Flashcards in Demography Deck (37):
What is demography?
The study of populations and their characteristics
What is the birth rate?
The annual number of live births per one thousand members of the population per year
What is the fertility rate?
The annual number of live births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 per year
What is life expectancy?
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live given current social, economic and medics conditions
What is the death rate?
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in society
What is migration?
The movement from one place to another
What is the net migration rate?
The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1000 people in a county
When did the birth rate decrease?
During ww1 and 2
When did the birth rate increase again? What is this called?
After the wars were over
A baby boom
Give the 4 main reasons for the decline in the birth rate?
Changes in the position of women
Decline in infant mortality rate
Children are an economic liability
Give 3 changes in the position of women which has lead to a decline in the birth rate?
Increased career opportunities
Changing social attitudes
Access to abortion/contraception
Give 3 reasons for the decline in the infant mortality rate?
Hygiene and sanitation
What is the dependency ratio?
The relationship between the working population and the non working population
Give 3 effects of changing fertility rates (up or down)?
The family size, earnings
The dependency ratio
Give 3 reasons for the decline in the death rate?
Public health measures
Protection from disease
Give a public health measure that has reduced the death rate?
Regulations in the workplace
Give 3 reasons for the increase in life expectancy?
Improved public health
Better living standards
What do post modernists says about the ageing population?
That orderly, fixed stages have broken down
What did Hunt say about age?
It no longer determines who we are or how we live
What is an ageing population?
Where the median age of the population is increasing and where there is an increase in the number of old people in the population
Give 3 reasons for the ageing population?
Higher life expectancy
Falling death and birth rates
Give 2 effects of an ageing population?
Strain on public services
One person pensioner households
What is ageism?
Discrimination against age
Which sociologist said there was inequality in women’s pensions? Why?
Women have smaller pensions because they take time away from work while taking care of kids
What 2 polices have been implicated to deal with the ageing population? Who said?
People have to work into their 70s
Pay more taxes to contribute to health
What ratio of old people live in poverty?
1 in 5
What is globalisation?
The idea that barriers between societies are disappearing
Give 3 processes that caused globalisation?
Creation of global markets
Fall of communism
What does globalisation increase?
The diversity of types of migrants
Who distinguishes between the 3 types of migrants and what are they?
Citizens- full rights
Denizens- privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state (paid employees)
Helots- slaves who are exploited
What does the New Right argue immigration threatens?
National identity and consensus because migrants bring in different norms and values
What is feminisation of migration?
Female migrants are fitted into patriarchal roles of carers or sex workers
Give 2 reasons why care/domestic work is done by female migrants?
Western women have joined the labour force
Expansion of service occupations in the west
What is assimilation?
The aim to encourage immigrants to adopt the language, values and customs of the host culture
What is a problem with assimilation?
Many don’t want to abandon their culture
What is multi culturalism?
Accepting immigrants wish to maintain their culture