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Flashcards in Depression Deck (21):
1

What are the 3 core symptoms of depression?

1. Low mood
2. Lack of energy
3. Lack of enjoyment & interest

2

Give 4 differences between "normal adjustment reaction" and clinical depression.

1. AR symptoms are sudden, but depression develops gradually
2. AR the symptoms fluctuate but in depression they are continuous
3. AR is time limited whereas depression lasts at least 2 weeks
4. Energy is not low in AR but is low in depression
5. Sleep is not disturbed in AR but is in depression

3

Name 4 physical disorders that cause depressive disorders.

1. Hormone disturbance eg. thyroid dysfunction
2. Vitamin deficiencies such as B12
3. heart & lung disease
4. Kidney, liver, blood vessels...

4

Which 3 brain structures are involved in depressive symptoms?

limbic system, frontal lobe, basal ganglia

5

Name 4 structures that are part of the limbic system.

1. Hippocampus
2. Amygdala
3. Cingulate gyrus
4. Hypothalamus

6

What are the 3 main functions of the limbic system?

Memory
Motivation
Emotion

7

Name 4 functions of the frontal lobe

1. Broca's area (language production)
2. Motor function
3. Attention
4. Memory
5. Mood

8

How does a Broca's aphasia present?

Stoccato speech. Can understand the question, but words are difficult to get out.

9

How does a Wernicke's aphasia present?

Speak non-sense. Lots of words, but no sense. Cannot answer a question.

10

In which lobe does Broca's area reside?

Frontal

11

In which lobe does Wernicke's area reside?

Temporal

12

Give 2 functions of the Basal Ganglia.

1. Motor function (affected in Parkinson's/Huntington's)
2. Psychological function:emotion, cognition, behaviour

13

What are the 2 main neurotransmitters for depressive disorders?

1. Noradrenaline
2. Serotonin

14

What are the functions of noradrenaline in the brain?

mood, role in behaviour & involved in memory

15

Through what type of receptor does noradrenaline exert its role in arousal and mood?

alpha

16

What is the other name for serotonin?

5HT (5 hydroxytryptamine)

17

What are the 4 roles of serotonin in the brain?

Sleep
Impulse control
Appetite
Mood

18

By which part of the brain is serotonin produced?

The Raphe Nuclei of the brainstem
(then transported to cortex and limbic system)

19

By which part of the brain is noradrenaline produced?

The locus coeruleus of the brainstem

20

In what way is serotonin involved in depression?

- 5HIAA (metabolite of 5HT) is depleted in CSF of patients with depression
- Tryptophan depletion (precursor of 5HT) causes depression

21

Give the 3 predisposing factors of depression?

1. genetic (50% of being depressed)
2. childhood experiences (attachment, bullying)
3. female gender