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Flashcards in Demography Deck (37):
1

What is demography?

The study of populations and their characteristics

2

What is the birth rate?

The annual number of live births per one thousand members of the population per year

3

What is the fertility rate?

The annual number of live births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 per year

4

What is life expectancy?

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live given current social, economic and medics conditions

5

What is the death rate?

The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in society

6

What is migration?

The movement from one place to another

7

What is the net migration rate?

The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1000 people in a county

8

When did the birth rate decrease?

During ww1 and 2

9

When did the birth rate increase again? What is this called?

After the wars were over
A baby boom

10

Give the 4 main reasons for the decline in the birth rate?

Changes in the position of women
Decline in infant mortality rate
Children are an economic liability
Child centreredness

11

Give 3 changes in the position of women which has lead to a decline in the birth rate?

Increased career opportunities

Changing social attitudes

Access to abortion/contraception

12

Give 3 reasons for the decline in the infant mortality rate?

More midwives

Hygiene and sanitation

Vaccinations

13

What is the dependency ratio?

The relationship between the working population and the non working population

14

Give 3 effects of changing fertility rates (up or down)?

The family size, earnings

The dependency ratio

Public services

15

Give 3 reasons for the decline in the death rate?

Public health measures

Protection from disease

Medical improvements

16

Give a public health measure that has reduced the death rate?

Regulations in the workplace

17

Give 3 reasons for the increase in life expectancy?

Improved public health

Medical technology

Better living standards

18

What do post modernists says about the ageing population?

That orderly, fixed stages have broken down

19

What did Hunt say about age?

It no longer determines who we are or how we live

20

What is an ageing population?

Where the median age of the population is increasing and where there is an increase in the number of old people in the population

21

Give 3 reasons for the ageing population?

Better healthcare

Higher life expectancy

Falling death and birth rates

22

Give 2 effects of an ageing population?

Strain on public services

One person pensioner households

23

What is ageism?

Discrimination against age

24

Which sociologist said there was inequality in women’s pensions? Why?

Pilcher-

Women have smaller pensions because they take time away from work while taking care of kids

25

What 2 polices have been implicated to deal with the ageing population? Who said?

Hirsch-

People have to work into their 70s

Pay more taxes to contribute to health

26

What ratio of old people live in poverty?

1 in 5

27

What is globalisation?

The idea that barriers between societies are disappearing

28

Give 3 processes that caused globalisation?

Communication systems

Creation of global markets

Fall of communism

29

What does globalisation increase?

The diversity of types of migrants

30

Who distinguishes between the 3 types of migrants and what are they?

Cohen-

Citizens- full rights

Denizens- privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state (paid employees)

Helots- slaves who are exploited

31

What does the New Right argue immigration threatens?

National identity and consensus because migrants bring in different norms and values

32

What is feminisation of migration?

Female migrants are fitted into patriarchal roles of carers or sex workers

33

Give 2 reasons why care/domestic work is done by female migrants?

Western women have joined the labour force

Expansion of service occupations in the west

34

What is assimilation?

The aim to encourage immigrants to adopt the language, values and customs of the host culture

35

What is a problem with assimilation?

Many don’t want to abandon their culture

36

What is multi culturalism?

Accepting immigrants wish to maintain their culture

37

What is the infant mortality rate?

The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births