DENT 1050 Test #2, Chapters 1, 6, 7, 9, 11, 16, 20 Flashcards Preview

Dental Radiography > DENT 1050 Test #2, Chapters 1, 6, 7, 9, 11, 16, 20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in DENT 1050 Test #2, Chapters 1, 6, 7, 9, 11, 16, 20 Deck (67):
1

Radiation

a form of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles

2

X-radiation

a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube

3

X-ray

A beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic or digital sensors

4

Radiology

the science or study of radiation as used in medicine; a branch of medical science that deals with the use of x-rays, radioactive substances, and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease

5

radiograph

a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object.

6

dental radiograph

a photographic image produced on an image receptor by the passage of x-rays through teeth and related structures

7

Radiography

the art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of film to x-rays

8

Dental radiography

the production of radiographs of the teeth and adjacent structures by the exposure of an image receptor to x-rays

9

Dental radiographer

any person who positions, exposes, and processes dental x-ray image receptors

10

X-rays discovered by:

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen; in 1895

11

First radiograph by Roentgen:

of his shotgun

12

Took the first dental radiographs in 1896

Otto Walkhoff

13

Created first vacuum tube

Heinrich Geissler

14

Took first radiograph using a skull; first full body radiograph

W.J. Morton

15

Pioneered the use of radiographs in the dental profession in the U.S.

Dr. William Rollins

16

Created first intraoral radiograph film

Frank Van Woert

17

Developed the hot cathode x-ray tube

William D. Coolidge

18

"Father of modern dental radiography"

F. Gordon Fitzgerald

19

Before what year was there no regulation of x-ray machines?

1974

20

Types of x-ray machines (2)

Intraoral machines and Extraoral machines

21

Tubehead

made up of insulating oil, transformers, cathode and anode

22

Control devices in IO x-ray machines include:

kVp, mA, and timer

23

Bite-Block or Stabe Bite-Block

disposable styrofoam bite-block with a backing plate and slot for film retention

24

EEZEE-Grip (Snap-A-Ray)

sturdy molded plastic (sterilizable)

25

Uses of dental radiographs

Detection (**primary benefit), Confirmation of suspected diseases, Localization, Documenting change from the baseline

26

Prescribing dental radiographs is:

based on the individual need of the patient; ultimately decided by the dentist

27

Dental x-ray film composistion

Film base; adhesive layer; film emulsion-found on both sides of film and homogenous mixture of gelatin and silver halide crystals; protective layer

28

Latent image formation

stored energy within the silver halide crystals forms a pattern or image within the emulsion that is "invisible" until the film undergoes processing

29

Film processing chemical development

Developer > Fixer > Wash > Dry

30

Periapical film

includes entire tooth from apex to crown

31

Bite-wing film

used to examine interproximal surfaces and bone level

32

Occlusal film

covers a large area of the maxilla or mandible, the pt. occludes on the entire film

33

Screen film type

uses intensifying screens on both sides; extraoral film

34

Non-screen film type

exposed directly to x-rays; not used in dentistry because of long exposure

35

F-speed film

currently recommended because it's faster, 60% of exposure of D-speed

36

To produce high quality diagnostic dental radiographs, dental x-ray film MUST BE:

Properly exposed and processed

37

Reductin

halide portion of the exposed, energized silver halide crystal is removed; selective reduction - only energized, exposed reduced to black metallic silver

38

Film processing steps

a. Development
b. Rinsing
c. Fixation
d. Washing
e. Dryin

39

Developer solution contains 4 basic ingredients

1. developing agent (hydroquinone, elon)
2. preservative (sodium sulfite)
3. accelerator (sodium carbonate)
4. restrainer (potassium bromide)

40

Fixer solution contains 4 basic ingredients

1. fixing agent (sodium thiosulfate, ammonium thiosulfate
2. preservative (sodium sulfite)
3. hardening agent (potassium alum
4. acidifier (acetic acid, sulfuric acid

41

Keep x-rays in cool and dry place

50-70 degrees and 30-50% humidity

42

Underdeveloped film appears:

light

43

Overdeveloped film appears:

dark

44

Reticulation of emulsion appears:

cracked

45

Developers spots

dark spots on film

46

Fixer spots

white spots on film

47

Yellow-brown stains from:

expired developer or fixer

48

Developer cut-off appears:

straight white border on film

49

Fixer cut-off appears:

straight black border on film

50

Overlapped films

white or dark areas on film

51

Air bubbles

white spots on film

52

Fingernail artifact

black, crescent shaped marks on film

53

Fingerprint artifact

black fingerprint on film

54

Static electricity

thin, black branching lines on film

55

Scratched film

white lines on film

56

Light leak

exposed area appears black

57

Fogged film

appears gray and lacks image detail or contrast

58

Completely clear?

never exposed, left film in fixer too long

59

Unexposed film

clear

60

Film exposed to light

black

61

Overexposed film

dark film

62

Underexposed film

light film

63

Film placement problems

film doesn't extend 1/8 inch beyond incisal or occlusal; apices do not appear on film; dropped film corner

64

Angulation problems

horizontal angulation; vertical angulation

65

PID alignment problems

cone-cut

66

Technique errors

film placement problems; angulation problems; PID alignment problems

67

Misc technique errors

Film bending; film creasing; phalangioma (finger x-ray on film from pt holding on wrong side); double exposure; movement; reversed film