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A sedentary lifestyle is defined as energy expenditure less than ________ METS during waking hours



A sedentary lifestyle is NOT the same as lack of physical activity. Why?

Because risk factors for CVD are independent of physical activity and can be caused from being sedentary. (aka you can be physically active but still develop CVD)


What are some risks of a sedentary lifestyle?

- abnormal glucose metabolism
- weight gain = obesity
-metabolic syndrome
- decreased cardiovascular performance


What were the findings of the Peddie et al. study?

Taking regular activity breaks throughout the day decreased plasma glucose


ALL americans should participate in ______ minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity, ______ minutes of vigorous intensity aerobic activity, or a combination of both

150; 75


People with dose response relationship for additional health benefits should engage in _____ minutes a week of moderate intensity aerobic activity, _______ minutes of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of both.

300; 150


Aerobic activity is preferred to be spaced out how?

10 minute intervals throughout the week


Muscle strengthening of all major muscle groups should be done how many times a week?



Name some benefits of exercise:

- reduce risk of HTN, stroke, type 2 diabetes
- reduce risk of osteoporosis and hip FX
- improves cognition and mood and helps with depression
- decreases chance of obesity and cancer


Name some improvements of CV fitness and respiratory function due to exercise:

- increased VO2 max
- decreased minute ventilation
- decreased O2 cost
- decreased HR and BP
- increased capillary density
- increased lactic acid threshold


The factors that help reduce the risk of CVD as a result of exercise:

- reduced resting SBP and DBP
- increased HDL
- reduced body fat
- improved glucose tolerance
- reduced platelet adhesion and aggregation


What is the difference between primary and secondary prevention for morbidity/mortality?

Primary helps prevent initial occurrence, secondary helps prevent another cardiac event


What are the 4 themes of Healthy People 2020?

1.) Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease
2.) Achieve health equity for all genders, races, ages, etc.
3.) Create social and physical environments that promote good health
4.) Promote QOL for all ages


Does the term "overweight" imply an increase in body fat?

Usually, but not always!


What does obesity include that overfat does not?

Obesity is overtness accompanied by a constellation of comorbidities


Overweight children and adolescents, regardless of final body weight as adults, exhibit higher risk of illnesses as adults than counterparts of normal weight (TRUE/FALSE)



Why does a child under age 10, regardless of weight with one or both parents obese, have a more than double the normal risk of becoming an obese adult?

Because 80% of obesity risk is attributed to genetics (or rather, "genetically susceptible")


National guidelines are deciding to transition from 30 to 60 minutes of daily activity, to _____ to _____

80 to 90


What are the three criteria measurements for excessive body fat?

1.) Percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
2.) distribution of fat
3.) Size and number of fat cells


Does fat cell size or number determine obesity?

NUMBER because an obese person has 3 to 5 times more fat cells, eventually cell SIZE reaches biologic upper limit


Overweight/obese person should reduce initial body weight by no more than ___ to ____ %.

5 to 15%


Why does the Setpoint theory disprove dieting?

It states that our internal control mechanisms seek to maintain a level of bodyweight that cannot be unchanged by dieting alone. (drugs??)


Is weight gain is most often effected by physical inactivity or increased caloric intake?

Physical inactivity


Meaningful changes in body weight and body composition require at least ___ weeks



Limitations of height-weight scales?

- unvalidated estimates of body frame
- white populations
- may not reflect obesity related comorbidities
- no assessment of body composition


Limitations of BMI?

- assumes relationship between BMI and fat % is independent of age, gender, race, etc.
- fails to recognize body's fat distribution
- other factors impact body weight (muscle)
- athletes commonly classified as "overweight"


Which type of fat is used for energy reserve?

Storage fat


How do you assess body composition?

1.) hydrostatic weighing
2.) anthropometric measurements
3.) x-ray, CT scan, air displacement (Bod Pod), etc.


Limitations of hydrostatic weighing:

- density values represent young white males


What are two ways skin fold scores can be used?

1.) as an outcome measure before and after an intervention
2.) sum the scores to determine relative fatness amount individuals


Although bioimpedance is safe, noninvasive, and easy, what can skew results?

Hydration status: hyperhydration = appears to have more fat


Why are CT scans so useful for determining fat %?

They give an inside look at the fat distribution, as well as deep visceral adipose tissue which is predictive of type 2 diabetes.


Why may an MRI be better than a CT scan for predicting body fat %?

No radiation, and very valid with hydrostatic weighing