Deck 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Deck 4 Deck (42):
1

Humans can tolerate a decline in deep body temp of ____ C but an increase of only ____C.

10; 5

2

How does the body sense temp change?

- Thermal receptors in the skin
- blood temp changes that perfuse hypothalamus

3

Body emits electromagnetic heat waves. No molecular contact between objects.

radiation

4

Direct heat transfer from one molecule to another through a liquid, solid, or gas. Heat loss involves warming air molecules & cooler surfaces that contact skin.

conduction

5

Air or water moving across skin

convection

6

What is the major defense against overheating?

evaporation

7

3 Major factors influence amount of sweat vaporized from skin:

- surface exposed to environment
- temperature and humidity
- convective air currents around body

8

What reduces evaporation the most?

high humidity at lower temperatures

9

Why may muscles not receive adequate amounts of blood during exercise in very hot conditions?

The warm blood moves to the periphery to cool off skin

10

Loss of body mass due to fluid loss

dehydration

11

A 3-5% loss of body mass degrades muscular strength and anaerobic performance (TRUE/FALSE)

FALSE

12

Crucial water deficit is considered:

>2% loss of body mass

13

Fluid loss coincides with 5 factors:

- decreased plasma volume
- reduced skin blood flow
- reduced SV
- increased HR
- general deterioration in circulatory & thermoregulatory efficiency in exercise

14

Factors that Modify Heat Tolerance:

- acclimatization
- training status
- age
- gender
- % body fat

15

Increased cutaneous blood flow; sweat output; exercise tolerance time are all examples of:

acclimatization

16

What happens when you get older that alters heat tolerance?

- altered thirst metabolism
- lower blood volume
- lower skin blood flow

17

How does % body fat modify heat tolerance?

More fat acts as insulation, so more difficult to conduct heat to periphery

18

Can heat syncope occur with little to no change in core body temperature?

Yes

19

When having heat cramps you should drink water that contains salt (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

20

What is the most common form of serious heat illness?

Heat exhaustion

21

Failure of heat-regulating mechanisms from an excessively high core temperature is:

Heat stroke

22

What should the temperature in an exercise environment be?

65-72 degrees

23

If outside temperature is increased, this increases core body temperature; what does this do to cardiac demands?

Increases them because the heart must pump more blood periphery to cool

24

Do endocrine or exocrine glands contain ducts and carry substances to a specific surface?

exocrine glands

25

Hormones secreted from what type of gland enter the blood and travel to different tissues?

endocrine glands

26

Extent of target cell’s activation by hormone depends on:

- hormone concentration
- number of target cell receptors
- sensitivity/strength between hormone and receptor

27

What three factors stimulate endocrine gland activity?

Hormonal, humoral, and neural

28

Why would trained individuals show a decreased rise in blood GH levels compared to untrained?

Because their body is able to use smaller amounts of GH more efficiently

29

Who has lower testosterone, runners or sedentary individuals?

Runners

30

Does training increase or decrease ATCH release during exercise?

increase

31

Do plasma cortisol levels increase more or less in trained subjects?

less

32

What three factors contribute to greater catecholamine output during exercise?

- greater demand for substrate use via glycogenolysis and lipolysis
- increased cardiovascular response
- larger muscle mass activation

33

Endurance training maintains blood levels of insulin and glucagon closer to resting levels during physical activity. (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE (no spikes)

34

A single bout of moderate or intense physical activity decreases plasma glucose levels for up to three days (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

35

What does improved insulin sensitivity via exercise mean?

As you exercise, your body is able to utilize insulin more efficiently and less insulin needs to be released to get the same effect

36

Resistance + endurance training improves markers of insulin resistance and body composition more than endurance training alone. (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

37

Improvements in glucose homeostasis with regular physical activity rapidly decreases when training ceases and completely dissipates within several weeks. (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

38

Endurance athletes who consume carbohydrate during a race experience a lower disruption in hormonal and immune measures than athletes who do not consume carbohydrate (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

39

The female athlete triad is defined as:

1.) low energy availability (w/ or w.o eating disorder)
2.) menstrual dysfunction
3.) low BMD occurring in physically active girls and women

40

All three components of FEAT are linked, but it is likely that the combination of menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating gives rise to poor bone mineralization (TRUE/FALSE)

TRUE

41

How does lack of estrogen impact BMD?

Estrogen decreases absorption and deposition of calcium into the bone matrix

42

Female athlete triad appears to have an endothelial function related to low estrogen which does what?

Puts women at risk for cardiovascular disease