Why are noble gases so unreactive?
An outer shell of eight electrons is extremely stable. It is this stability that make noble gases so unreactive. The eight electrons in the outer shell of a noble gas are made up of two in the s-orbital and two each in the three p-orbitals.
What are the three types of chemical bonding?
1)covalent 2)Ionic 3)metallic
Briefly describe ionic bonding
1) Ionic bonding occurs in compounds consisting of a metal and a non metal. 2) If we imagine a bond forming between atoms, electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom to form oppositely charged ions that attract.
Briefly describe covalent bonding
1) Covalent bonding occurs in compounds consisting of two non-metals.
Briefly describe metallic bonding.
1) Metallic bonding occurs in metals, electrons are shared between all the atoms.
Draw the dat and cross diagram for sodium making an ionic compound with oxygen.
Why do ionic bonded structures have giant structures?
These ions attract each other from all directions, forming a giant ionic lattice.
Define giant ionic lattice
A giant ionic lattice is a three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds.
Draw the dot and cross diagram for the ionic bonding of calcium oxide,CaO.
Draw the dot and cross diagram for the ionic bonding in aluminium fluoride,AlF3.
Atoms of metals in groups 1-3 do what to become ions?
1) Lose electrons
2) Form positive ions with the electron configuration of the previous noble gas in the Periodic table.
Atoms of non-metals in groups 5-7 do what to become ions?
They gain electrons.
- Form negative ions with the electron configuration of the next noble gas.
Why do atoms of Be,B,C and Si not form ions?
1) Too much energy is needed to transfer the outer-shell electrons to form ions.
GIve an example of an element that can form more than one ion.
Iron(II) for Fe2+ and Iron(III) for Fe3+.
- The oxidation number of the element is written as a Roman numeral.