Flashcards in DEMOGRAPHY Deck (18)
Reasons for the decline in birth rates:
1. Change in women’s positions - pay, equal to men, change in attitude to family, change in women’s role, easier to divorce.
2. Decline in infant mortality rate -
Less infants are dying = less giving birth as they are surviving (if they die then there would be an increase in birth rates to get another child)
3. Children are now an economic liability -
Income, work, laws, changing norms
4. Child centredness -
‘Quality’ not ‘quality’
Effects of changes in feritlity
- smaller families
- lower birth rate = less schools, paternity leave, types of houses that are built
Change in women’s position:
- change in attitudes
- access to abortion & the pill
- increased educational opportunities for women
- paid opportunities
- equal opportunities
What is the aging population?
The average age of the population is rising - more old people than young
Reasons for the decline in death rates
- Improved nutrition: Mckeown
- medical improvements
- smoking and diet: Harper (also talks about obesity)
- Public health measures: NHS
has increase -
males: 50 yrs
females: 57 yrs
males: 90.7 yrs
females: 94 yrs
why do women live longer than men?
Women have a traditional; different lifestyle and different employment
what factors has made the ageing population?
- increased life expectancy (longer life span)
- decline in infant mortality (hardly anyone dies at a young age)
- decline in fertility (fewer newborns = more old people)
what effects do the aging population have society?
On health care - massive burden
what is the dependency ratio?
relationship between the working population and the non-working population
(the old is a ECONOMIC LIABILITY)
what is ageism?
negative stereotyping and unequal treatment of people on the basis of their age
old people are no longer useful to capitalist society = state unwilling to support them, so family and female relatives take responsibility for care.
(person life perspective)
We can choose our lifestyles and identities regardless of age = the old become a market - anti-aging products...
what is immigration?
movement INTO a society
what is emigration?
movement OUT a society
what is net migration?
difference in numbers of immigrants and number of migrants
what is a push factor?
encourages someone to leave a place:
- economic recession and unemployment and unemployment at home