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Flashcards in DEMOGRAPHY Deck (18)
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1

Reasons for the decline in birth rates:

1. Change in women’s positions - pay, equal to men, change in attitude to family, change in women’s role, easier to divorce.

2. Decline in infant mortality rate -
Less infants are dying = less giving birth as they are surviving (if they die then there would be an increase in birth rates to get another child)

3. Children are now an economic liability -
Income, work, laws, changing norms

4. Child centredness -
‘Quality’ not ‘quality’

2

Effects of changes in feritlity

- smaller families
- lower birth rate = less schools, paternity leave, types of houses that are built

3

Change in women’s position:

- change in attitudes
- access to abortion & the pill
- increased educational opportunities for women
- paid opportunities
- equal opportunities

4

What is the aging population?

The average age of the population is rising - more old people than young

5

Reasons for the decline in death rates


- Improved nutrition: Mckeown
- medical improvements
- smoking and diet: Harper (also talks about obesity)
- Public health measures: NHS

6

Life expectancy

has increase -
1900s =
males: 50 yrs
females: 57 yrs

2013=
males: 90.7 yrs
females: 94 yrs

7

why do women live longer than men?

Women have a traditional; different lifestyle and different employment

8

what factors has made the ageing population?

- increased life expectancy (longer life span)
- decline in infant mortality (hardly anyone dies at a young age)
- decline in fertility (fewer newborns = more old people)

9

what effects do the aging population have society?

On health care - massive burden

10

what is the dependency ratio?

relationship between the working population and the non-working population

(the old is a ECONOMIC LIABILITY)

11

what is ageism?

negative stereotyping and unequal treatment of people on the basis of their age

12

Philipson
Marxist perspective

old people are no longer useful to capitalist society = state unwilling to support them, so family and female relatives take responsibility for care.

13

Hunt
(person life perspective)

We can choose our lifestyles and identities regardless of age = the old become a market - anti-aging products...

14

what is immigration?

movement INTO a society

15

what is emigration?

movement OUT a society

16

what is net migration?

difference in numbers of immigrants and number of migrants

17

what is a push factor?

encourages someone to leave a place:
- economic recession and unemployment and unemployment at home

18

what is a pull factors?

encourages someone to go to a place:
- wages and better opportunities