Definitions Flashcards Preview

T - Music History 3 > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (69):
1

Define neo-Classicism. Who is this term associated with?

- A 20th century style that combined elements of Classical and Baroque music with modernist trends- Bela Bartok

2

Define minimalism. Who is this term associated with?

- Musical style developed in the 1960s- Repetition of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation- Often trance-like with a hypnotic effect- Generally tonal- Pioneered by composers La Monte Young, Phillip Glass, Steve Reich, Terry Riley, and John Adams- Arvo Part

3

Define serialism. Who is this term associated with?

- Method of composition in which various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tone color) may be ordered in a fixed series- Total serialism: extremely complex, totally controlled music in which the twelve-tone principle is extended to elements of music other than pitch- Anton Webern

4

Define polytonality. Who is this term associated with?

- The simultaneous use of two or more keys- Bela Bartok

5

Define celesta. Who is this term associated with?

- A percussion instrument resembling a small upright piano- Metal bars are struck by hammers that have been activated by a keyboard- Produces a delicate, silvery sound- Alban Berg

6

Define ensemble. Who is this term associated with?

- A musical number in an opera featuring any number of soloists, but generally a smaller group than a "chorus"- Often serves as a musical and dramatic climax- Each person expresses his/her own emotions directly to the audience- Giuseppe Verdi

7

Define quotation in music. Who is this term associated with?

- Music that parodies another composition or style- Draws a melody from a pre-existing work and presents it in a new guise- Bela Bartok

8

Define whole-tone scale. Who is this term associated with?

- A non-traditional scale employed by composers of the late 19th and 20th centuries - Consists of 6 different pitches, all spaces a whole tone (whole step) apart, for example C-D-E-Fsharp-Gsharp-Asharp-C- Maurice Ravel

9

Define recitative. Who is this term associated with?

- A speech-like style of singing heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata- Used for "dialogue" between characters and to advance the plot- Often used to precede an aria- Giuseppe Verdi

10

Define etude. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "study"- Solo instrumental work intended to develop technical facility- Focuses on one or more specific technical challenges- Franz Liszt

11

Define durchkomponiert (through composed). Who is this term associated with?

- A song structure that avoids repetition of entire sections of the music- As a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text- Robert Schumann

12

Define Lied. Who is this term associated with?

- The musical setting of a German poem- For solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment- Flourished in the 19th century- Robert Schumann

13

Define double stopping. Who is this term associated with?

- A string-instrument technique- Two parts are produced by playing on two strings simultaneously- Felix Mendelssohn

14

Define changing meter. Who is this term associated with?

- A common trait in 20th century music- The time signature changes frequently and unpredictably- A rejection of standard metrical patterns in favour of non-symmetrical groupings- Bela Bartok

15

Define sonata form. Who is this term associated with?

- Formal structure often used in first movement of sonata cycle- Consists of Exposition (statement of two or more contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return)- AKA sonata-allegro form- Felix Mendelssohn

16

Define Heldentenor. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "heroic tenor" - A male voice with a high range, possessing incredible strength and stamina- Richard Wagner

17

Define chromatic harmony. Who is this term associated with?

- From Greek chroma for "color"- Liberal use of chords based on notes outside of the key- Frequently involves modulations to distant keys- Used as an expressive device - Richard Wagner

18

Define Leitmotif. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "leading motive"- A melodic fragment imbued with meaning, representing a character, place, object, or emotion- Undergoes thematic transformation as the opera unfolds - Richard Wagner

19

Define modality. Who is this term associated with?

- The use of non-traditional scales, in particular, those scales that date back to antiquity, for example, Lydian mode- Bela Bartok

20

Define program music. Who is this term associated with?

- Significant trend in 19th century music- Instrumental music with extra-muscial associations, (literary, poetic, visual)- Descriptive title identifies the connection- Some works include a written text or "program" provided by the composer- Bedrich Smetana

21

Define bel canto. Who is this term associated with?

- Italian for "beautiful singing"- A style used in early 19th century Italian opera- Emphasized purity of tone and lyrical melodies of a highly ornamented nature- Rossini, Bellini, Donizetii, and early Verdi

22

Define pointillism. Who is this term associated with?

- A term derived from the post-Impressionist style of painting that used dots of pure color on the canvas- In music, this dappled effect was achieved through the use of Klangfarbenmelodie and the delicate weaving of the contrapuntal lines-Arnold Schoenberg

23

Define Sprechstimme. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "speech-voice"- A vocal technique developed Schoenberg and used for the first time in his song cycle Pierrot lunaire- The singer/reciter performs what sounds like "pitched speaking"- The singer initiates a note then drops the pitch slightly- Indicated with an 'x' marked on the stem of the note-Arnold Schoenberg

24

Define theme and variations. Who is this term associated with?

- Compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multi movement cycle- Anton Webern

25

Define cadenza. Who is this term associated with?

