Flashcards in DD Bio question 50 onward Deck (110):
occurs when one gene influences multiple phenotypic traits
phenomenon where the effects of one gene are modified by one or several other genes, which are sometimes called modifier genes. The gene whose phenotype is expressed is called epistatic, while the phenotype altered or suppressed is called hypostatic. Epistasis can be contrasted with dominance, which is an interaction between alleles at the same gene locus
ABO blood group classification is an example of?
Where are ribosomes made?
Where in the cell does lipid synthesis occur?
Will nuclei sediment more readily than mitochondria and ribosomes during centrifugation?
Molecular complexes of cell adhesion proteins that are abundant on surface layer of skin and other epithelia, subjected to mechanical insults to allow cells to join into strong epithelia sheets.
When bone is stressed, what happens?
Osteoblast activity increase, calcium phosphate is released into matrix.
Edward: trisomy of chromosome 18.
Down: trisomy of 21
Klinefelter: trisomy of sex chromosomes
Turner syndrome: monosomy having only XO
Chromosomes are examined at which stage during karyotyping?
nonsteroidal hormones are made from amino acids and are water soluble. Are norepi and epi nonsteroidal?
What is inside a prokaryote cell?
Nucleic acids at the nucleoid region, ribosomes, plasma membrane. They do NOT have mitochondria, Golgi bodies, ER, nucleus or lysosomes.
Amylase are secreted from?
Pancreas and salivary glands. (Pancreas also make proteases and lipases).
Amylase break down what?
What does the undifferentiated cambium tissue develop into?
phloem and xylem (vascular tissue)
What transports H2O and minerals up the stem?
What transports nutrients down stem?
Plants lacking vascular tissue. They are also called Bryophytes (simple plants).
gymnosperms do not have flowers. They a re called ?
Conifers: red wood, pine, juniper tree.
Found in higher plants, represents undifferentiated cell types
The fluid inside chloroplasts' inner membrane is called?
What controls gas exchange in plants
Inside stroma: series of stacked disks that contain pigments for photosynthesis. the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
A sugar and an N-base. Ex. Adenosine which is the precursor of ATP. It consists of adenine (N-base) and ribose sugar. If we have sugar, base, and a phosphate group, we have nucleotide.
What enzyme transfers phosphoryl group?
Catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of a phosphate ester bond.
a chemical process in which a water molecule is added to a substance resulting in the split of that substance into two parts as well as the splitting of the water molecule. One fragment of the target molecule (or parent molecule) gains a hydrogen ion (H+) from the split water molecule. The other portion of the target molecule collects the hydroxyl group (OH−) of the split water molecule. In effect an acid and a base are formed.
catalyzes cleavage of C-C, C-O, C-N by elimination and a double bond is formed.
A protein is allosteric when?
Has more than one binding sites
Hb unloads O2 when?
low pH or high CO2 level.
Hb is a tetramer?
consists of two alpha and two beta chains, giving it a quaternary structure.
HB binds what with much greater affinity than O2?
Non-protein portion of Hb is?
the prosthetic group called heme.
Platelets arise from what kinds of cells?
Large, multinucleated cells called Megakaryocytes
Yellow bone marrow does what? red marrow does what? Can yellow marrow turn into red?
Yellow marrow stores fat. In spongy bone, red marrow: formation of RBC, certain WBC, and platelets (thrombocytes). Yes, yellow can convert to red with blood cell supply is low.
What plant hormone induce flowering and stem elongation?
Non-carbs such as amino acids and fats are made into glucose
Centrioles are found only in which cells?
breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation. Converts H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) into H2O and O2.
Centrosome and centriole
The centrosome, also called the "microtubule organizing center", is an area in the cell where microtubles are produced. Within an animal cell centrosome there is a pair of small organelles, the centrioles, each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules. There are three fused microtubules in each group. The two centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other. PLANT CELL CENTROSOME: Plant cells have centrosomes that function much like animal cell centrosomes. However, unlike centrosomes in animal cells, they do not have centrioles.
What mitotic phase is this: chromatids shorten and thicken, nucleoli disappears, spindle fibers form, centrioles in animal cells move to opposite ends.
What mitotic phase:
1) Sister chromatid separates
2) nucleolus reappears
3) Late Anaphase or early telophase
Blue Green Algae are in which Kingdom and are they pro/eukaryotes?
Kingdom Monera. Prokaryotes. Called Cyanobacteria. Have photosynthetic pigments.
Circular DNA in bacteria are called?
PCR technique, dev by Kary Mullis?
To make multiple DNA copies
Most accurate way to work out molecular structures is by?
Peripheral proteins are polar, bound to what?
charged polar head of the bilayer, through hydrogen boding and electrostatic interactions
What can remove peripheral proteins?
Mild treatment with salts.
What does it take to remove integral proteins?
Detergents, organic solvents, and ultrasonic vibrations.
Integral membrane proteins are held in the membrane by what kind of bond?
hydrophobic interactions with lipids.
Cyanobacteria and gram positive bacteria have what kind of cell wall?
Peptidoglycan makes up their cell walls.
Teichoic acid chains
Recognition and binding site by bacterial viruses to bacteria cell wall.
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
three bones in middle ear?
incus, malleus, stapes
two structures in inner ear?
cochlear and semicircular canals
Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland:
(FLAT) FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH. These are trophic hormones
(PEG) Prolactin, Endorphins, Growh Hormone: These are Direct hormones.
