach cells together, giving them mechanical strength, abundant among skin cells
seal spaces between cells and prevent cell leakage, common in intestinal cells: cells are surrounded by tight junctions to prevent intestinal content from seeping out.
found in mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Cells in skin are waterproof thanks to?
Keratin. Keratin found in nails, hair, skin, hooves, claws, horns, and turtle shells.
an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder characterized by a mutation in the gene for the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), rendering it nonfunctional.:541 This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) to the amino acid tyrosine
PKU, sickle cell anemia, galactosemia are all ___ disorders?
Ancestral vertebrate orders?
Jawless fish - bony fish - amphibians - reptiles - birds - mammals
Mode of transportation for: euglena, paramecium, and amoeba
reduce surface tension of fluid in infants lungs.
must be particularly forceful since newborns' lungs are collapsed, airways small.
Stimulation of first breath is initiated by?
High CO2 levels
first law of thermodynamics
energy can neither be destroyed or created but only changed in form.
When observing cardiac muscle tissue through a microscope, intercalated discs are an identifying feature of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle consists of single heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) which have to be connected by intercalated discs to work as a functional organ. By contrast, skeletal muscle consists of multinucleated muscle fibers and therefore exhibit no intercalated discs. Intercalated discs support synchronised contraction of cardiac tissue. They can easily be visualized by a longitudinal section of the tissue.
cardiac muscle cells have how many nucleus?
uninucleated. one nucleus
adjacent cardiac muscle cells are held together by intercalated disks which have very low resistance to the passage of impulses to allow cardiac muscle fibers to transmit electrical impulse rapidly.
Where are ATP synthases made?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts. These two organelles have their own DNA and are believed to have originated from prokaryotic endosymbionts or early eukaryotic cells.
What embryonic connective tissue gives rise to most connective tissue cells?
Connective tissues regenerate most readily while cells of the CNS?
have no regeneration power
Cartilate is derived from what tissue?
Do RBC's contain mitochondria?
Heart muscle cells and kidney cells have much more of what organelle than say, liver cells
Outermost gastrula layer: ectoderm gives rise to what?
as predator population increases, prey population
as host population increase, parasite population
Birds have how many chambers in their hearts?
Birds that lack ability to fly
Ostrich and penguins
Cori cycle and the fate of lactic acid production in muscles?
blood transports lactate to liver. Cori cycle converts lactate back to glucose, which can be carried back to muscles via blood.
B-Oxidation of fatty accid occurs where? and fatty synthesis occurs where?
Oxidation of fatty acids occur in Matrix of mitochondria.
Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol.
How are fatty acids metabolized.
They are converted to Acetyl CoA units, which will enter citric acid cycle to generate ATP.
Can animals convert fatty acids into glucose?
No! Fatty acid will be converted to acetyl CoA (this happens in the mitochondria), and it will enter the citric acid cycle
A cell secreting hormone would have a very high number and rate of activity of what organelle?
What organelle will modify proteins then package them into vesicles and distribute them to cell surface through exocytosis?
Golgi complex. They modify proteins via addition sulfate, sugar or lipid groups to the side chains of certain amino acids.
three basic types of epithelia tissues
cuboidal (found in ducts of glands), columnar (found in nose a nd fallopian tubes), and squamous (thin flat plates).
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.' Telomere regions deter the degradation of genes near the ends of chromosomes by allowing chromosome ends to shorten, which necessarily occurs during chromosome replication. Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter.
During cell division, enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of chromosomes. If cells divided without telomeres, they would lose the ends of their chromosomes, and the necessary information they contain. The telomeres are disposable buffers blocking the ends of the chromosomes, are consumed during cell division, and are replenished by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
a somatic cell has its nucleus removed and implanted into an enucleated egg cell. The egg cell eventually behaves like a zygote.
Pig tissue is very similar to human's
Telomere length ___ as an animal ages.
Cloning has been done on?
rabbits, pigs, cows, goats, mice
Recombinant DNA technology uses?
