Flashcards in Definitions Deck (33):
Organelles are specialised parts of a cell that have specific functions.
The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm of the cell and controls what enters and exits the cell.
The cytoplasm is a jelly like, nutrient rich substance where organelles are located. This is also where many of the reactions of the cell occur, like glycolysis.
Often called the 'control centre,' the nucleus contains the DNA which controls and regulates the function of the cell. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus, which produces the RNA used in protein synthesis.
The mitochondrion is responsible for producing ATP from glucose and oxygen during aerobic respiration.
The ER is a series of tubes bound to the nuclear membrane, and can be categorised into two seperate types:
Rough ER - Studded with ribosomes and involved in protein production
Smooth ER - Lacking ribosomes and involved in the synthesis of lipids
Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and can either be attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or float freely in the cytoplasm of the cell.
The Golgi Body is the 'packaging centre' of the cell. Molecules synthesised by the ER are transferred to the Golgi Body, where they are folded and joined to other molecules before being packaged into a vesicle and sent out of the cell.
The lysosome contained digestive enzymes which can break down unwanted molecules within the cell, such as worn out organelles or foreign bacteria engulfed by the white blood cells.
The complex series of folds within the mitochondria.
The sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration.
RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, an acid present in all living cells. It's principal role is to act as a messenger, carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins.
ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate and is the energy currency of life. ATP is a high energy molecule found in every cell. it's job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy.
A vacuole is a membrane bound sac filled with fluid. Both animal and plant cells contain a vacuole, however this is considerably larger in a plant cell and takes up most of the cell.
The chloroplast is an organelle containing chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis occurs.
The compound that makes plants green.
The cell wall is the main defining feature between an animal and plant cell. This provides structure to the plant and is outside the cell membrane.
Palisade cells are a specialised type of plant cell. They are vertically elongated and packed closely together.
The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
The spontaneous net movement of water molecules across a semi permeable membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration.
Semi Permeable Membrane
A semi permeable membrane is a type of biological membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it via a transport mechanism (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion or active transport).
The relative concentration of solutes dissolved in solution which determine the direction and extent of diffusion.
Having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid.
Having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid.
Having the same osmotic pressure as another fluid.
The pressure that would have been applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis and is often used to express the concentration of a solution.
Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient.
Cytosis is a transport mechanism for the movement of large quantities of molecules in and out of cells.
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which cells absorb large molecules by engulfing them.
Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis, by which relatively large particles, such as cell debris and micro organisms, are internalised by the cell.
Pinocytosis is a type of endocytosis, it is a process which takes in small molecules, including water, from extracellular fluid.