Hormones stored in the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH (Vasopressin, increases permeability of collecting duct in nephron, to increase BP) and Oxytocin (milk and uterine contraction). These are made in the hypothalamus.
Hormones from the adrenal cortex and medulla?
Cortex: Glucagon and cortisol
Medulla: epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
What pancreatic cells make glucagon, make insulin?
Alpha cells make glucagon. Beta cells make insulin.
Compare ADH and aldosterone.
ADH: increases permeability of collecting duct in nephron, promote water reabsorption, increasing blood volume.
Aldosterone: regulates plasma Na+ and K+ volume, causes active reabsoprtion of Na+ and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron, raising BP and blood vlume.
fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae. Collectively the hyphae are called mycelium.
What are eukaryotic heterotrophs, have haploid state predominate, maybe saprophytic, have cell walls, immotile, more similar to human cells than bacterial cell.
What is the name for the role that an organism play in its natural community, the way it lives, eats, and reproduces?
A community vs populaion vs biome
Population: group of indiv belong to same species.
Community: interaction of different populations.
Biome: geographic region inhabited by community
Tundra: moss, lichen, low-growing shrubs, cold winters, short growing season.
Taiga: Coniferous forest with spruce, fir, pine trees
Tropical rain forests
Temperate deciduous forests
Put these in order: Morula, blastula, gastrula
Morula divide mitotically to form blastula. Blastula becomes gastrula.
Which stomach cells secrete Pepsinogen?
Chief cells (only the chief gets to drink Pepsi!)
List cells of the stomach:
Chief cells, parietal cells, G-cells, Mucous cells
What do parietal cells secrete? G-cells secrete? Mucous cells secrete?
Parietal cells: HCl, Intrinsic factor (B-12 absorption)
G cells: hormone gastrin which stimulate HCl production of parietal cells
Mucous cells: secrete mucous that lubricates stomach and protects stomach from HCl produced.
Which embryonic layer will develop molars, premolars, and canines?
What fibrous protein makes up bone and connective tissue, is the most abundant protein in vertebrates? Has triple helix along with hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine?
What cell does not carry out mitosis, does secrete collagen and builds bone?
Can osteoclasts and osteoblasts carry out mitosis?
Parathyroid hormone PTH does what? Calcitonin does what?
PTH: Stimulate Osteoclastic activity to give body more calcium
Calcitonin: decrease osteoclastic activity, decrease blood calcium level.
What muscle is single nucleated, has striations, has intercalated discs, is involuntary?
What muscle is multinucleated, voluntary, striated, does not normally go through mitosis, has thich myosin and thin actin?
What muscle is single nucleated, is involuntary, non-striated, has actin and myosin but not organized into sarcomeres?
Will epinephrine constrict blood vessels to decrease blood supply to digestive tract and kidneys?
Will it increase blood flow to brain and increase blood pressure?
What hormone will increase Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, K+ secretion?
Cortical granules in sea urchin and sperm-proof fertilization?
Cortical granules in the egg fuse with plasma membrane, hardening the vitelline layer to allow no further sperm from entering. This is the slow block to polyspermy.
The fast block is the acrosomal reaction in which electrical response occurs to change membrane potential to prevent polyspermy.
Xylem cell types?
Phloem cell types?
Xylem: tracheids and vessel members
Phloem: sieve tubes.
What plant tissue yearly deposits make the annual growth rings used to record age of plant?
What happens in nitrogen fixation?
N2 from atmosphere is converted to NH3. This occurs in nodules of legume family plants (peas, beans).
What class of compound does epinephrine and norepinephrine belong to?
Calcitonin does what with osteoclastic activity?
What does thyroxin do?
Increase basal metabolic rate.
Can viruses have both RNA and DNA?
No, they can contain either DNA or RNA but never both.
Have RNA as their genetic material. They use Reverse Transcriptase to make DNA from RNA so they can incorporate the DNA into the host cell.
Lysogenic phase of virus
Virus reproduces in sync with host cell. It becomes a prophage and lies dormant, unless harsh environment makes it become active.
The capsid of a virus maybe spherical or?
Classic examples of sex-linked disease?
Colorblindness and Hemophilia. (colorblindness is recessive)
A number of different species emerge from single ancestor.
Hardy-Weinberg law assumptions?
Large population, random mating, no isolation, no net migration, no mutation, no natural selection: there should be no change in the gene pool of the population.
A chromosomal segment is turned around 180 degrees.
Translocation in chromosomes?
Two nonhomologous chromosomes interchange genes. There is an attachment of a chromosome fragment to a non-homologous chromosome.
Triplet of nucleotides on the t-RNA
Genetic code degeneration?
More than one codon codes for one amino acid. Many amino acids are coded for by more than one codon.
Exceptions to the universality of the genetic code is seen where?
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from?
Aneuploidy, has extra #21 chromosome. Total 47 chromosomes.
Turner syndrome: how many chromosomes?
45 chromosomes. Only have XO monosomy, lacking an X chromosome. Female with no ovaries, little dev of secondary sex characteristic.
Klinefelter syndrome, how many chromosomes?
44 autosomes and XXY
What does semen contain?
sperm cells plus glandular secretions from prostate gland and seminal vesicles
What does the vas deferens do?
Transport sperm to the urethra then out the penis
What does the Coper's (bulbourethral) gland do?
Add thick mucous material to the semen
Spermatogenesis occurs where?
Seminiferous Tubules of the testes
Spermatozoa are matured where?
Coiled tube called the Epididymis.
What do Leydig cells do?
secrete Testosterone that allows germ cells to mature into sperm cells.