Plasmids (a vector DNA which means it is the DNA that is to be altered). DNA ligase joins vector and donor DNAs to make recombinant DNA. This is introduced into E.coli to allow for replication/clones to be made. Human insulin and bovine growth hormones are routinely made by this technique.
when plasmids become part of the main chromosome
Not all of bacterium's genes are in its chromosomes, some are in?
sequence of operon
regulator, promoter, operator, structural
(Regular People Object Shams)
site on DNA where RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription. It is NOT the start site for DNA transcription or binding site for regulatory proteins.
Plasmids and bacteriophages (a virus) can be used as?
carriers for recombinant DNA
Products of recombinant DNA include?
interferons, human growth hormone, vaccines, interleukins (stimulate T leukocytes), and monoclonal antibodies which can bind and transport a drug or radioisotope to a tumor.
estrogens and diabetes?
estrogens protect pancreatic B-cells from apoptosis and prevent insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus in mice.
is the reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm as it approaches the egg. The acrosome is a cap-like structure over the anterior half of the sperm's head.
one gene affects different phenotypic characteristics. Ex: PKU, just one gene defect causing high phenylalanine in blood, lower IQ, lighter hair color, and larger heads.
An epistatic gene covers up the expression of another gene: seen commonly in skin color or fur color of mammals.
ligands bind to and form a complex with biomolecules such as receptors. Ligands include substrates, activators, inhibitors, hormones, and neurotransmitters.
membrane-bound structure at anterior end of sperm cells. Contains hyaluronidase: hydrolytic enzyme to breakdown protective surfaces of egg.
main function is to nourish the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell has also been called the "mother" or "nurse" cell. Sertoli cells also act as phagocytes, consuming the residual cytoplasm during spermatogenesis. Translocation of germ cells from the base to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules occurs by conformational changes in the lateral margins of the Sertoli cells.
In most mammalian cells, how many percent of DNA is copied into m-RNA?
Hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized in the rough ER.
Smooth ER packages and transports those enzymes to the Golgi appartus.
When appropriate, the region of the Golgi does what?
buds off as a lysome!
Novocain does what?
blocks Na+ voltage gated channels.
Resting action potential: at rest the inside of the cell is ___ compared to outside
Depolarization causes what?
Inside of cell becomes positive.
As the diameter of the nerve fiber increases, the electrical resistance __ and the speed __?
resistance decreases and speed increases. Thick nerve fibers allow for fast impulses!
an animal learns to associate a voluntary activity with the consequences that follow.
physical response to a stimulus from the environment.
discontinuous, only a limited number of ova are produced and become arrested in Prophase 1 until puberty.
Produces one single egg and 2 or 3 polar bodies.
produces 4 mature spermatozoa, on a continual basis.
the notochord is derived from which cell layer?
individuals with Down syndrome are prone to?
Leukemia and Alzheimer's
plant-like protist seen swimming in a pond
During an action potential what happens to speed and amplitude?
remain constant. But action potentials (not during an action potential) move faster along fibers that are thick. And as the stimulus intensity increases, the number of action potentials increase.
as stimulus intensity increases, what happens to the number of action potentials?
arthropods having what kind of circulatory system?
functions of prostate gland
neutralizes acidic seminal fluid and acidic vaginal secretion to enhance sperm motility.
gland secretes milky fluid at pH > 7
digestive tract of ruminants have what to help break down what?
have bacteria and protozoa to help break down cellulose into glucose. Humans do not have these bacteria/protozoa.
Ruminants' stomach pH is?
arthropods have what kind of exoskeleton?
causes muscle fibers in the diaphram to contract and move downward
as size of thoracic cavity increase, what happens to internal pressure and its volume?
pressure decreases as volume increased.
atmospheric pressure does what when the lungs inflate?
forces air into respiratory tract through air passages
Blood travels the slowest where?
(arterioles offer the greatest resistance to blood flow.)
reduction of rainfall on the leeward side of a mountain (side not facing the wind, not getting any moisture)
new indiv produced without fertilization. Ex. male honeybees
sporangia are found in which phyla/classes?
sporangia: spore-producing and spore-containing reproductive structures of ferns, angiosperms, gymnosperms, algae, fungi, and bryophytes.
black bread mold, spoiler of baked goods.
Cerevisae: involved in fermenting sugars to alcohol
Candida albicans: infections of mucous membranes
Stem vascular bundles are scatterd in which: mono or dicots?
what are the oldest and largest trees in the world?
