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Flashcards in deck_2005294 Deck (36):
1

Organic Compounds

The molecules of life are organic compounds, contains carbon and at least one hydrogen atom. Most of these molecules also have one or more functional groups: certain atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon

2

Living things consist mainly of.....

oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Most of their oxygen and hydrogen are in the form of water. Carbon makes up more than half of what is left.

3

hydroxyl

In alcohols (ex, sugars, amino acids); water soluble

4

methyl

In fatty acid chains; insoluble in water

5

carbonyl

In sugars, amino acids, nucleotides; water soluble. An aldehyde if at end of a carbon backbone; a ketone if attched to an interior carbon of backbone

6

carboxyl

In amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates; water soluble. Highly polar; acts as an acid (releases H+)

7

amino

In amino acids and certain nucleotide bases; water soluble, acts as a weak base (accepts H+)

8

phosphate

In nucleotides (ex, ATP), also in DNA, RNA, many proteins, phospholipids; water soluble, acidic

9

metabolism

refers to activities by which cells acquire and use energy as they construct, rearrange, and split organic compounds

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condensation

two molecules covalently bond into a larger one

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cleavage

a molecule splits into two smaller ones, as by hydrolysis, the reverse of condensation

12

functional group transfer

one molecule gives up a functional group entirely, and a different molecule immediately accepts it

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electron transfer

one or more electrons taken from one molecule are donated to another molecule

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rearrangement

juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound to another

15

monomers

to build larger molecules that are the structural and functional parts of cells

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polymers

chains of three to millions of monomers

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carbohydrates

are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. There's three main types, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polyssaccharides

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monosaccharides

(one sugar unit) are the simplest carbohydrates. Have at least two hydroxyl groups and one ketone or aldehyde group bonded to a carbon backbone (ex, glucose)

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Oligosaccharide

a short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers (ex, sucrose)

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polysaccharides

straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers-often hundreds or thousands. Most common polysaccharides are cellulose, glycogen and starch

21

starch

plant cells store their photosynthetically produced glucose as starch

22

glycogen

In animal cell, glycogen is the sugar storage equivalent of start in plants.

23

lipids

fatty, oily, waxy organic compounds that are insoluble in water

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fatty acids

simple organic compounds with a carboxyl group that is joined to a backbone of four to thirty-six carbon atoms

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Fats

are lipids with 1, 2, or 3 fatty acids that dangle like tails from a small alcohol called glycerol

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saturated fats

the fatty acid backbones have only single covalent bonds

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unsaturated fats

have one or more double covalent bonds

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trans fatty acids

a double bond keeps them straight

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phospholipids

have a polar head with a phosphate in it, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails

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sterols

are lipids with a rigid backbone of four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails

31

protein

an organic ccompound composed of one or more chains of animo acids

32

amino acid

a small organic compound with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and one or more atoms called an R group.

33

nucleotide ATP

ATP(adenosine triphosphate) has a row of three phosphate groups attached to its sugar

34

nucleic acids

single or double stranded chains of nucleotides

35

DNA

or deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded nucleic acid is a polymer of four kinds of nucleotide monomers: adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine

36

RNA

or ribonucleic acid, four kinds of nucleotide monomers, most RNAs are single stranded, contains uracil instead of thymine