- A solo passage heard in a concerto, aria, or any large orchestral work- Often of a virtuosic nature- Suggests an improvised style- 19th century cadenzas were usually written out by the composer- Felix Mendelssohn

26

Define libretto. Who is this term associated with?

- The text of an opera, oratorio, or cantata- Usually written by someone other than the composer- Giuseppe Verdi

27

Define retrograde (in twelve-tone music). Who is this term associated with?

- Writing the tone row backwards- Arnold Schoenberg- Anton Webern

28

Define cluster chord. Who is this term associated with?

- A dissonant chord consisting of major and minor seconds - Often employed in atonal music- Alban Berg

29

Define strophic form. Who is this term associated with?

- A song structure where the same music is performed for each verse of the poem- As a result, little connection can be achieved between the words and music- Robert Schumann

30

Define expressionism in music. Who is this term associated with?

- The German answer to French Impressionism- Impulse for Expressionist movement came from painting- First triumphed in central Europe, especially in Germany- Reached full tide in dramatic works of the Second Viennese School (Arnold Schoenberg and his disciples Alban Berg and Anton Webern)- Favored a hyperexpressive harmonic language marked by extreme wide leaps in the melody, and by the use of instruments in their extreme registers- Arnold Schoenberg

31

Define hemiola. Who is this term associated with?

- A temporary shift of the metric accents- Notes grouped in threes are momentarily grouped in twos or vice-versa - Robert Schumann- Johannes Brahms

32

Define ostinato. Who is this term associated with?

- A short rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated throughout a section or a work- Bela Bartok

33

Define music drama. Who is this term associated with?

- Term used to describe the synthesis of music and drama- Served to distinguish his operatic style from the "traditional" operas of his day- Richard Wagner

34

Define atonality. Who is this term associated with?

- Total abandonment of tonality (entering in a key)- Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation- Arnold Schoenberg

35

Define coloratura soprano. Who is this term associated with?

- A female voice with an especially high range- Trained to execute breathtakingly difficult passages with great ability - Giuseppe Verdi

36

Define en pointe. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "on point"- A challenging dance technique practised by ballerinas (female dancers) and used in traditional ballet- Requires the dancer to dance and balance on their toes with the help of specially constructed dance slippers- Sergei Prokofiev

37

Define rondo form. Who is this term associated with?

- Classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle- Section A recurs, with alternating sections creating contrast- Section A heard 3 times or more in the tonic key- Most frequently ABACA or ABACABA- Johannes Brahms

38

Define mode of limited transposition. Who is this term associated with?

- A scale that is limited to fewer than the usual twelve transpositions; some can only be transposed once- First mode of limited transposition is the whole tone scale- Second mode is the octatonic scale whose pattern alternates semi-tones and tones- Absence of a central pitch or pull to a tonic- Olivier Messiaen

39

Define diminution. Who is this term associated with?

- A rhythmic device in which the note values of a melody are shortened- As a result, the music sounds faster- Arnold Schoenberg

40

Define symphonic poem (tone poem). Who is this term associated with?

- One of the most popular forms of orchestral program music- Single movement work, generally in free form, with literary or pictorial associations- Invented by Franz Liszt, associated with Bedrich Smetana for this course

41

Define sourdine. Who is this term associated with?

- French for "mute"- An instruction given to string and brass instruments to use their mutes- Creates softer dynamics, veiled, subdued instrumental effects- Olivier Messiaen

42

Define Tristan chord. Who is this term associated with?

- A half-diminished 7th chord heard in the opening measures of Tristan und Isolde, formed by the notes F-B-Dsharp-Gsharp- Serves as a leitmotif throughout the opera for lover's passion- Demonstrates the heightened chromaticism - Richard Wagner

43

Define homorhythmic texture. Who is this term associated with?

- All voices sing the same rhythm- Results in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic)- Delivers the text with clarity and emphasis- Johannes Brahms

44

Define tintinnabulation. Who is this term associated with?

- From Latin word for "bell"- A minimalist compositional style developed by Arvo Part during the 1970s- Music generally characterized by 2 voices: one voice (called the tinntinnabular voice) arpeggiates the tonic triad while the other voice moves diatonically, with conjunct motion- Works tend to have slow tempi, introspective mood, showing the composer's fascination with chant- Arvo Part

45

Define retrograde-inversion (in twelve-tone music). Who is this term associated with?

- Writing the tone row upside down and backwards- Arnold Schoenberg- Anton Webern

46

Define twelve-tone music. Who is this term associated with?

- A method of composition developed by Schoenberg- An approach used to organize atonal music- Based on a fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches forming a tone row- Also referred to as dodecaphonic music (derived from the Greek for "twelve") - Arnold Schoenberg- Anton Webern

47

Define song cycle. Who is this term associated with?

- A collection of art songs united by central theme or narrative thread- Intended to be performed together- Poetic text drawn from same author- Robert Schumann

48

Define concert overture. Who is this term associated with?

