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Flashcards in demography Deck (39)
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1

births

how many babies are born

2

immigration

how many people enter into the country from elsewhere

3

net migration

the difference between the number of immigrants entering a country and the number of immigrants leaving it

4

size

the population large or small, growing or falling

5

emigration

how many people exit the country to live elsewhere

6

natural change

the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a population, resulting in either a natural increase or a natural decrease

7

age structure

the average age of the population rising or falling

8

number of births to women aged 35 and over in 2014

144,181

9

number of births to women under the age of 25 in 2014

138,59

10

demography

the study of the population including reasons that its size and growth

11

things that affect a country demography

increase population
- births
- immigration
decrease population
- deaths
- emigration

12

birth rate

the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year

13

infant mortality rate

the number of infants who die before their first birthday (per 1000 babies born alive per year)

14

total fertility rate

the average number of children women will have during their fertile years

15

why is there an increase in birth rate and total fertility rate

women are more financially stable to afford more children because its more socially acceptable for them to work
increase in immigration - norm to have more children in certain cultures

16

reasons for the decline in birth rate

changes in the position of women
decline in infant mortality rate
children are an economic liability
child centredness

17

changes in the position of women

- legal equality with men (right to vote)
- increased educational and employment opportunities
- changes in attitudes to the role of women
- easier access to divorce
- access to abortion and reliable contraception

18

Harper

educational opportunities is the biggest reason for the decline in birth rate
women who are educated are more likely to use contraception and get a job instead of having kids
she also notes that smaller family sizes are likely to pass on to the next generation

19

AO3 changes in the position of women

stats show that in 2012, one in 5 women (20%) were childless

20

why was there a decline in infant mortality rate

- improved housing and sanitation
- better nutrition
- increase in hygiene; health and welfare
- improved health services

parents don't rush to have more children they can plan in advance

21

AO3 decline in infant mortality rate

Brass and Kabir argue that the IMR remained higher for longer in urban areas compared to rural

22

why are children an economic liability since the late 19th century

- laws banning child labour and introducing compulsory schooling (making kids more economically dependant on their parents for longer)
- changing norms mean that children expect more from their parents (meaning the cost of raising children has risen)

23

death rate

number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year

24

life expectancy

how long on average people who are born in a given year can expect to live

25

Tranter (1996) reasons for declining death rate

reduced levels of infectious disease
since the 1950s these diseases have mainly been replaced by things like heart disease and cancer

26

Mckeown improved nutrition

improved nutrition reduces deaths from TB as it boosts resistance to infection

27

medical improvements

medical knowledge improved intro to NHS in 1948
led to antibiotics and improved maternity services

28

Harper smoking and diet

reduction in number of people smoking led to a fall in death rate
although obesity has increased it hasn't reduced death rates because o improved surgery

29

public health measures

gov and local council put in a series of health laws that has improved the environment and peoples health
improved housing, air pollution, drinking water, and the standard of food and drink

30

class Walker

the living in poorest areas die on average 7 years earlier than those in the richest areas