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Flashcards in Definitions Deck (48)
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1

Lyric

Category of peom that dwells more on the characters' feelings than the plot
Made to utter, personal experience
e.g. "Infant sorrow", William Blake

2

Narrative

Story-telling
Often narrative poetry is developed into myths
e.g. epic poetry (Beowulf), romance (King Arthur, Faerie Queene)

3

Speaker

The character narrating the poem, the one uttering the poem on the page
Created by the poet but not the poet (even when the poem is completely autobiographical)

4

Persona

Distinct from the speaker although a persona is the speaker of a poem
A persona speaks as someone else, as a character distinct from the poet
Sometimes has to be inferred from what is known about the poet
e.g. Sir Walter Ralegh using the persona of a young lady in "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"

5

Outer form

Various aspects having to do with meter, rhyme, stanza-form and rhythm
e.g. sonnet, sestina, villanelle

6

Inner structure

Dynamic shape based on the emotional curve of the poem
Patterns within a poem
e.g. sentences, persons (subject, at the centre of the sentences), agency (who is doing something), imagery

7

Prosody

Overarching term for formal structures and aural quality i.e. rhythm, rhymes and sound play in poems

8

Free verse

Poem in which the lines have an irregular number of beats so no regular rhythm
Lines are of different widths
The poem does not rhyme in any regular way
e.g. "Mock Orange", Louise Glück

9

Rising rhythm

Rhythm leading to a stress
Foot consisting of one or more unstressed syllables leading up to a stressed syllable
e.g. iamb, anapest

10

Falling rhythm

Rhythm evolving from a stress
Foot beginning with a stressed syllable, then followed by one or more unstressed syllables
e.g. trochee, dactyl

11

Poetic feet

Beats or stresses in a line
E.g. trochee, iamb, spondee, anapest

12

Iambic pentameter

A specific line rhythm and width
Pentameter indicates 5 beats or feet per line
Iambic signifies that there is a two syllable ryhthm in which the first syllable is stressed and the second is unstressed

13

Rhyme

Repetition of similar sounds
Often at the end of lines (although there could be internal rhymes)
e.g. ...wept / ...leapt

14

Rhyme patterns

The scheme in which the rhymed lines of a poem occur
Usually indicated by lowercase letters
e.g. aabb, abab

15

Couplet

a 2-line stanza or group of 2 lines within a single stanza, clearly defined (by a content tensions, a break, or the rhyming scheme)
e.g. the final 2 lines of a Shakespearean sonnet

16

Tercet

a 3-line stanza or group of 3 lines within a single stanza, clearly defined (by content tension, a break, or the rhyming scheme)
e.g. vilanelle

17

Quatrain

a 4-line stanza or group of 4 lines within a single stanza, clearly defined (by content tension, a break, or the rhyming scheme
e.g. the final stanza of a vilanelle, or the first 12 lines of a Shakespearean sonnet (3 quatrains)

18

Shakespearean sonnet

A 14-line pentameter poem
Consists of 3 quatrains, alternately rhymed abab cdcd efef, followed by a couplet gg

19

Sestina

A poem form
Pentameter poem
Consists in 6 stanzas of 6 lines each, plus a final tercet
The final word of each line is the same through each stanza
The last end-word in each stanza becomes the first end-word of the next stanza
e.g. "Sestina" by Elizabeth Bishop

20

Villanelle

Poem form
Pentameter poem
5 stanzas of tercet, all rhyming aba, plus a quatrain rhyming abaa
The first and third line of the first stanza are found alternately at the end of each stanza and they both close the final quatrain
e.g. "One Art", by Elizabeth Bishop

21

Parts of speech

Linguistic category of words e.g. noun, verb, adjective, adverb

22

Noun

A word that names a person, place, thing, idea and gives it an essence
e.g. Sandra, school, summer, freedom

23

Verb

A word that usually conveys either an action (e.g. to bear) or a state (e.g. to be)

24

Subject

The person, place, or thing in charge of the verb ("executing" or "being" the verb)

25

Predicate

The main verb of a sentence, the verb telling what the grammatical subject is or does, was or did, will be or will do

26

Adjective

A word that tells something about a noun
It modifies a noun by limiting or describing it
e.g. early (bird), false (alarm), red (purse)

27

Adverb

A word that characterizes (limits or describes) a verb
e.g. quietly, firmly

28

Speech act

Manner of expression (more than context)
Manner in which something is said, rather than what is said
The way a speaker may engage in a poem
e.g. apology, oath, narration

29

Rhetorical device

Technique used by the poet or speaker to convey a certain meaning
e.g. simile, synecdoche, analogy

30

Metaphor

A comparison without "like" or "as"
e.g. "My love is a rose"