- A single movement orchestral work with literary or pictorial associations- Usually in sonata form- Independent concert work; not connected to an opera or ballet- Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky

49

Define pedal point. Who is this term associated with?

- A sustained note over which harmonies change- Felix Mendelssohn

50

Define orchestral suite. Who is this term associated with?

- A group of orchestral movements drawn from a larger dramatic work such as a ballet - Programmatic in nature- Played in a concert setting, outside of its original dramatic context- Sergei Prokofiev

51

Define canon. Who is this term associated with?

- From the Latin for "law"- Strict imitation of a musical line at a fixed interval throughout- Can be complete polyphonic composition or a technique used within a work- Arnold Schoenberg

52

Define glissando. Who is this term associated with?

- Derived from French "glisser", to slide- On the harp, a quick strumming of all the strings with a broad sweeping hand movement creating beautiful shimmering effects- On the piano, a rapid ascending or descending "strumming" of the keys (white or black)- Maurice Ravel

53

Define modified strophic form. Who is this term associated with?

- A song structure that allows for some repetition of music- Some changes to the melody, harmony, and accompaniment take place to reflect the text, such as a shift to tonic Major or tonic minor key- Robert Schumann

54

Define impressionism in music. Who is this term associated with?

- Surfaced in France after the possibilities of the Major-minor system had been exhausted - Emphasis on primary intervals-octaves, fourths, fifths- and the parallel movement of chords - More subtle harmonic relationships- Use of dissonance, entire spectrum of chromatic scale- Tone combinations that had formerly been regarded as inadmissible- Fluid sequence of pitches that lacks the pull towards a tonic- Claude Debussy- Maurice RavelREAD PG. 466-467 IN EoM

55

Define pentatonic scale. Who is this term associated with?

- A scale consisting of 5 different pitches, for example C-D-E-G-A-C- Can be rendered easily by playing the 5 black keys on the piano- Common to the folk music of many European and Asian cultures - Maurice Ravel

56

Define choreography. Who is this term associated with?

- The art of designing the dance steps and movements in a ballet (or musical)- Sergei Prokofiev

57

Define nationalism in music. Who is this term associated with?

- Important element of 19th century musical style - Patriotism expressed through music- Influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, historical events- Bedrich Smetana

58

Define Klangfarbenmelodie. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "tone-color melody"- Concept developed Schoenberg in the early 20th century- Individual notes of a melody are distributed around several instruments and often over a wide range- Creates an angular melody and sparse sound- Often compared to pointillism in painting-Arnold Schoenberg

59

Define cyclical structure. Who is this term associated with?

- Material heard in 1 movement recurs in later movements- Creates structural unity in a multi-movement work- A characteristic employed increasingly by Romantic composers in various genres, but notably in their symphonies- Gustav Mahler

60

Define rondeau. Who is this term associated with?

- A poetic form developed in the 14th century- Generally, the poem consisted of 4 verses: the first verse was repeated partially in the second verse, and completely in the fourth verse- The musical rondeau often took its shape from the poem's structure-Arnold Schoenberg

61

Define aria. Who is this term associated with?

- Italian for "air" (an old English word for song)- A solo song with orchestral accompaniment heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata- Highly emotional, often virtuosic- May have lyrical or dramatic character- Giuseppe Verdi

62

Define inversion (in twelve-tone music). Who is this term associated with?

- Writing the tone row upside down- Arnold Schoenberg- Anton Webern

63

Define thematic transformation. Who is this term associated with?

- A basic theme is repeated throughout a work in different guises- The theme may be changed rhythmically, melodically or harmonically- Unlike a variation, the transformed theme takes on a new identity in a new context- Franz Liszt

64

Define symphony. Who is this term associated with?

- A multi movement orchestral work- Developed in the 18th century, especially by Haydn Mozart, and Beethoven- Typically in 4 movements- Generally includes at least 1 movement in sonata form- Gustav Mahler

65

Define tone row. Who is this term associated with?

- Fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches - Basis of a twelve-tone composition- Undergoes manipulations including: transposition, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde-inversion- Arnold Schoenberg- Anton Webern

66

Define ballet. Who is this term associated with?

- Highly stylized type of dance that often interprets a story- First developed in the 17th century at the court of Louis XIV- 19th century ballet reached its peak at the Russian court- Russian dancers dominated the ballet scene throughout most of the 20th century- Sergei Prokofiev

67

Define micropolyphony. Who is this term associated with?

- The weaving of many separate melodic strands into a complex polyphonic fabric- The sheer density of the music renders the individual lines imperceptible - Developed by Gyorgy Ligeti

68

Define concerto. Who is this term associated with?

- A multi movement work for soloist(s) and orchestra- Showcases virtuosity of soloist(s)- Felix Mendelssohn

69

Define Gesamtkunstwerk. Who is this term associated with?

- German for "total art work" - Achieved through the perfect union of text, music, and stagecraft (costumes, scenery, lighting)- Richard Wagner