Evolutionary path: bryophytes - gymnosperms - angiosperms
flatworm that contains male and female structures
SDS PAGE electrophoresis separates molecules/proteins based on what?
size. Smallest proteins will move the fastest. After electrophoresis, proteins can be seen using a dye like Coomassie Blue
In cell life cycle, which stage is longest?
G1 is normally longest. Organelles such as mitochondria are produced during this stage.
M is shortest
Virus that cause AIDS specifically target which type of T-cells?
Killer T-cell/cytotoxic cell release which enzyme to cause plasma membrane to become perforated?
During the light reaction of photosynthesis, what happened to ATP, water, and NADP+
ATP produced, water oxidized, and NADP+ reduced to NADPH.
Given a genotype: HhGgLLKk, find how many different types of gametes could be produced?
Count the number of heterozygotes, then use 2 to the n formula. The answer to the above question is 8.
Size-exclusion chromatography: which will move faster?
the larger proteins will move faster! because the smaller ones enter the resin beads and take a less direct route.
Insulin is derived from?
Preproinsulin and proinsulin
Insulin will promote entry of ___ into muscle and fat cells
glucose and some amino acids
What attaches to troponin and causes it to change shape?
Ca+2. Change in shape of troponin causes tropomyosin to change conformation and causes actin to change conformation. The myosin binding site on actin will open up and cross bridges will form.
following fertilization in the angiosperms, the ovary develops into a
what represents the most successful of all plants?
Why do ATP have such high phosphate group-transfer potential?
at pH=7, ATP is very negatively charged. The negatively charged groups repel each other strongly since they are so close. If ATP is hydrolyzed, the elctrostatic repulsion is reduced. Also, by forming ADP, greater resonance stabilization is achieved.
What is the universal carrier of free energy in biological systems.
What is a second messenger that will activate Ca2+ release from ER?
Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP will activate what?
What will NO be involved in?
relaxing smooth muscle
1) cyclic AMP --> AMP is catalyzed by ?
2) ATP ---> cyclic AMP is catalyzed by?
2) Adenylate cyclase (an integral membrane protein).
cyclic AMP is derived from?
c-AMP stands for cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
ATP is adenosine triphosphate.
Amphibians do not have an amnion and also rely on water for reproduction.
a membrane building the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects an embryo. It is developed in reptiles, birds, and mammals, which are hence called “Amniota”; but not in amphibians and fish (Ichthyopsida), which are consequently termed “Anamniota”. The primary role of this is the protection of the embryo for its development.
K+ and Na+ and Ca++ channels are what kind of channel: ligand or voltage gated?
acetylcholine receptors are what kind of channel?
facultative anaerobic bateria
can live with or without O2. Example: E.coi. Human intestine may harbor these. Obligate bacteria will die if exposed to oxygen.
gene with potential to induce cancerous transformation
protein infectious particle: protein with abnormal conformation.
without ozone layer, life would not occur because
UV light is mutagenic and carcinogenic. living organisms had to remain in the oceans where water shielded them. Ozone layer later formed and allowed land colonization.
Ozone is split by sunlight but quickly reforms.
where are mitochondria located in sperm?
in the midpiece of sperm and supply energy for tail's whip like movement.
sperm cell contacts the jelly coat surrounding egg cell called?
Gel electrophoresis will separate DNA fragments based on what?
phase contrast microscopy can be used to view live cells, no staining required. Staining usually atlers or kill cells. Light microscopes can magnify about how many times the size of specimen?
In electron microscopes, many organells can be revealed but chemical and physical methods are used, so cells are killed.
a few hrs after death, due to lack of ATP, actin and myosin filaments remain bonded together until muscles begin decomposing.
sustained, forceful muscle contraction, lacking even partial relaxation
response seen when stimuli are given to a muscle at short intervals so that the muscle does not have time to relax between stimuli
hyperplasia: increase in cell numbers
metaplasia: change from one cell type to another such as inflammation or irritation.
aplasia: complete failure of dev
hypertrophy: increase in cell size of tissue/organ
if ATP is involved in a step, what enzyme would be involved?