Deck 40: Internal Medicine Flashcards Preview

Uworld Step 2 > Deck 40: Internal Medicine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 40: Internal Medicine Deck (28)
Loading flashcards...
1

Most common complication of ankylosing spondylitis

anterior uveitis

2

Episcleritis

inflammation at the white of the eye

3

earliest renal abnormality seen in diabetic nephropathy

earliest sign: glomerular hyperfilteration
2nd: thickening of glomerular basement membrane
3rd: mesangial expansion
4th: nodular sclerosis

4

what causes graft vs host ? what happens?

- recognition of host major and minor HLA antigen by DONOR T-cells
- affects skin (rash), intestine (diarrhea), liver (abnormal levels)

5

what happens when host T lymphocytes gets activated in graft. vs. host

mediates rejection of the graft

6

medications to shown to improve long-term survival in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

1. beta blocker
2. ACE inhibitors
3. angiotensin II receptor
4. mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist
5. African Americans: hydralazine and nitrates

7

Ranolazine is what type of drug

antianginal agent

8

Side effect of Isoniazid

liver injury histological features similar to viral hepatitis

9

what antibodies suggest autoimmune hepatitis

antinuclear antibody
smooth muscle antibody

10

Effect modification

external variable positively or negatively impacts the effect of a risk factor on the disease of interest

11

Confounding vs. effect modification

confounding: no difference in the risk of getting the disease when the extra variable is removed.

12

what diuretic is good to lower changes of urinary calcium excretion

thiazide diuretics

13

Icthyosis vulgaris

chronic inherited skin disorder
- diffuse dermal scaling

14

treatment for icthyosis vulgaris

emollients
kerotyltics
topical retinoids

15

most common cause of death in dialysis patients

cardiovascular disease

16

Patient presents with sudden onset of severe shortness of breath, what should be ruled out immediately

upper airway obstruction

17

Hereditary spherocytosis triad

hemolytic anemia
jaundice
splenomegaly

18

Lab findings for hereditary spherocytosis

high mean cell hemoglobin concentration
high red blood cell distribution width

19

pathophysiologic Raynaud phenomenon

episodic vasoaspams

20

Intermittent claudication

muscle cramps

21

potential side effects of loop diuretics

hypokalemia
metabolic alkalosis
pre renal kidney injury

22

bowl ischemia causes what acid base distrubance

anion gap acidosis

23

acid base distrubance with mild acute kidney injury

metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia

24

acute pancreatitis complicated by hypotension is thought to arise from

intravascular volume loss secondary to local and systemic vascular endothelial injury

25

treatment for myasthenia gravis

Pyridostigmine, long-acting oral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

26

specific serologic marker for systemic sclerosis

anti-topoisomerase I ( anti-Scl-70)

27

anti-cardiolipin

antiphospholipid

28

antimitochondrial abs

primary biliary cholangitis