Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Flashcards Preview

Jamie Cardiovascular Pathology > Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Deck (21):
1

What are the 2 main examples of venous thromboembolism?

Limb deep vein thrombosis
Pulmonary embolism

2

What are the 2 main constituents of a venous
thrombus?

Fibrin
Red blood cells

3

What is the main 2 causes of a venous thrombus?

Stasis
Hypercoagulability

4

What does a venous rhombus result in?

Back pressure

5

What are the 2 main constituents of an arterial
thrombus?

Platelets
Fibrin

6

What is the main causes of an arterial thrombus?

Atherosclerosis

7

What does 2 conditions can an arterial thrombus result in?

Ischaemia
Infarction

8

What are 4 symptoms/signs of DVT?

Unilateral limb swelling
Limb discomfort
Warmth of limb
Redness of limb (erythema)

9

What are 5 symptoms/signs of pulmonary embolism?

Pleuritic chest pain
Dyspnoea
Haemoptysis
Tachycardia
Pulmonary rub on auscultation

10

What are 4 additional symptoms/signs that could be found if the patient had a massive pulmonary embolism?

Collapse
Cyanosis
Low BP
Raised JVP

11

What is a long term-consequence of DVT?

Post-phlebitic syndrome

12

What is a long term-consequence of pulmonary embolism?

Pulmonary hypertension

13

What are 4 risks for venous thrombosis?

Tissue trauma
Obesity
Smoking
Pregnancy

14

What 2 investigations should be performed to diagnose DVT?

D-dimer blood test
Compression ultrasound

15

What 3 investigations should be performed to diagnose pulmonary embolism?

D-dimer blood test
Isotope ventilation/perfusion scan
CT pulmonary angiigram

16

What 3 measures are used to prevent venous thromboembolism in hospitals?

Early mobilisation
Anti-embolism stockings (compression stockings)
Daily injections of low molecular weight heparin

17

What are 3 treatments for venous thromboembolism?

Low molecular weight heparin (for at least 5 days)
Warfarin (for at least 3 months)
Thrombolysis (for massive pulmonary embolisms)

18

What type of drug is warfarin?

An anti-coagulant

19

What is the most common side effect of warfarin?

Intraocular haemorrhage (i.e. bleeding)

20

Give an example of 2 types of drug that increases warfarin activity?

Asprin
Heparin

21

Give an example of 2 types of drug that decrease warfarin activity?

Barbituates
Vitamin K